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146 History of Hingham.

The PANICLED CORNEL (Cornus paniculata, L'Heritier) grows at Hockley, Stoddard's Neck, and. oil Lincoln Street. Its leaves, finer and darker that) in. ally other of our Species, and its more delicate growth, plainly distinguish it. The white flowers are somewhat panicled, and the fruit white.

The leaves of the preceding species are all opposite. Those of the ALTERNATE-LEAVED CORNEL (Cornas alternifolia, L.f.) are mostly alternate, and crowded at the ends of the branches, which are also alternate, that is, not opposite each other on the trunk or limbs. This is a shrub or small tree, of a very elegant appearance, growing in all parts of' Hingham. The white flowers are in broad cymes, the fruit deep blue.

The TUPELO (Nyssa sylvatica, Marsh.) is very common. It is in every Way beautiful, its brilliant polished foliage, dark-green in summer and of a rich red in autumn, rendering it conspicuous. Either growing singly or in chimps, it is Very noticeable, especially after the fall of the leaves, for its peculiarity in having the numerous branches start from the main trunk or limbs at a right angle, and tend more or less downward.

The TRUMPET HONEYSUCKLE (Lonicera sempervirens, Ait.), so much cultivated for its beauty, grows Wild in tile woods on the easterly slope of Old Colony Hill, and elsewhere, although it has probably been introduced from more southern localities.

COMMON ELDER (Sambucus Canadensis, L.). This plant grows everywhere in low grounds. Its large cymes of white fragrant flowers are conspicuous in curl), summer, and later in the season the blackish- purple fruit is no less showy in its way.

The RED-BERRIED ELDER (Sambucus ravemosa, L.), a beautiful plant, is very rare in Hingham. Tile White flowers, of this species are in panicles, and are replaced by bright red berries.

SWEET VIBURNUM ( Viburnum lentago, L.). This plant has been found everywhere in damp situations and swampy woodlands. It is, like all the viburnums', a beautiful shrub, Willi its bright green finely serrate leaves, fragrant white flowers, and sweet edible fruit. A specimen growing cast of Old Colony Hill has attained a diameter of trunk of five to six inches.

WITHE-ROD ( Viburnum cassinoides, L.). This shrub grows in
the Woody swamps of the south and west parts of Hingham,
particularly in Lasell and Gardner streets, and is found also more
sparingly in other localities. This species is distinguished from
the other viburnums by having entire leaves, with wavy or revolute
edges, the others all having, sharply serrate leaves.

ARROW-WOOD ( Viburnum dentatum, L.). The Arrow-wood is common in low grounds everywhere. Its very deeply toothed leaves and long straight stalks distinguish it. The Indians were said to use its twigs for arrows ; hence the name.

MAPLE-LEAVED ARROW-WOOD ( Viburnum acerifolium, L.). This pretty little shrub is tile smallest of our viburnums, although it occasionally grows to a height of six feet and upwards. I no white blossom is very delicate. Its leaves, excepting those at the apex of the stalks, are so like those of the red maple that close examination is often necessary to distinguish them no, maple leaves, however, are smooth, while these are somewhat woolly on the under side.

All the viburnums turn in the fall to a very brilliant crimson color.

BUSH-HONEYSUCKLE (Diervilla trifida, Moench). This low
elegant, but rather inconspicuous shrub is very rare in Hingham,
occurring at Hop-Pole Hill, and possibly in the western part of
tRUBIACEAEhe town.

BUTTON-BUSH (Cephalan thus occidentalis, L.). This shrub grows along water-courses and oil the banks of ponds in all parts of the town. Its peculiar spherical heads of white flowers, very thickly set, render it conspicuous at time of blooming

The little trailing PARTRIDGE BERRY (Mitchella repens, L.), with its fragrant white flowers, single or in pairs, and bright scarlet berries and evergreen leaves, grows in the Rockland Street and Cedar Street woods, as well as in a few other places Although but a little vine, running Upon rocks or the ground, it belongs to the woody plants.

DANGLEBERRY (Gaylussacia frondosa, T. & G.). This shrub is not very common, although observed in several localities, notably in the woods between Old Colony Hill -in(] Weir River. It is two to five feet high with us, having long ON-111 leaves, greenish flowers, and dark-blue sweet berries in loose racemes.

The HUCKLEBERRY (Gaylussacia resinosa, T, & 0.) r(ws everywhere, preferring rough pasture-lands and rocky hillsides. It may be distinguished by the resinous deposit on the under surface of the leaves, which is much greater in this specia than in any other; and by its jet-black, shining fruit Very rarely the fruit is found white. The flower is reddish.

DWARF BLUEBERRY ( Vaccinium Pennsylcanicum, Lamarck). This pretty little blueberry grows in South Hingham in the woods east of Old Colony Hill, and doubtless elsewhere. It is a very low shrub, with small, finely serrate leaves, and furnishes the earliest blueberries found in the city markets.

Low BLUEBERRY ( Vaccinium vacillans, Solander). This little
straggling, low bush is one of our blueberries. It may be distinguished by
the color of the twigs Old branches, which is green,
instead of dark, like that of the other species. It is rather I com
mon, existing at South Hingham, Weir River woods cast of Old
Colony Hill, and elsewhere.
148 History of Hingham

COMMON or SWAMP BLUEBERRY (Vaccinium corymbosum, L.). This, a high-bush whortleberry, has a number of varieties formerly consedered as separate species, it varies greatly- in our woods and swamps, where it grows freely. Its bell-like white blossom is, in some varieties and in certain favorable locations, quite large, mid in other cases very small. The foliage also differs according to locality.

LARGE or AMERICAN CRANBERRY ( Vaccinium macrocarpon, Aifor)). The Cranberry grows quite commonly in our swamps and bogs, its delicate sprays being quite easily found when loaded with its white flowers or crimson fruit.

MOUNTAIN PARTRIDGE BERRY ( Chiogenes serpyllifolia, Salis.). A pretty, evergreen, creeping plant, very rare, but existing in swamps in the extreme southerly- part of the town. The bellshaped white flowers are like those of the checkerberry, and a resemblance to this shrub is also found in the flavor of its white berries.

BEARBERRY (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Sprengel). This pretty and rare little shrub which grows ill beds in the woods, has been found by file writer between Old Colony Hill and Weir River, at Alai-tin's Lane, and at Liberty Plain. its stern trails under the dead leaves and leaf mould, sending up shoots some six inches high, clothed with bright, polished, thick evergreen leaves. The flowers are white, at the ends of the branches. The fruit is a red berry.

TRAILING ARBUTUS, MAYFLOWER (Epigaea repens, L.). The wellknown Mayflower grows in the woods near the Weymouth line and in the extreme south part of the town. Efforts made to domesticate it Dearer the seashore have been unsuccessful, as it is a very wild plant and does not take well to cultivation.

CREEPING WINTERGREEN, CHECKERBERRY (Gaultheria procumbees, L.). The Checkerberry is very common in our woods. Its bright evergreen leaves, sweet white flowers, and scarlet aromatic berries are well known to all.

ANDROMEDA (Apdromeda ligustrina, Muhl.). This shrub is common everywhere in low grounds. Its very full panicles of small, globular, white flowers In July are replaced later by corresponding clusters of the seed-vessels, Which hang on for a year or more,. This plant call be distinguished at all seasons by its thin outer layer of light, cinnamon -colored bark, which seems always list ready to peel off.

LEUCOTHOE (Leucothoe racemosa, Gray). This beautiful shrub is rare in Hingham and but little known. It is found in the woods east of Old Colony Hill, in Cushing Street, in Leavitt Street woods, and probably grows elsewhere in the south part of the town. It is from six to ton feet in height, has rather straggling branches, and elliptical leaves, and long one-sided racemes of white, bell-like flowers, exquisite in beauty and fragrance. This raceme is generally branched once, and the flowers all hang

downward in a regular row. Their peculiar honey-like sweetness
is unequalled byLEATHER-LEAF, the perfume of any other of our

LEATHER-LEAF (Cassandra calyciulata, Don). The Cassandra or Leather-leaf grows in the swamps near Weir River west of Union Street and at South Hingham. It is a bright, pretty shrub, two to five feet high, and has racemes of white sweet flowers much like those of the Leucothoe, but smaller. The fruit, as in many plants of the Health family, is very persistent.

MOUNTAIN LAUREL (Kalmia latifolia, L,). The Mountain Laurel, exquisite in its beauty, is found in great quantities just over the borders of Hingham but, within the limits of the township it is rare. It grows in one locality at least in the woods near Gardner Street, in Cushing Street woods, and perhaps may be found elsewhere

SHEEP LAUREL (Kabmia augustifolia, L.). This plant, the blossom of which is not less beautiful, if less conspicuous, than the preceding species, is common all through Hingham

The CLAMMY AZALEA or WHITE SWAMP HONEYSUCKLE (Rhododendron viscosum, Torr.) grows in the wet woods of Summer Street, Martin's Lane, Lasell Street, and Turkey Hill, and is found also in other localities. Its pretty, white, very fragrant, and somewhat stick), flowers appear in conspicuous chusters and are of that trumpet-like shape common to the azalea tribe.

RHODORA Rhododendron Rhodora, Dow). This beautiful plant is very care in this region, being found only in a peaty lag at the west end, and possibly occurring in the swamps of the south part of Hingham. Its delicate, rose-colored blossoms, appearing very early, are among the most exquisite of our wild flowers.

WHITE ALDER ( Clethra alnifolia, L.). The Clethra inhabits all our swampy Woods, and is well known from its upright racemes of White fragrant flowers, which are conspicuous from the latter part of July even into October.

PRIVET or PRIM (Ligustrum vulgare, L.). This shrub, much used for hedges, grows wild at Martin;s Lane, Lincoln Street woods, Huit's Cove Turkey Hill, and Stoddard's Neck. Its fine, fresh-looking foliage. white flowers, and black berries are familiar to -ill observers.

WHITE Asti (Fraxinus Americana, L.). This Roble tree is common in the swampy woods, and as all ornamental tree all over town. One of the noblest specimens in this State was standing until 1869 in the field on the corner of Summer and East streets ' opposite the residence of the late Deacon Gorham Lincoln. This tree Was mentioned by Emerson in the " Report on the Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts." It measured when lie described it, in 1839, four feet two inches in diameter at four and a half feet from the ground. A tornado, ill September, 1869, destroyed it.

150 History of Hingham.

RED Ash (Fraxinus pubescens, Lam.). The Red Ash, more
rare than the white, is found in swamps on Rockland Street and
probably grows elsewhere hi town. It may be distinguished from
the other species by its pubescence and its narrower leaves and
sharper keys or seed-vessels.

BLACK ASH (Fraxinus sambucifolia, Lain.). This tree, rare in Hingham occurs in swamps in Cushing Street and south of the Old Colony Hill. It grows very tall and slender, and the buds are conspicuously black,

SASSAFRAS (Sassafras officinale, Nees.). The pleasant aromatic Sassafras is very common. It is a fine tree, with peculiar leaves, some being regularly lobed, others formed like a mitten with a sort of extra lobe on one Bide. Its green blossoms are Hot showy. The leaves, bark, and especially the root, are highly spicy.

SPICE-BUSH (Lindera benzoin, Meisner). This plant grows near watercourses and in low lands in various parts of the town. It is a beautiful shrub, with a handsome bark, and brilliant shining leaves which exhale a pungent, spicy odor on being crushed. The small yellow blossom is followed by the bright scarlet fruit, something like a small cranberry in shape

The WHITE ]ELM ( Ulmus Americana, L.) is one of our noblest trees, and grows in all kinds of soil, everywhere, but prefers swamps. Among the finest specimens in town are the elm at Rocky Nook, a magnificent and very symmetrical tree, the noble Cushing elm on Main Street a few rods south of Broad Bridge, and the tree in front of the Gay estate at West Hingham. The variety of growth in trees standing alone on wet meadows, leading to their being called "wine-glass elms," is extremely beautiful and graceful. Some of these may be seen on the river banks at Rockv Nook.

I The NETTLE TREE (Celtis occidentalis, L.) grows on the turnpike on the westerly slope of Baker's Hill and at Stoddard's Neck; also near New Bridge and Cross streets. It is rare. The very singular twisted and gnarled habit of growth which some specimens exhibit is peculiar to the species. Its flower is very inconspicuous; the fruit a small olive-green berry on a long stein.

BUTTONWOOD or SYCAMORE (Platanus accidentalis, L.). This tree grows sparingly in all parts of the town. Its ragged, flaky bark, its large leaves, and the rigid character of its growth strongly mark it. Some very imposing specimens of this species

-stand in various localities, although the injury sustained by the Buttonwoods some forty years ago, generally ascribed to the severitv of a winter- has caused an apparent feebleness in these, trees. For many years they bore no fruit, but of late they have matured the curious spherical balls of seed vessels, which, some inch and a half in diameter, hang from the twigs on Bleats three to six inches long. One of the finest trees in town stands at the junction of Main and Leavitt streets oil the Lower Plain.

The HICKORIES are well represented in Hingham.

The SHAGBARK (Carya alba, Nutt.) is quite common, being met with in nearly all our woods. Its ragged, shaggy bark gives the species its name, while its rich, meaty tints have been sought by the schoolboy from time immemorial. The MOCKERNUT (Carya tomentosa, Nutt.) is a line tree, found everywhere in the woods, as is also the PIGNUT (Carya porcina, Nutt.), the outline of the husk of the nut of which has a not inapt resemblance to a pig's head. The BITTrRNUT (Carya amara, Nutt) is more rare. It grows at Crow Point, Planter's Hill, and Union Street, possibly elsewhere. Its yellow buds and finer foliage, as well as the thinness of the husk of the nut, distinguish it from the other hickories.

BAYBERRY, WAX MYRTLE: (Myrica cerifera, L.). This beautiful shrub, from two to tell feet high, is very common. The delicious aromatic odor of its crushed leaves, and in the fall the crowded mosses of round, small, waxy fruit, clinging to the twigs, are its peculiarities.

SWEET FERN (Myrica asplenifolia, End].). This pretty, low shrub is very common on dry hillsides and in oak woods. It has long, narrow, regularly and deeply out leaves, resembling the fronds of a fern. These are very aromatic when crushed.

The BLACK or SWEET BIRCH (Betula lenta, L.) grows in all our Hingham woods, being rarely met with it) open fields. The bark of its twigs is very aromatic. The leaves are thin and ovate, and sharply serrate. The bark is dark and ragged.

The YELLow BIRCH (Betula lutea, Michx. f.) is rare in Hingham. It grows oil the border near Cohasset and in Third Division woods. Its leaves are hardly to be distinguished from those of the black birch. The bark of the young shoots is slightly aromatic. The outer bark of the trunk is greenish-yellow, shining, and always peeling off in thin lavers. The catkins, or male blossoms of all the bitches are extremely showy and grace

152 History of Hingham.

ful, loaded a-, they are when ripe with golden pollen. Those of this species are especially conspicuous.

-A AMERICAN WHITE BIRCH (Betula populifolia, Ait.). This, the coalition White or Little Gray bit-ell of our woods and fields, is a slender, sometimes rather tall tree, with thin, white, peeling, outer bark and very small branches, merely twigs Ili fact, covering the tree, with their growth. It, generally grows Ili clumps from old roots, and the trunk is short lived for this reason ; but upon its being cut or blown down new shoots at once succeed it. The leaves are small, shilling, and triangular.

CANOE BIRCH (Betula papyrifera Marsh.). This tree is rare now, growing only along the shores of the bay near Crow Point, at Huit's Cove, and at Broad Cove Its leaves are thicker and coarser than those of the other species. The outer bark peels off in large sheets Is chalky white oil the outside layers, the inner ones pinkish. It, was used by the Indians for their canoes This is a large out] strongly branched tree..

The SPECKLED ALDER (Alnus incana Willd.) grows in clumps

along Weir River near Turkey Bill, at South llingluini, and else
where Ili wet places. It is a tall shrub with speckled bark, and
serrate all([ deeply cut dark-green leaves.

The COMMON ALDER (Alnus serrulata, Ait.) is present everywhere onwetlands. It is a high shrub, growing in clumps. The leaves are shing roundish, and finely serrate. The male flowers of the Alders ate graceful catkins, generally several together, and appear very early in spring. The settles open and show at maturity beautiful golden flowers.

AMERICAN HORNBEAM (Carpinus Caroliniana, Walt.) This tree, the leaves of which are almost exactly like those of the pre. ceding species, is coalition Ili town ' preferring, low wet ground,-,. It is found at Rocky Nook, Turkey Bill, Lasell Street, and elsewhere.

The HOP HORMBEAM (Ostrya Virginica, Willd.) grows at Old Colony Hill, Cushing Street, Huit's Cove, and at many other points. Its fruit resembles that of the flop Vine. The wood is very hard and the frank Often twisted Ili appearance.

COMMON HAZEL ( Corylus Americana, Wait.). This plant, generally growing in shrubby bunches is found evervywhere. It is one Of the, first or our shrubs to blossom, putting forth its delicate catkins Ili earlv spring, together with Ili(! very small and beautiful female flowers, scattered along the twigs like scarlet stars. Its nuts are much like those of the Filbert imported for the market.

The BEAKED HAZEL (Corylus rostrata, Ait.) is occasionally met with ill Hingham, growing in Third Division woods, on Kilby Street, and elsewhere. The leaves and manner Of growth are hardly distinguishable from those of the Common Hazel. It derives its name from the curved beak or long point which projects front the husk which encloses the nut.

The OAK tribe is very fully represented Ili all the woods and fields of the township.

The WRITE OAK (Quercus alba, L.) is it noble tree, very com M(li, some Of the finest specimens being, found oil the easterly slopes of Old Colony Hill and thereabouts. Its light bark, tile bluish-green of its round- lobed leaves, and the purplish Crimson of their fall colors easily distinguish it,

The SWAMP WHITS OAK (Quercus bicolor-, Willd.), scraggy branched, and with it deep rich green leaf with rounded lobes, grows everywhere in swamps and low lands.

The CHESTNUT OAK (Quercus prinus, L.). This tree, with its variety the Rock Chestnut Oak (,it separate, species with some botanists), is very rare, growing only in Third Division woods. It is -it fine tree, although not so large (11 imposing ill apearance as others of the family, Its leaves resemble those of the Chestnut, hence its name.

CHINQUAPIN OAK (QuerCiat prinoides,Willd.). This little shrub, the smallest of the family, rarely reaches live feet Ill height. It grows oil the bank at Broad Cove, and oil the border of the salt meadow oil Otis Street south of Broad Cove, and is also found oil the sandy bank on the northerly border of that portion of the inillpond which lies Cast Of Witter Street. Its leaves are round-lobed, very irregular, and its small acorns are beautifully striped with black.

The BEAR OAK (Quercus illicifolia, Wang.), a shrub usually five to tell feet high, rarely becomes a small tree of fifteen feet Ili height. It grows cast of the Old Colony [fill, oil Lasell Street in the woods near Weymouth in tile south part of Hingham and in some other localities. It has leaves with not very prominent sharply pointed lobes terminated with bristles. The acorns are quite small and symmetrical.

The SCARLET OAK ( Quercus coccinea, Wang.) grows in all parts of the town. This species probably crosses with tile Black Oak, in many cases, the typical Black Oak leaf being often found upon the Scarlet, and that, of the Scarlet (which is much more deeply cut and more highly polished) very often appears upon Black Oak trees. The only Certain way of determining file species in many cases is to cat into the bark. The inner bark of the Scarlet Oak is pinkish. That of the Black is bright orange yellow. The ls pin is not one of our largest oaks, but is all elegant tree Its delicate, shining, sharply lobed leaves, often cutt almost down to the midrib, turning brilliant red or scarlet Ili autumn.

The BLACK Or YELLOW-BARKED OAK (Quereus tinctoria, Bartram) is a noble, sturdy tree, growing everywhere Ili Hingham The Crevices in its bill-]< are black, which gives it the names The leaves, sharp-lobed and more or less deeply cut, turn red ill crimson in the fall.

The RED OAK (Quercus rubra, L.) is quit(! common with its. Some of the noblest trees of this species growing in New England

154 History of Hingham

stand on East Street opposite Kilby Street, They are monuments to the owners of the estate upon which they stand, who have shown themselves capable of appreciating the magnificence Of these superb monarchs of the forest. It is to be devoutly hoped that the vandalism which has destroyed so many line trees in Hingham may never appear near tire locality where these trees stand in their sturdy grandeur.

The Red Oak leaves are more regular and less deeply cut than those of the black or Seat-let. They are sharp-lobed and turn dullred in autimin. The acorn is very large. The inner bark is reddish.

CHESTNUT (Castanea sativa, Mill. var. Americana). This beautitiful tree is rare in Hingham growing in but two or three localities, at Beechwoods and elsewhere. A noble specimen formerly standing oil Hersey Street was ruthlessly destroyed a few years since.

AMERICAN BEECH (Fagus ferruginea, Ait.). This fine tree grows in many localities in Hingham Its light-colored bark, sharp-pointed, rigid leaves, dense habit of growth, and delicately beautiful pendulous blossoms easily mark it.

The DWARF CRAY WILLOW (Salix tristis, Ail.) may be found in Third Division woods, on the roadside. It is a small shrub, hardly two feet in height.

The PRAIRIE WILLOW (Salix humilis, Marsh.) is a shrub about ten feet high, often much less. It grows in Hingham on Derby Street and Cushing Street, very likely elsewhere.

GLAUCOUS WILLOW (Salix discolor, Muld.). This shrub or small tree grows everywhere in low grounds. It is our most common willow. Its blossoms expand from the bud in early spring, first into what the children call 11 pussy willows," little gray furry bunches; then as the season advances, they become long, graceful catkins, covered with fragrant flowers golden with pollen. There often are cones at tire end of the twigs, composed of leaves abortively developed, and crowded closely one upon -,mother.

SILKY WILLOW (Salix, sericea, Marsh.). This is a beautiful shrub, growing on Lincoln Street and at many other localities. The leaves Old young branches are covered with a silky down, which gives this species its distinctive name.

PETIOLED WILLOW (Salix petiolaris, Smith). This shrub, strongly resembling the previous species, grows oil Lincoln Street, and has been found elsewhere. It is somewhat silky but its specific name is derived front its long petioles, or leaf-stalks.

LIVID WILLOW (Salix rostrata, Richardson). A shrub or small tree growing on Old Colony Hill, Lincoln Street, on the bank of the pond" at West Hingham, Lasell Street, and perhaps elsewhere. It has a rough, dark, thick leaf, whitish underneath.

SHINING WILLOW (Salix lucida, Muhl.). The beautiful shrub grows oil Lincoln Street and elsewhere ill town. The leaf is large, pointed, bright. and shining

BLACK WILLOW (Salix Marsh.) This graceful tree , with its very narrow ;Old delicate, leaves, grows oil Gardner Street. it is very rare it) Hingham.

The MYRTLE WILLOW (Salix myrtilloides, L.) grows in Hingham although very rare. It Is a shrub from 0110 to three feet in height.

The AMERICAN ASPEN (Populus trmuloides, Michx.) grows in all the woods of Hingham. It is not a large tree. The small , bright-green leaves, light underneath, keep up a continual tremulous motion in the wind . Tito trunk is light-ash colored, and smooth in young trees.

The LARGE POPLAR (Populus grandidentata, Michx.) is found in low lands in all parts of the town. Its leaves are deeply toothed, and the catkin% ate very largo and coarse

BALM-OF-GILEAD (Populus balsamifera, L. var. candicans, Gray). This tree is quite common !it Hingham. Its large very rigid and sharp buds are covered with a sticky, highly aromatic balsam, which has been used in medicine.

The WHITE CEDAR (Chammaecyparis sphaeroidea, Spach.) is a beautiful and very useful tree, growing thickly in swamps near the Weymouth line and at South Hingham ' in several localities. It is distinguishable from the Red Cedar by the comparative smoothness of its trunk, smaller branches, the flatness of its scaly leaves, and the angular character of its fruit.

The JUNIPER (Juniperus communis, L ') is a low, spreading shrub

growing in a dense mass, with foliage very similar to that of the Savin. It is found it West Hingham, Huit's Cove, and sparingly in a few other localities.

The RED CEDAR or SAVIN (Juniperus Virginiana, L.) occurs everywhere, by roadsides and in hilly pastures. When growing alone, and left to itself, its perfect conical form makes it 'I very beautiful tree, either in its dark-green foliage, or in the fruiting season, having the green intermingled with heavy masses of blue, from the great quantities of berries which it matures.

The PITCH PINE (Pinus rigida, Miller). This rather stiff and ungraceful tree is quite comman growing at Hockley, South Hingham, and in many other places. It is a small species here specimens not averaging thirty feet in height. Its leaves -.ire in threes.

The WHITE PINE (Pinus strobus, L.) is very common, forming heavy forests in localities in Hingham. It is one of our noblest trees, - a specimen on Lasell Street, although now shattered by the storms of perhaps hundreds of winters, showing a majesty even in

156 History of Hingham.

its decay which well befits a. tree which unquestionably was mature in aboriginal days. Would that the axe had spared more such ! The White Pine has its leaves in fives.

Tile BLACK SPRUCE (Picea nigra, Link.) This tree grows in a swamp cast of High Street, and probably nowhere else wild in Hingbain, although cultivated here as an ornamental free.

Tile HEMLOCK SPRUCE (Tsuga Canadensis, Carriare) grows in

the woods in neary every part of the town. It is a, large, hand
Bottle species, with feather - v, delicate foliage, and is much culti
vated for ornamental purposes.

The GREENBRIER, HORSEBRIER (Smilax rotundefolia, L.). This vine is Act-)common. There is considerable beauty to it, the bright-green leaves always fresh and shining, and the clusters of small ,rcenish flowers ,Old blue-black berries in autumn quite interesting. The limit is however a disagreeable one to meet with in summer rumbles, the thick sharp thorns making it a harrier almost impassable.

The CARRION FLOWER (Smilax herbacca, L.). ']'his is a handsome plant and although a vine, it often stands alone in a leaninbg position without support. The leaves are rounded-oblong,thinner than those of the Greenbrier, and the fruit is a very compact bunch of block berries. The greenish masses of flowers are carrion-scented.

The SMILAX GLAUCA (Walt.) strongly resembles the rotundifolia but is much more rare, being found only lately, and in the South Hingbain woods.

The GAY ELM Oil South Street, opposite the depot it the westend,measured in 1859 18 feet 6 inches, sun passing in circumference of trunk all other trees in town. Torn asunder some years since by it gale, the portion of the trunk remaining uninjured measured it) 1889 a little over 20 feet.

'['he beautiful ROCKY NOOK ELM oil East Street measured in 1887 15 feet 4 1/2 inches, with a spread of foliage of .90 feet. The CUSHING ELM corner of Main and South streets, measured in 1889 15 feet. The SEYMOUR Elm, oil Main Street had a girth, in 1889, of 16 feet 3 inches, The EML on Prospect Street, in front of Mr. Bernard Cooney'.% house, measured in 1889 14 feet 6 inches

Of the noble RED OAKS on East, opposite Kilby, Street, one, measured in 1887 13 feet 10 inches, and another 13 feet 9 1/2 inches. That 13UTTONWOOII oil the cot nor of Main and Leavitt streets had a girth, in 1889, of 13 feet 4 1/2 inches, with a spread of 100 feet.

A large SAVIN on land of Mr. Samuel Barr, at Martin's Lane, vacationed in 1890 9 feet 8 inches.

The great WHITE PINE on Lazell Street measured 14 feet in 1887.

All the above measurements of circumference of trunk were taken at 4 1/2 feet from the ground.

IN the following description of the ancient landmarks of Hingham and Cohasset, it will Ile understood that the term includes bell[ natural objects which have been adopted its boards from the earliest settlement of tile country, Such 18 hills, rocks, waters, etc., and those artificial creations which come in time to be recognized its landmarks, as roads, bridges, milldam, and certain building

The sources of tile information from which lite facts in this chapter are derived tire largely traditional, although old deeds have furnished notch material,

It would be improper and ungracious for the writer to unit the expression of his acknowledgements to those who have aided in his researches ; and lie takes great pleasure in owning his indebtedness to that interesting and valuable work, the " History of Hingham." by the late Hon. Solomon Lincoln, as well as to the 11 Centennial Address" and unpublished historical notes of tile same gentleman.

At Hingbain and Cohasset, oil the South shore of Massachusetts Bay, the most delightful month of the year is October. The heats and drought of summer are past, the blustering rain

storms of September have gone, leaving its their legacy a renewed
greenness and freshness to the hillsides. The forests spreading
far and wide, glow with the exquisite brilliancy of the American

autumn, and the ocean stretches in blue length along fit(! shores .,tied up into the little buys, its ripples plashing as lazily as if they would never rise into great green waves that in December will

shatter themselves in foam and spray on the mighty ledges of Cohasset. The very winds seem to sleep in their hammock of

gauzy that hangs, thin and graceful, over sea :in(] shore.
Nature is taking a siesta, in restful preparation for her grim
struggle with winter's tempests, fierce and furious as they tile oil
this coast.

I invite you to spend a few Of these bright October days in seeking out tile ancient landmarks of this old puritan town of

158 History of Hingham.

Hingham (including Cohasset, which Until 1770 formed a part of it) ; and to do this most thoroughly and enjoyably a tramp will be necessary, although at times it will Do agreeable to Lake to the saddle; and a boat will twice or thrice be indispensable, especially at the outset. For we will start, if you please, at the extreme easterly point, and take some of the ledges which lie off shore. Many of these are Dearer ' to Scituate Beach, but the rest, including the most noted of all, Minot's, are opposite Cohasset harbor and beaches.

'MINOT'S LEDGE is the outermost of those awful rocks, upon which many a ship has met her doom ; and unnumbered men, ay, and women and children too, have vanished in the foam of those breakers which lash the ledges unceasingly when the east wind vexes the sea.

But on this hazy morning the ocean is calm enough. Only a ground swell, smooth as glass, rolls languidly in, and we can lie off the grim Minot's Ledge and examine the proportions of the great granite tower at our ease. This tower was built by the government to take the place of the wooden lighthouse, elevated oil iron posts ' that was washed away, together with its keepers, in the terrible storm of April, 1851.

Leaving, Minot's outer and inner ledges, we come to ail archipelago of rocks, many of which are submerged at high water. The principal ones between Minot's and the Cohasset shore are, the FAST and WEST HOGSHEAD ROCKS, the EAST and WEST SHAG, the GRAMPUSES, ENOS LEDGE, BRUSH LEDGE, BARREL ROCK, SHEPPARD's LEDGE, GULL LEDGE, SUTTON ROCKS and QUAMINO ROCK.

At the westerly entrance to Cohasset harbor is a. high, wooded,
rocky promontory called WHITEHEAD. During the last war with
England earthworks were erected there and garrisoned. In June,
1814, a British man-of-war came to destroy the shipping at Cohasset,
but the commander, upon reconnoitring these fortifications, deemed
them too strong to be attacked, and withdrew.
Oil the west side of the harbor is GULF ISLAND, and South of it
SUPPER, or SUPER, ISLAND. We leave "the Glades " (in Scituate)
on our left in entering Cohasset harbor. On the south side of
the harbor, and close on the main land, is DOANE'S ISLAND, now
GOVERNMENT ISLAND. Here for several Years the work of cutting
and shaping the rock sections to be used in building Minot's
Lighthouse was carried on.

BARSON'S BEACH, northeast of Doane's Island, extends to Scituate Beach In the palmy days of the fisheries on this shore there were several acres of flakes there, and fishing-vessels were fitted out at this spot. Several Cohasset vessels, loaded with fish here, were captured in the Mediterranean during the Bonapartist wars, and many Cohasset people are to this day among those interested in the French spoliation claims.

Let us land at the head of the harbor, and take the road, skirting the shore, Border Street. A little stream called JAMES'S

RIVER, which flows through the town, Crossing South Main Street not far from the depot, empties into the cove.

The OLD SHIPYARD was on B order Street. This road passes

between the water and high elevations oil the inner side, called
DEACON KENT'S ROCKS,from which is an extremely fine prospect.
The body of water between Doane's Island and the main land is
THE GULP or THE GULP STREAM. The entrance from the liar
her is narrow and jagged, and the rushing tide, foaming and seething in
resistless volume in its ebb and flow, is a picturesque and beautiful Sight.
A bridge crosses the Stream, and just below, where there was formerly a
rocky dam, stood the old GULP MILL, which is now a thing of the past. A
new mill, however, stands near the site of the old one.

CONOHASSET RIVER, or BOUND BROOK (CONOHASSET RIVULET Of Hutchinson's History), flows into the harbor oil the south side, emptying through the Gulf. Anciently it formed the boundary line between Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay Colonies.

Retracing our way, we will take Elm Street (the SHIP-COVE LANE Of early days), pass around the head of COHASSET HARBOR, which narrows into a pretty little landlocked bit of water at this point, and take the road which follows the shore as nearly as possible over the isthmus between the harbor and Little Harbor, the narrowest portion of which is known is GREAT NECK. After going a few score rods in a direction generally northeasterly, the road turns sharply to the north. At this point, extending down the harbor, and in fact forming, its northerly shore for Some distance, is DEACON BOURNE'S ISLAND, now the site of a fine private estate, the property, of a distinguished actor. These 11 islands," in the nomenclature of our ancestors, were frequently pieces of land divided from the mainland only by a narrow creek or waterway but a foot or two in width, or even high lands in swamps or oil beaches.

Beyond the little inlet and marshes north of this island, is HomINY POINT, a beautifully wooded locality extending out along the water. There were formerly wharves at Hominy Point. The road strikes across through thick woods and a very picturesque country, coming near the water again at SANDY COVE, a slight indentation north of the promontory previously mentioned, and finally turning west, ursues its winding way through thickets gorgeous with the red and yellow of sumacs and the scarlet of maples and woodbine, by rocky precipices dark with lichens, coming upon delightful vistas of wood-bordered meadows and lovely bits of water-views which break in here and there Unexpectedly, until it suddenly enters Cohasset villago it THE PLAIN.

THE PUNCH BOWL, a singular depression about one hundred feet in diameter and twenty-five feet in depth, with tipple trees now growing in it, is on the north side of Tower's Lane, a short distance from the corner. Tim DEVIL'S, ARMCHAIR, composed of slight depressions in the granite, probably of glacial origin, is a

160 History of Hingham

few rods east of tile highest point of the rocks on the south Bide of Ibis lane near fit() Plain.

Scattered here and there, in the thick natural shrubbery- on the water side, are tile pretty, quaint cottages of those who Spend their summers by tile sea. All along this Shore formerly, from Whitehead to Pleasant Beach, were SALTWORKS, - strong them PARSON FLINT'S SALTWORKS.

Beach Street, which we have been following, is the old TOWER'S LANE. We will retrace our course over it, to the private way which leads to CUBA DAM, Where *now is tile bridge flung across the waterwav which divides the territory over which we have been passing from BEACH ISLAND. Here one might well linger for hours to watch the rushin g waters which foam and swirl through this narrow, rocky inlet, which lots the sea into the otherwise completely landlocked, most picturesque, and exquisitely beautiful Shoot of water called in early days LITTEL IIAR13OUR (Liitle Harbor) or OLD HARBOUR.

WHALE'S VALLEY is near Cuba Dam, fit Old Harbor. A whale is said to have once gone oil the inlet into this harbor.

This inland bay, with its greatly div ersiried shores, "Tho Ridge
Road " along the precipitous bank at the west, wooded hills on
points making out into it here and there, low sandy beaches and
Beach Island dividing it from the sea ; and containing COOPER'S
ISLAND, RICE'S ISLAND, and LTTTLE RUCK within its waters, is a
fascinating locality for the admirers of title scenery.

Oil Cooper's Island are THE INDIAN POT and THE INDIAN WELL. The foriner is a curious excavation, round, smooth, and regular, having a capacioty of about a dozen pails. The Indian Well is another excavation near tile first one described. From the bottom it is elliptical to the height of about four feet. The remainder is semicircular, opening to the cast.

These excavations are glacial pot-holes, but may have been used by the Indians for various purposes ; and from the fact of hatchets and other aboriginal implements having been found in the ground near by, the early settlers supposed them to have been the work of the Indians.

CUBA derived its name from there having been a dam built Ili, a company of Hingbain and Cohasset people about the beginning of the century across the inlet to shut out tile sea, and enable them to reclaim the LITTLE HARBOR, Which it was thought would eventually become very profitable as ]lay fields. This was all very well Until the great Storm of April, 1851, which left nothing intact upon the shores which the sea could possibly destroy, tore this data to pieces ; and it has never, happily for the scenery been rebuilt. In the old days vessels were built at Little Harbor.

The bridge across the inlet at Cuba Dam lends to BEACH ISLAND, a partly wooded eminence rising from the beach surrounding it, find as romantic a spot for the fine seaside resides ..........

Next beyond this is "ANDY BEACH aptly so called, while off shore are BLACK LEDGE, -- ominous name, - and BRUSH ISLAND. At tile end of this beach are higher lands, very rockY, and with great ledges extending out into the sea. Here is KIMBALL'S, a pleasantly situated tavern, celebrated for its fish and game fare, somewhat its Taft's upon the north shore has been, for many years. from here extend the stony beaches picturesqUely varied wit sea-worn ledges, known collectively as PLEASANT BEACII, which terminates -it WALNUT ANGLE as the northwest Cornell of the Second Division was denominated, at the east end of Cohasset Rocks.

Now lot its turn about, and takiing the road by which we, have

just come fit reverse, return to Cohasset Harbor again. Thence
going west Over the old SHIP-COVE LANE (now Mot Street) we
before Ion,, reach South Main Street.

South Main Street leads southeast to the Scituate line, at ROUND BROOK, which was tile CONOHASSET RIVULET of Hutchinson's History. Here, over the brook, was the old (him, a wide roadway now, whereon stood tile OLD MILL. About half-way over the dam, and presumably at the middle of the stream as it Was at tile tittle, tile PATENT LINE Was established BOUND ROCK was at this; point. It is now represented by it hewn granite stone set up to mark the spot, by Captain Martin Lincoln, of Cohasset, more than half a conturv tom.

When the Indian chiefs, Wompatuck and his brothers, PlIve it deed of the territory of Hingbain to the English fit 1665, tficre was also cinbraced in this instrument a tract of 11 thre"core acreS of salt marsh" which lay oil the further side of the, ConohassLt Rivulet, in Scituate, in the Plymouth Colony. These lowlands were known as TRP CON011ASSET Ali mow.,;.

The Patent Line at Bound Rock was the base line north of which the First, Second, Third, and Second Part of the Third Divisions were directly or remotely laid out.

it will be necessary to explain Clio significance of flie term

division," which often recurs in any, descriptiull of the topolp, raphy of Hingbain and Cohasset.

When the Rev. Peter Hobart first cattle with his little hand of colonists to 11 Bare Cove," in 1635, he found several of his friends who had settled there as early as 1633. " ]lure Cove " was asBossed in 1634. The " plantation " was erected in July, 1635, and oil September 2nd, followin1g, the name of the town was clianged to Hingham by authority of the General Court, There are but eleven towns in the State, and only one Ili the county of Pivmonth, which are older than Hingbain.

Oil the 18th of September, 1635, Air. Hobart and twenty-nine others drew for houselots, and received grants of posture and tillage lands. This year specific grants of land ivere made to upwqrds of fifty persons, and this method was followed for nially years ; but as the colony increased in size, and the people Spread

162 History of Hingham.

along the shore, it was deemed advisable by the proprietors to,
survey and lay out the unappropriated portions of the township,
to be divided among the to the number of

acres which they had in their houselots.

This led to the establishment of numerous landmarks, many of which are recognized ill) to the present time, and their names, often very quaint, will be handed down to posterity long after their significance is forgotten.

It may he of interest to state here that the houselots drawn for oil the 18th of September, 1635, were Open Town, now North street. This year, also tile settlements extended to Broad Cove, now Lincoln Street. 111 1636 houselots were granted upon the other part of Town Street, since re-named South Street, and on the northerly part of "Bachelor's Rowe," now -Main Street.

The first giants of land in Cohasset (variously called " Conohisget," "
Conihast , " " Comessett,") were mentioned in the Hingham town
records in 1647. The first settlements are said to have
been at Rocky Nook and on the Jerusalem Road.

All these specific grants of ]all(] were for many years from territory yet belonging properly to the Indians; but oil the 4th of July, 1665, a deed of all the tract of land now comprising the towns of Hingham and Cohasset, together with 11 three score acres of Salt marsh" oil the Scituate side of the river, which divides Hingham from Scituate, was obtained front the chief.% Wompatuck, Squmick, and Ahahden, sells of the great sachem Chickatabut, who lived oil the banks of Neponset river, and who probably permitted the first settlers to locate at Hingham, which was in his realm. Ile rifled over the principal portion of the territory How comprised ill Plymouth and Norfolk counties.

Tile System of surveying and allotting certain districts led to

their being designated by the general name of "divisions;" as
11 First Division," 11 Second Division," etc. There were six of
these divisions made. The first, second, and third were in 1670.

The FIRST DivisioN, entirely in Cohasset, starts at tile 11 Patent Line," which runs from BOUND ROCK, On the milldam, across 13OUND BROOK ill a straight line southwest by west, five miles eighty roils. The coast line of tile First Division follows the course of Round Brook northward to tile harbor, then strikes into MEETING-HOUSE ROAD (now South -Main Street), crosses Great Neck, extends alonng this road to Deer Hill Lane opposite the southwest side of Little Harbor, then runs alng this lane southwesterly to King Street, thence follows it line through the centre of Scituate Pond southeasterly to the patent line.

The base line of the easterly part, of the SECOND DIVISION is the northwest boundary of the First Division (Deer Hill Lane). Oil the southeast, file line starts at the corner of the First Division oil Little Harbor, and follows the westerly side of the Ridge Road, skirts Peck's Meadow on the, west, returns to the Ridge Road and runs to Walnut Angle (westerly end of Pleasant Beach) on the

shore, which it follows to Strait's Pond, thence in a general south-
westerly direction to "Breadencheese Tree," and from there south
easterly over Lambert's Lane and King Street to the northwest
corner of the First Division on King Street.

Supper Island and Gulf Island in the harbor, the promontory, east of Great Neck, and Beach Island, and file other so-called "islands " and high lands along the beaches east and north of Little Harbor, are also in this portion of the Second Division.

The westerly part of the Second Division lies oil the west side of Lambert's Lane and King Street. The easterly boundary stretches from " Breadencheese Tree " to Scituate Pond, along the west side of the east part of the Second Division, and of the First on King Street. Tilt northwesterly boundary line runs from " Breadencheese Tree " irregularly southwest, passing around and excluding Smith's Island to it cart path running southeasterly, which it follows to a point where it turns and runs easterly to the First Division line, north of Scituate Pond.

The Second Division is entirely in Cohasset

The THIRD DIVISION is partly in Cohasset, but mostly ill fling, ham, the northwesterly boundary starting at the northwest angle of the Second Division and running rather irregularly southwest till it strikes the patent line not far from Prospect Hill. The southwesterly boundary starts at the southwest, corner of the Second Division and runs to tile patent line in a direction generally parallel to the northwesterly boundary line.

The SECOND PART OF THE THIRD DIVISION is partly in Hingham mostly in Cohasset, and lies South of the Third Division and the westerly portion of the Second, between them and the patent, line, and west of the First. It includes about half of Scituate Pond.

The FOURTH DIVISION was made of the tract lying along the extreme southwest boundary of Hingbain oil the Weymouth border.

The FIFTH and SIXTH DIVISIONS were of detached portions of lands remaining from the former divisions (excluding, specific grants). Nutty Hill was included in the Fifth, and certain of the westerly and northerly meadow lands in both the Fifth all([ Sixth.

The Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Divisions of lands were made a few years previous to the middle of the eighteenth century.

We will return over South Main Street, passing, just before we reach the road leading to the depot, the long old house, once CHRISTOPHER JAMES's TAVERN. A short distance further north, oil THE PLAIN, stands the OLD CHURCH, erected in 1747, - the first MEETING-HousE having, been built here in 1718.

About an eighth of a mile further on, Winter Street run., southwest over DEER HILL. This street was the old DEER HILL LANE. Just beyond the corner of the lane with North Main Street, there begins, on the right, the renowned JERUSALEM ROAD, also called

164 History of Hingham

the RIDGE ROAD, or THE RIDGES It rates north for Rome distance [lton,, a high bank, or ridge, beneath which lies Little Harber OIL the east side. Tile scenery in this direction

The little inland bay exhibits all its variety of outline front this point, with its picturesque rocks, wooded headlands, and islands.

In -I field west of the road, and quite a distance front it, is a huge bowlder balanced, apparently, so delicately upon a point that it seems as if it could be easily dislodged from its position upon a ledge where it lies. This has long been known as TITTLING ROCK.

The road soon slopes downward on to a lower level and enters woods, but still skirts Little Harbor. Winding along the edge of -I rocky descent, it crosses a salt marsh 1)), a dike. On the left, is a jagged precipice, clothed partly with trees. This is STEEP ROCKS. Around the marsh's edge and skirting the foot of tile rocks is III old road, Bow Street, which was once the principal highway, and was used again -after tile great storm of April, 1851, which washed away the dike, until this latter was rebuilt.

Beyond the marsh the road rises rapidly, Old winds along over abrupt rocky hills, wcll wooded, and having line private estates oil each !land. A pretty meadow on the west VA the feet of a steep descent, his been known from earliest times ;Is PECK'S' MEADOW ; " THE, STEPPEN STONES " used to be, in old days file only thoroughfare across the water Lore. The Load still winds (11, reaching, before long Pleasant Beach, and tile east end of COHASSET ROCKS ; all(] here it bends abruptly westward and rises, turning on to the crest of the cliff above these celebrated rocks, along which it runs for their entire length, front Pleasant Beach to Greenhill Beach.

As wild a stretch of iron-bound shore as could be wished for are these cliffs. Woo to the ship that, escaping the awful ledges to the eastward, drives oil here before -,I northeast, gale. The Jerusalem Road along their upper edge, but a few years since was a rough, picturesque way, bordered by stunted cedars 11 blown into " a peculiar shape of growth away from the slot III winds so to speak, that prevail from the north am] northeast. Within tile past twenty years wealth and fashion have taken possession of the lands on these hills and the elegant villas of summer residents are to be seen oil every hand, while the roadway has been smoothed and 11 improved," little)- fences or elaborate stone- walls built, and the storm-shapen cedars, cut down or trimmed into artificial forms, thus in a measure destroying tile picturesque Character of tile surrounding

The town of Cohasset should never have permitted the sea side of this road to be owned byh private individuals, bill should have kept it as a public ocean park accessible to the people.

Near the point where the road takes at) its coarse to tile west, there is, not far above the level of the breakers and down Onionthe rocks, a little basin of clear, cool water which babbles out from the precipitous, weather-beaten ledges, known as COLD SPRING.

Following the road along, ,I superb view presents itself. To the cast are 'Minot's Light and Tile Ledges. Beyond them -tied losing itself at the horizon, is the broad Atlantic. Here, in front, to the northward, is the blue expanse of Massachusetts, Bay, the north shore in the dim distance hanging upon file ~eq,o of vWOII like a cloud ; to the northwost, the grent stretch of sand, knoc,31 as Nantasket Lou,,, Bcaeli, Point Allerfoll at its extrellic end, and Boston Light beyond oil the Omer Brewster.

After descenifing a hill we come to the BLACK-BOCK I lOVI', oil a slight rise, close beside the sea, whose waNes drench it ~vitll spray in great gales.

The picture spread out before one alme, this iood in Nvintry storms is Magnificent, I)ITSential as it dOOs the Wild "randOur of the conflict between the seas, driven before the gale, and the shibborn granite lines of these milghtY le(I"'0g.

Just off GREENHILL ];EACH, Which is tit 111V end Of CollaSset
166 History of Hingham.

Rocks, lies BLACK ROCK, a long, jagged, wave-worn mass, a few hundred feet oil shore. At the west end of this beach (a pebbly isthmus joining Cohasset to Greenhill in the precincts of Hall) begins STRAIT'S POND, a beautiful sheet of salt water lying along the westerly part of Jerusalem Road, and between it and the beaches of Hull north of it. After passing through a rocky gorge bordered by misshapen savins we come upon a low, long, ancient, one-story house on the left of the road, which is one of the oldest buildings in Cohasset. It belonged to a branch of the LinCola family, and was built in 1709, having been originally constructed oil Greenhill, in Hall, and moved across the ice of Strait's Pond in winter. Tile roadway formerly lay on the south side Of it.

As the neighborhood is being rapidly overrun by fashion, which cares nothing for old landmarks, tills house will probably disappear very soon, to make way for modern 11 improvements."

In the next hollow RATTLESNAKE RUN, on its way from Great Swamp, crosses under the road to empty into Strait's Pond. In the pretty canal, flowing among trees and shrubs in the private grounds oil the south side of the road, one would fall to recognize the old run as it was before its metamorphosis.

Beyond this point the road heads round a steep, rocky ledge on tile south side. This is JOY'S ROCKS, and the bend was the old JOY'S CORNER, - an angle of the Second Division.

FOLSOM'S ISLAND (Originally JONES ISLAND) is in Strait's Pond, near Nantasket Neck.

Tile Jerusalem Road continues along the border of Stralt's Pond until it ends at Hull Street, on file Hingham line.

Turning to the left, Hull Street (which here divides Hingham from Cohasset; the east side being Cohasset; the west Bingham) leads ill a generally southerly direction, crossing Turkey-Hill Run at the foot of the first slight rise. Nearly half a mile further on, after going up a hill and winding Somewhat to tile left, LAMBERT'S LANE, or BREADENCHEEESE TREE LANE, is found opposite Canterbury Street, in Hingham, and leading in all easterly direction into Cohasset woodlands. It soon crosses Turkey-Hill Run, and at the Spot where it intersects the western boundary line of the Second Division, stood, in 1670, the celebrated BREADENCHEESE TREE. The surveyors, who laid out the First, Second, and Third Divisions at that time, were evidently of a waggish turn of mind, and chose to name certain points or angles from which the "took their bearings" according to the composition of the lunch which they had for the day. Thus the northeasterly angle of the First Division they named I'm CORNER.

When they arrived under a certain large tree, they sat down and ate their bread and cheese; slid BREAD-AND-CHEESE TREE or BREADENCHEESE TREE, became a landmark from that hour oil, through these last two centuries and more.

The Maypole was a tree at all angle a Short distance southwest

Of Breadencheese Tree, on the line of the Second Division, SMITH'S ISLAND was on this line further to tile southwest.

A half-mile or so from Turkey Hill Run, the lane crosses RATTLESNAKE RUN, Which, starting ill Purgatory Swamp, we encountered upon Jerusalem Road, where it empties into Strait's Pond. Lambert's Lane, running through thick woods almost all the way, passes over BREADENCHEESE TREE PLAIN; and here was HUMPHREY'S, or, as commonly called in the old (lays, AT HUMPHREY'S.

Lambert's Lane eventually emerges at the modern Forest Avenue, and at this point there was ill the early part of the century a dairy farm belonging to General Lincoln. Nearly all of these tillage and pasture lands of earlier times are now overgrown by thick forest. WALNUT HILL is in this vicinity, PURGATORY SWAMP is northwest of Walnut Bill.

Passing south over Forest Avenue, we come soon to North Main Street, and turning into this, we almost immediately strike off diagonally to the right into Cedar Street, now a deserted way, but a beautifully winding, and wooded one, formerly the OLD COHASSET ROAD, over which, in early times, people journeyed from Hingham to Cohasset. It leads over hill and dale, bisects a Superb fancy farm at rURKEY MEADOWS and passing by a quiet little graveyard at a turn to the northward, comes out oil Hull Street,

In order to reach most expeditiously the next locality which it is desirable to visit, it will be best, to proceed through Hull Street to East Street, Hingham and thence through this town by the way of the old Side- Hill road, over Turkey Hill (a most delightful ride, especially at this season), through Leavitt, Spring, Pleasant, and Union street-,, Until Beechwood Street is reached, ,which leads from Union Street to Cohasset. This street at first winds through beautiful and wild woodlands, largely composed of beeches, with many holly -trees here and there, their exquisite foliage reflecting the sunbeams and the bright scarlet berries forming a brilliant contrast to the rigid leaves plished green

Here is tile part of Cohasset called or in old
deeds TOE BEECHES, deriving the name from the trees which
form so large a part of the woods of this district STONY BROOK
is the name of :1 little stream which crosses Beechwood Street,
flowing through a pretty meadow bordered by trees qad bright
with wild flowers in their season, near the village called PRATT'S

Hard by is BARN HILL made almost oil island 1) this Stony Brook. The locality known as KINGO is Comprised in this neighborhood taking its name from a former inhabitant who lived near, in a stone house ill the woods.

A short distance further oil, Doane Street enters Beechwood Street oil the north side. Doane Street is a continuation in Cohasset of Leavitt Street in Hingham, which leads through Third Division woods.

168 History of Hingham.

Oil the north side of Beechwoord Street, and about a third of a mile cast of Doane Street, is RATTLFSNAKE ROCK, Or RATTLESNAKE

DEN, formerly a !Taunt of there reptiles, although they are undoubtedly
extinct there now.

SOUTHER'S HILL is a short distance east of Doane Street, and JOY'S H ILL, Or CAPTAIN PRATT'S HILL, is On the south side of Beechwood Street. There is a fine view from this hill. About a mile cast of Doane Street, oil the north side of Beechwood Street is a great ledge, having a large bowIder on it, which is called MOUNT PISGAH. TURTLE ISLAND is near Beechwood Street where it crosses a branch of Bound Brook. Tile old IRON WORKS stood here.

PRATT's ROCKS form a ledge near the road, nearly two miles from Doane Street. On the south side of Beechwood Street, near Kill" Street, is WIDow's ROCK, which is shaped like a haystack. The property about this rook was once sold for exactly one thousand dollars. When the deed come to be passed, and payment made, the buyer offered the seller a one-thousand-dollar bill, which was contemptuously refused. " What," cried the seller, 11 1 sell my land for one little bit of paper like that! No sir! I will have a good pile of bills for it." And the buyer had to give him a sufficient quantity of small bills to the amount of $1000 to make the transaction look " big to him. A short distance cast of Widow's Rock is GOVERNOR'S HILL. The name has no special significance in this connection, however.

We will turn northwest into King Street and proceed along
this ancient road, the original boundary of the First and Third
Divisions, and the dividing line which separates the Second into
two parts. It is a hilly and pleasantly wooded Toad in places,
and borders SCITUATE POND, also called 'KIAH TOWER'S POND, Of
late years sometimes LILY POND. It was named Scituate Pond
INN, the first settlers because it was oil the road to Scituate; and
'Kiah Tower's Pond afterwards because land about it was owned
by a Mr. Hezekiah Tower. This land, or a portion of it is still
held by his descendants. By the latter name the pond is known
in the country adjacent. It is a very beautiful sheet of water, its
banks being composed of both high and low hinds, and heavy
woods, always such an indispensable adjunct of fine scenery,
covering a large proportion of its shores.

How exquisite it is now, in the quiet afternoon sunlight, its unruffled waters reflecting a white feathery cloud lazily drifting across the deep blue sky, and the scarlet and yellow forest.% about it contrasting so brilliantly with those rich, deep-green, pine woodlands!

That great rounded gray ledge rising Out Of its bosom PONDROCK, has looked the same to every race of men which has dwelt about these shores or fished in their waters, since the melting


way of the great glacier first let in upon it, as it is now, the light of day. It echoed tile war-whoop of the red man

when lie first shrieked it in the forests of the hills around, and gave back its latest faint, reverberation when it, despairingly

died away for the last time on the western wind its lichenclad granite, slopes back .1 quick response to the sharp crack of the pale-faced pioneer's firelock, when it imperiously announced to those solitudes that the reign of the wolf and the Algonquin must give place to that of the Anglo-Saxon. In. The dawn will touch the Old rock with its earliest rosy beam and the last ray of sunset linger upon it in yellow light, when that Anglo-Saxon, with his mighty works, shall have vanished forever, and the history of his existence remain only as a myth.


King Street runs along the eastern slope of SCITUATE HILL,
which lies east, of Turkey Hill. The name was applied to it by
the early settlers because it was on the way to Scituate

After crossing the railroad, King, Street (,ads at North Main
street. This road winds pleasantly through the beautiful Cohasset
woods and crosses the northern portion Of GREAT SWAMP
which extends far to file southward, covering a large tract Of
country . North Main Street enters Hingham as East Street, at
the Homesteads.

Now turning, about, we will ride eastward again, mid strike
into King Street. Upon reaching Winter Street we will turn
Off to the cast over this road, which is the old DEER HILL LANE.
It crosses DEER HILL, a smooth, rather high hill, and comes out
oil North Main Street, nearly opposite the cemetary.

Southeast of Deer Hill, is BARE HILL BEAR HILL now called JOINER'S HILL. where the Water reservoir is

A huge and steel) ledge ly ing opposite the westerly end Of Summer Street is known qs SUNSET ROCK

170 History of. Hingham

But the fair October sunset itself has failed into twilight, leaving a beautiful afterglow that promises another fine day for tomorrow. If the promise is fulfilled, we will start ill the early to visit the Hingham landmarks.


A morning like that of yesterday, 11 so cool, so calm, so bright," ushers in a second perfect autumn day, of -ill times in the year the finest for moddes in the saddle. Let us take tip our subject this morning at the point where three townships meet.

The Jerusalem Road ends at the Hingham line, where the towns of Cohasset, Hingham, and Hull form a junction. To the right, northerly, lies Nantasket Beach, about half a mile distant. A few rods to the north, the road to the beach crosses the old MILL LANE IlRfDGE, which separates Sti ait's pond from the little estuary called LYFORD'S LIKING, or Weir River. This, however, is not the river itself, but merely ail extension of the bay into which Weir river empties. The origin of this quaint name, A~?forXs Likiitti, is buried in obscurity. In 1642, however, in Suffolk Deeds, Vol. I., the munei; of ' Ruth Leyford, John Leyford her father, ill(] l4ordecay Leyford her brother, appear; and in 1649 -in old deed speaks of 'If oure Acres meadow, more or less, at Laiford's Likeing."

The, road coming from the south, on the, left hand, Halt Street, divides Ilin0nim from Coliasset, and winds through the rocky villaec known as TOGNIANUG, ail old Indian name of the localit~_ Until within thirtv-odd years, this was the only road from Ilingbain to Nautisket, Beach.

Rockland Street runs west along the marshes for nearly a mile, skirting a. range of higher and rocky table land lying to the south, which hI known as CANTERBURY. It was probably included in a grant to Cornelius Canterbury, who settled in flingliarn. before 1649.

In the ditch by the side of this street, where it runs through the suit marsh, are the stumps of gigantic trees, which were dug out of the, roqdway here when the strect was made, about the year 18.55. Those troes wore unquestionably members of a forest which lived and flourished here untold ages ago. The ImalFA wbere it existed were probably low, and near the then coast line; and through some graduat subsidence of the land, or sudden convulsion of nature, there was a breaking, in of the sea, with consequent destruction of the forest. All through the period of %ulonergence of this locality those stumps were preserved, being under salt water, and now, perhaps a thousand years after the catastrophe that ended ibeir lives, the relies of the trunks of these old trees are ivioulderiin, to decliv in the rays of the same sunshine tbat caused their buds to break into leafy beauty in the last

              Anciput Landmarks. 1", 1

North of Rockland Street, just before it reachos the rishw ground, and perhaps a quarter of a mile Or so out Over tl)~B Marshes, "Poll Lyford's Liking, is BARNES51', ISLAND, formerly SPRAOUP'S ISLAM). From the road it has the appearance of a slight rise, well wooded.

A short distance further west the road cross(,s Wrin RivrR, here a pretty stream about to empti, into 11rEliz R(rjjR BAY, a quarter of a mile northward. Tide v~ator comes ill) bel oud file bridge at this point, to the falls at the dain a fell, s~ore rods south, where TuOMAS'S I'OND is, Rad where Tuom,ks's Folixony stood until within a few years.

Along the river bank oil the east side, for some distanco, is a
range of high rocky eliffs, beautifully wooded, and verl piclur
be bitle
esque. Down from this sa%in-olotliod height comes t

WOODCOCK'S ltu,,I, or LY~,ojti)',.,, LIKING RUN, a small brook haidly
distinguishable in the dr , v months.

There %,as ill carly titues across Weir River, not far froul the bridge now spannhw it, at Rockland street, a log, opon whiell people could cross the stream, mn] also a )andin',, where thuber and firewood were loaded upon Nessels bound for Boston and elsewhere. This place was called THE Lo(;, or AT THE Lo(;. L(O LANE led to this spot, from Weir River Lane.

Down the river about a quarter of a mile, :Old at the Point
where it broadens into ft wide estuary, thore was, nearly a evil
tury since, a woollen mill, owned by and carried on in the interest
of General Benjamin Lincoln, who seenis to have been interested
in many enterprises. There was afterwards a flour mill hero,and
the place was subsequentl ' N , occupied by the sniall-pox hospital.
TuR LmE KILN was near by, and the Beck of land opposite,
situated between (lie river ,Old the cove which makes tip oil the
west side of this neck, is terminated bV BARS POINT.

Crossing Weir River 1) ' v the Rockfand Street bridge, we arc

upon higher ground, incluilod ill PLAIN MCK, NVIliCh COMPrObendS all tile CouTittv south and nes"t of this bridge (as well as northward as fill- a; Cushirn's Nock), which can be comprised ill I lie

terl-itory bovdered oil the cast and south by Weir River , :Old upon tile west by the harbor, and probably exteiiding n.,; far as C11,9111 berlain's Ran. The limits are indefinite, but old deeds show that they are about as described.

A short distance west of the river Rockland Street passes through a thickly wooded swamp, which Was for iiially ye"Irs,

Until 1855, TOF ~IERONRY. ROM WOM the Imilles of t'lle nil"Ilt berons, their nosts beial- visible in tile woods oil overv side. They were driven away wlion the road was laid out tlirough their haunts.

NEcK OATF fIlLL ' now OLn COLONY TIILL, at the junction Of
Rockland Street, Sounuor Street, :Old Martin's Lane, is a plons
antly located bill ' boving fine w4)(djqjlds ;Old beautiful e(noll- , v

about it. The view from the sluninit in ('very diroction is chnnol
1-12 History of Hingham

ing. For many years tile OLD COLONY HOUSE, a favorite summer resort stood here. It was built ill 1882, till(] burned in 1872.

But now before going oil to Hingham harbor, lot us turn down
MARTIN'S LANE, to (lie right, and northward. This is a narrow
road, formerly having the NECK CATE across it, at the hill. It
slopes gradually downward, quit is bordered by trees, with masses
of tangled woodlands upon the right, now exquisite in tile glory
of autumn Wild hidden ravines, picturesque rocky precipices,
clothed with vines, ferns, mid savins, are upon the east side. The
trouble of searching them out, will be well repaid in learning
what sccenery generally thought peculiar to mountain districts
is here under our very eyes, but almost unknown.

On the west, the land lies ill beautifully rolling fields, dotted here and there with fine trees, down to the. water. The road finally winds over a slight rise, between shrubby woods and through a noble private estate till it reaches nearly a mile from Neck Gate Hill, NIAarIN'S WELL, formerly ABRAHAM"; WELL, tile remains of which are still visible ill the field to the right, near by where the lane ends. There is a pretty cove, or indentation, at this point.

Abraham Martin was one of the early settlers who came with Rev. Peter Hobart in 1635. Ile owned land in this locality and built this well.

This land is embraced in the strip between the harbor and, Weir River to the eastward, called CUSHING'S NECK,-large tracts having been owned here early by a branch of that family, which has furnished, in peace and war, so many celebrated Americans. Hingham was the home of the family in America. Lands at Cushing's Neck are still in possession of one of the descendants.

The road which crosses the head of this cove goes over the heavy Stone dam (MARTIN'S WELL DAM) Which shuts Out tile sea from the fertile meadows lying east of it. These formed one of the DAMDE MEDDOWES, So often referred to in old deeds. The cost end of these meadows is also dammed at Weir River Bay.

Passing through a gate, we come to PINE, HILL a little eminence overlooking the harbor, now a smooth, rounded hill, with a few trees upon its summit. North of this is tile fine PLANTER'S HILL, also smooth and oval in outline, like. all the Hingbain hills. There is a noble view from its top, extending, all around the horizon, - of the, Blue Hills; of Milton, in the far distance, the town lying close by, Third Division woods southward, the harbor to the west, quit broad ocean to tile north and East beyond Nantasket Beach.

At the foot of the northerly slope of Planter's Hill is a short, low isthmus a few rods in length, and very narrow at high tide, -WORLD'S END BAR A generation ago tile fox hunters used to beat the country at South Hingbain and drive the game northward through the woods and fields of the township till it arrived at the peninsula bounded by Weir River and tile harbor. After

            Ancient Landmarks. 173

rwel)aocsheinfigigtlhitatlepdotiliiet,nitliioilc-(,~-ilt~-:tilb~gI.viitoo or oil the next hit(, Choy atoned with their lives lor 11 crinies done in tile flesh."

There is a curiously stunted elm-five growin I on tile ~eiy top of Planter's Hill. It is cvid~,jltly dwarled by hav*ill~ 11roNVII up wed1ged among large rocks. It is of great age, enily jccoriN referring, to it soon after the sipttleineut of like colultry~ -Old appm., ently has not increased in size during the two past centuries. It is, indeed, an " ancient landmark."

The doubly rounded caninenoo north of this bar is Wonm)'6 END, a peninsula surrounded by water on all Sides excepting where this bar connects it with I'lanter's Hill. The harbor is o)'I the west, Weir River Bay upon the east side

Following the shore of Weir River Bay, we conic to a till](, cove upon the east side of Planter's ]till, and then :in exireniell, picturesque locality, havinx high rocks and precipices nlong its water front, and groat ledges croppiro, out all over it. This 16 known as ROCKY NEcK.

Up the little buy, to the eastward, lies Nantasket ])each and north of it, tile pohit of land stretching out into the luirho'r, i6 White Head. These localities are in Hull.

The rough and broken easterly shore line of Becky Neck finally
crosses a little meadow and beach, and b0y(aul these i's 111 narrow
passa ' go between great masses of crin,gy rocks, which are called
LiNCOLN'S ROCKS. Through this passage conles tile cut ]-cut of
Weir River. Close here, too, is the "reat rock ill the water which
has been known from early times Its TnE RrNGBOLT ROCK,
from the huge iron ring let into its surface for the acconnuo
dation of vessels hauling oil the river. At " The Liniplifln," jit
the upper part of Weir River Bay, there were, in old Oines,
vessels built. The last one was the ship "Solferino," of about 800
tons, launched ill the year 1859, the largest vessel ever built in

The water here is the westerly portion of the inlet which extends easterly to the dam at Strait's Pond, and which we met with there under the ancient naine of LN-ford's Likin,.

Let us go down the river again to Rocky Neck tOul cro." OLD PLANTER'S FIELDS, Moll Oil tile 8011theflStOVIV slopes of PIanter's and Pine bills, and ;n 'over the 11 Danule Ale'dilowes " to NIq 1-till's Lane, which we will cross at the cove, and proceed along, thc shore skirting the beautiful tract of country between Marlin's Lane and the harbor, called, anciently, MANSFIELD'S, tO M,i-,-,~ FIELD'S COVE, a lifight indentation at the head of tile barbor, bounded on tile west by a ledge making out into the water, callcil BARNM'S RocKs, upon and over which the old steamboat pier mid hanging wire bridge used to be. This ledge extends out mider the channel, interfering with navigation at low water, Tb e United States government has expended considerable sunis of

174 History of

money in not entirely successful attempts to remove it by sub~ marine blasting.

There were formerly SALT WORK§ cast of Mansfield's Cove,

A few rods farther on is HERSEY'S WHARF, at the present time as stanch a structure as it was when it was constructed. Upon. this wharf. and on the beach West of it, were built several fine ships, beside% numerous barks, brims, and schooner,%; for this Was HALL'S SHIPYARD. West of this wharf is the steamboat pier. Upon Summer Street on the hill just above Hersey's wharf, is a large white house it the south side of the road, now the mansion of it private estate. This was, in former times, one of the old inns, and was known as the WOMPATUCK HOUSE

After crossing another stone wharf, now disused, we find this beach extending along toward a line of wharves at THE CovE at the head of the harbor. The earliest settlers at the harbor called the place BARE COVE, front the fact that the receding tide leaves the flats bare; and by this name the settlement was designated and assessed, until later it received the name of Hingham,

Previous to the building of Summer Street, the only highway leading from the cove to the village lying between the disused

Wharf above referred to and Nock Gate Hill, Was along the upper edge of this beach ; people and teams going down into the dock below the Mill-dam at the Cove, at low tide, crossing the mill stream and passing along the beach on their way east. Summer Street here was constructed from material taken from WARD'S H ILL, a high knoll of sand and gravel rising south from the beach, now known its COBB'S BANK, which in early times extended several hundred feet to the eastward. It is fast disappearing under the demand for sand and gravel for filling purposes.

Along the water side north of Ward's Hill there were also vessels built.

The low land lying between Summer Street and the railroad track, and east of Ward's Hill, was formerly WAKELY'S MEADOW, Or BRIGADIER", MEADOW. Within a very few years this meadow was salt, tend the owner, wishing to reclaim it, caused it to be (trained into the harbor, the pipes passing under Summer Street. In digging beneath this street at the old sea-level, the contractor unearthed old piles and the stone retaining walls of wharves, thus proving, the early existence of landing places for vessels far within the limits where it is now possible for them to come.

The meadow belonged early to Thomas Wakely. It afterward,; was the property of Brigadier-General Theophilus Cushing, And received its later name in this connection. Thomas Wakely wag all early settler with Rev. Mr. Hobart, in 1635,

The high land south of Wakely's Meadow, beyond the railroad track, is PECK'S PASTURE. Robert and Joseph Peck came to this country in 1638.

Following the ancient water line from the harbor up through the mill- dam, we reach THE MILL-POND. Here stood the CoRN

            Ancient Landmarks. 175

MILL, and also the SAW MILL, erected, probably, in 1643 or 1644, The present grist mill stands, upon or near the same spot.

The body Of water connected with the mill-pond through (lie Waterway which exists under the Junction of the railroad with Water Street, affords, east of this street when the full tide is in, some of the finest scenery, about Hingbain, taken in connection with the beautifully wooded uplands oil the marshes called ANDREWS or SASSAFRAS ISLAND, and the high rocks and precipices jutting out from thick oak woods along the eastern bank. The brilliant colors of the foliage contrasting with the gray of tile rocks, the blue of the water, and bright green of the meadows go to make tip a picture worthy the [)rush of all artist

These salt marshes, extending south to Pear Tree Hill, are

known as the HOME MEADOWS.

But to return to the mill-pond. This body of water lies between North
and Water Streets and the maple-bordered and beautiful shades of the
cemetery lying to the south. The railroad
skirts its southern bank. The' mill-pond was anciently a little
cove, and the Rev. Peter Hobart, with his band of settlers, landed
near the head of this cove where now is the foot of Ship Street.
Here the first religious services were held, near a magnificent
elm, which, standing, in all its majesty up to a dozen or so ), cars
ago, an ornament to the street and town, was barbarously cut
down by the authorities on the wretched pretext that, it Was in
the way of pedestrians on the sidewalk. At the time of its
destruction two cannon balls were found imbedded among its
roots, which were undoubtedly left there by the early settlers.
These are now in the possession of a zealous antiquarian and local

The TOWN BROOK empties into the western extremity of the mill- pond.

With the idea of following the harbor line from the mill-pond

north, we will avail ourselves of the ancient private way which runs along by the heads Of the old wharves, some of which are. yet used for the reception from a few coasters of such lumber and

coal as are required for use in the town ; sorne have, fallen into
decay, and with the old rotting warehouses upon the landward
side of this little way, are sad reminders of the maritimp glories
of this once active locality. For Hingbain to Merly Sent, a hirge
and well-appointed fishing fleet to sea. Along i'icr shorpq we hal-C
visited sonle, and shall come across more of the ship ' yards wbere

numerous ships and smaller craft were built find lftunchcd, and the sea captains, sons of her stanch old families, sailed to all quarters of the world.

At the end of this old private wily, and where it connects u-ith Otis Street, was formerly SOUTIIER'S, earlier BARKER'S, S11111YAno. Here, where now are pretty seaside villas the keel of inany it line vessel was laid, and the ~hingc of these'into their desthied clement was made in a direction toward GoosE POINT, I small, low,

176 History of Hingham

marsh , v promontory, forming tile northerly arm Of tile little cove
here (Ill tile west side of this Cove was KEEN'S SHIPYARD.
Following along Otis Street Over a salt meadow, we come to a
few summer residences scattered along 1)), tire bay,, sonic being
near tile former edge of tile sand Cliff which was cut away when
this rood was laid out. Here were, a generation ago, extensive
SALT WORKS,, having their windmills upon the beach ; for, in earlier days
large quantites of salt were required in packing mackerel
taken by the fishing fleet and much of it was of home production.
A few score rods further to the north, and we tire at BROAD COVE

an estuary extending in westward as far as Lincoln Street, all
then northward Its much farther As )ill, plan is to follow tile,
share we will proceed along the, southerly bank of this cove
Tile, first locality of interest is ill the South side of ill(,, entrance,
from file harbor, [lore stood MAJOR", WHARF and tile warehouse
ad joining it oil the edge of the sand cliff, The writer remembers
the old well which was at the foot of the cliff near or under where
tile building stood. At this wharf were rigged the Vessels which
were built at the head of Broad Cove at Lincoln Street. The
wharf and property in the vichlity belonged, in the bitter part, of
the last Century, to Major Thaxter, of the old Provincial arnzy
This goutlenian was all officer it) the reginiont raised in this
vicinity which forini-d part of the garrison it Fort Williain I fenry,
which sm rendered to Aloiltealin and his, Pi ouch and Indian forces
aftcr a inotracted siege it I tile old French war. Ile came very
nVal. f)eillg 0110 of tile victims of the subsequent massacre, beiGg
takon prisoner and tied to a tree 1) ' N, the Indians, who lighted a
fire around him. A French officer rescued him, and he subse
quent] ' v escalped or was exchanged.

Tile land lying south of this cove adjoining (and perhaps inChiding) the present, cainp-,"rounds belongiw-, to tile First Corps of Cadotts Of the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, was formerl.i known as JouN's Ntxw.

Upon the south bank of the Cove were, in carly days SALT IVORKs.

At the Lincoln Street end of Broad COVO, Was a SHIPYARD
whole numerous vessels were built. An old bid. 'T in converliation
with tho writer a few years since, spoke of having seen four
Vessels at a time upon tile stocks there in the early part of this

Broad Cove divides into two creeks which extend northward
and westward for about :I quarter of ,I ruile. Over these creeks
from Lincoln Street to Crow Point, ran Cnow POINT LANE, Cross
in , g the Creeks by bridges. These were landmarks a century ago,
tile territory hereabouts being known as 11 AT YE BRIDGES. 11

PLANTEtt's FIELDS LANE led front Crow Point Lane to Planter's Fields.

From "Y Bridges" northwestward toward Weymouth River for a Polisiderable distance lay the SHii, LOTS.

            Ancient Landinarks. 177

Returning by the uortherly shore of Broad Cove to the harbor
.again, we skirt tile foot of OTI.,' I (ILL, Net Y steep upon its western
slope, and front this cause known to the early sottfers, ill flicir
quaintly expressive 11011101i(lia"[11T, as WEARY-ALL HILL. Tile
southeastern extrcinit , N, t,f tlfi~, hill, sirutebing out into low land
at tile north side of tio, entrance to Broad Cove, is PAUL'S POINT.

The hill takes its name froin John Otis, all early settler with Rev. Peter llobart, in 1635, and who received it grant of land here. lie was the ancestor of tile celebrated Otis family in America.

The view from Otis Hill, like that front all the higli hills of Hingham and Cohasset, is exquisite. ']'lie waters of the bay, and of flingliani harbor, Avith its picturesque islands, lie -It Olle's fe(A. To tile northeast and east, is the deel) blue expanse of occan, Ileyond the long, narrow neck of Nantasket Beach, which Connects the penhunflar town of Ilull with the mainland. Beyond Windmill Point, Hall, tile granite bastions Of Fort Warren reflect tile light in the aftcraition still. Ships and stearners oil their Course lend life to tire ocoan view. north shore melts to haze in the distance. ]stands dot tile watea s of Boston Bay, the white towers of lighthouses surniountin., some of them. To the northwest looms the city, crowned with its golden dome. The Blue Ifills of Milton, the Mas-sa-chu- setts,

          11 rock-ribbed alid ancient as the slin,"

rise against the western horizon. Fields and heavy woodlands lie from the southwest to the, southeast, interspersed with towns and villages scattered here, and there.

Daniel Webster greatly adinired Otis Ifill with its view, and often visited it oil his way to Marshfield. It is said that lie half It great desire to buy it and make his home there, but foared that as it was so near the city lie could not hope for the seclusion which a more dis

      , tant spot ivoldd afford.

At the north end Of Otis Hill is WALTON" (.ovp,, or WAMPUM COVE, a Slight indentation WestWqld from tile harbor, With Very pretty scenery about it, having a high rocky shore oil one side,


and fine trees all about it. Ali early settler of 1635, William Walton, owned land here, lictiec it-, iiiiine.

BOYOnd WaltOll'S Cove is CROW POINT, a rounded hill extending like a calic into the harbor. It was file first anvivrit landinark si,dited by the early vxplorers who sailed into Hingbain Ifitri)(r, and probably the Qrst spot lauded upon.

Before leaving this vicilghborhood, it will be well to take a look at tile islands. The tide h~ high, and it row about the bay will be a fine thing this bright fall aftei'llooll.

Taking a boat, then, at Crow Point, wo will poll oNor first to
RAGGED IRLAND, tile %VC9terInIlOSt of tile group 1611(11 tile
shore. This island, well-ranied, is a very picturesque ittass of
~,)T, ~ - 12
178 History of Hingham

rock, and the scarlet and yellow of the sumacs, and other wild shrubs, form a fiery contrast to the deep olive green of the savins here and there among the ledges. At half-tide, the rusty underwater coloring of the rocks of these islands, supplemented by the dark, yellowish-russet tints of the rockweed, which only grows submerged on the ledges, is very interesting in an artistic point, of view.

East of this lies SARAH'S SAILOR'S or SAYLES'S) ISLAND. This is also the summit of a great rocky ledge rising up from the water, and clothed with sumacs and other shrubs.

Towards the bead of the harbor, hardly a mile south, lies BUTTON ISLAND. This little heap of rock and gravel, hearing no trees nor shrubs and but little glass, is not worth visiting. But one other remains to be noticed, LANGLEE'S ISLAND (in early days IBROOK'S), Which is a beautiful spot. Steep ledges surround it, except for small intervals, where there are gravelly beaches, upon one of which stands a fine linden. Shrubs abound upon the uplands. It will be, in a few years, yet more beautiful than now, thanks to the enlightened taste of the gentleman who owns it. Ile has planted many small trees, which will eventually cover it with forest growth, as wits originally the case when the country was settled, and restore it to the condition in which all the islands of Boston harbor should be. Had they been kept so for the past two centuries, file forces of erosion would not have succeeded in practically sweeping some of them from the face of the earth, and destroying the content of all. Richard Ibrook, who probably owned this island very early, came in 1635.

As we low ashore again, those few light clouds in the west are taking upon themselves from the declining sunbeams colors yet more gorgeous than those of the fall foliage, and we have a fine opportunity of admiring one of those superb sunsets for which Hingbain harbor is justly celebrated. Glowing, as it does, over the waters of the bay and across the western hills, it presents a Splendor which no locality in the world can surpass.

Although twilight is short at this season, there is yet time for a ride around the Shore before Clio gleaming is upon as; and as we left our horses here, let us mount at once and follow the road around the north side of Crow Point, and then the beach along the foot of the fine hill next west of it, the bank of which is bordered by a heavy growth of Lindens, Canoe Birches (very rare hereabouts), and other trees. This is PLEASANT HILL. Beyond it are PLANTER's FIELDS, or PLANILS, and another of those DAMDE MEDDOWES Which our ancestors rescued from the inroads of the sea wherever they could do so to advantage. Between the southerly slopes of Crow Point and Pleasant Hill, and Walton's Cove on the south, is -it slight eminence called TUCKER'S or TucKER's HILL. John Tucker was an early settler, coming in 1635.

The beach west of Pleasant ILE is GARDNER'S or GARNETT'S (GARNER'S) BEACH.

            Ancient Landmarks I 19

Beyond Pleasant Bill is the mouth of WEYMOUTH Back RIVER here all arm of the sea. At this point is HUET'S (HEWITT'S) COVE, which with the land in its vicinity including the localities formerly known Us THE WIGWAM and THE CAPTAIN"; TENT, is a

beautiful and romantic spot. The cove itself is in indentation
formed by it low rocky point making out to Clio A% westward, the
opposite shore being. a steel) lodge or precipice, the upper part
covered with canoe birches, oaks, and other forest trees- in pro
fusion. The Telling contour of the country here, embracing
pretty open fields, alternating with savin and linden thickets
extending to the verge of the beaches, gives a charming variety to the
landscape, while the water view is all that could be

During the siege of Boston by Washington, the English found themselves in sore straits for forage. Learning of some barns well filled with hay upon Grape Island, which lies off HUET'S Cove, the British commander ordered a foraging party to proceed in boats to the island and secure the supplies. The expedition, however, was discovered, and the militia of Hingbain and Vicinity were soon on the march down Lincoln Street to HUET'S Cove, it being feared that the enemy intended landing there. Finding, however, that their objective point was Grape, Island, a detachment was seat off which set the barns on tire before the English could land. Being disappointed in their object, the enemy returned to Boston without attempting a landing.

Among the fields at Huet's Cove is a small tract formerly known as PATIENCE'S GARDEN. Patience Pomctick, the last Indian squaw living in Hingbain, used to gather roots and herbs here, and sell them to the townspeople. ]a later days, and early in this century ail eccentric colored woman called "Black Patty " Used to visit Patience's Garden, and haunt the territory adjoining Huet's Cove. Upon one occasion Patty was collecting herbs there, when, happening to glance seaward, attracted by a peculiar and unaccustomed sound, the poor wretch's blood was frozen by what she saw. A dark, uncouth looking monster was rapidly approaching over the water, snorting black Smoke with a Spiteful sound, the

waves of the bay forming, behind it, and sparks of fire mingling
with the smoke which it belched forth. Patty waited to see no
more, but rushed over the fields and into the first house that she
could reach, screaming that the Fiend himself was close behind
her. The monster which poor Patty lead taken for the Enemy
of Souls was the first Hingham steamboat coming into the harbor Further
up Weymouth River, all(] just before reaching the bridge over which the
Hingham and Quincy turnpike ran, there is a high, partly wooded
promontory which Until within [I Year or two belonged to the town, and is

The old building nearest, the bridge, on the north Side of the road was, in the days of the turnpike, the TOLL HOUSE From

180 History of Hingham

here a sharp ride over Lincoln Street will take as into the village about dusk. Until within twenty years this street only extended west a short distance beyond Crow-Point Lane, and file first sottiers who laid it out called it BROAD-COVE STREET, It runs along the northerly base of SQUIRREL HILL, near its junction with CrewPoint Lane. The view from this hill almost equals that front Otis Hill. At the foot of Squirrel Hill were formerly CLAY PITS, where there were brick kilns

The name of Broad-Cove, Street was changed to Lincoln Street in honor of Major-General Benjamin Lincoln, of the army of the Revolution. The GENERAL LINCOLN MANSION, On the corner of this ,Old North Streets, is still occupied by his descendants. A portion of it is upwards of two hundred and twenty years old.

About a dozen years since it became necessary to construct a sewer on Alain Street, to relieve the part of the road South of the Old Meetiing- House of surplus surface water. The line of this Sewer was laid out so as to run along in front of the hill upon which stands the Doi-by Academy; a part of which hill, as elsewhere stated, was cut down, and the roadway lowered to the present level. Tile rising ground thus removed was originally part of tile burial-hill, and Alain Street here passes over where the edge of tile slope originally was.

Upon digging to build this Sewer several skeletons were unearthed, which were identified as those of the Acadian prisoners who died in Hingham; for a number of those unhappy exiles were sent here after their expatriation. Some of them lived for a time in it small one-story house which stood oil Broad-Cove Street, oil land which is now the southeast corner of Lincoln Street and Burditt Avenue. In this house also were quartered, early in the Revolutionary War, Lieutenant Haswell and his young daughter, who was afterwards the celebrated Mrs. Rowson. Mr. Haswell was a British officer, and collector of the customs at Hull, for the King. He was for some time a prisoner-of-war in Hingham am] elsewhere.

oil Lincoln Street, at the easterly Side of the road, and at tile summit of the hill north of Fountain Square, stands a large, old fashioned house which was, sixty years Since, WILDER'S TAVERN, and yet earlier, HE ANDREWS TAVERN. There used to be a post in front of the porch, on which was a large golden ball.

Another crisp, bright October morning, --
              11 when the quiet light

          Succeeds the keen and frosty night

and what could be finer than this for further explorations among the landmarks ? Let us start, therefore, in the direction of the WEST END The house next west of the General Lincoln mail

Sion in old times SETH CUSHING'S INN. Going up North
            Ancient Landmarks. 181

Street, we are all the time moving parallel with the TOWN BROOK, which rises in Bare Swamp and flows down, crossing South Street at Clio West Hingham depot, thence easterly through the centre of THE SWAMP, - a fresh meadow bounded by North, West, and South Streets, and probably extending origirially to the cove which is now the mill pond, - to its outlet in tire last-named locality. The bridge across the brook, connecting North and South Streets at the point near the Methodist church, is known .is GOOLD's BRIDGE. That one where these two streets approach each other at the cast end of The Swamp, is MARSH'S BRIDGE A short distance further west an old way called BURTON'S LANE runs north from North Street toward Squirrel Hill.

At the last bend of North Street is it small hill, it spur of Baker's Hill, known as MARS BILL. One of the Oldest houses in Hingham stands upon it.

After turning into Beat Street, BAKER'S HILL rises on the right hand. It is one of the largest and highest hills in town, and there is it superb view from the toll. It derived its name from the residence, at its foot, of Nicholas Baker, who with his brother Nathaniel came with Rev. Peter Hobart in 1635.

Beal Street, formerly THE TURNPIKE between Hingham and Quincy, and the direct road to Boston until Lincoln Street was cut through, was in early times GOOLD'S (GOLD'S) LANE, and ran north until it reached the first hill. Then it divided into three blind lanes. One led westward to Great Lots ; one northwestward to 'the same locality ; and (110 Was SQUIRREL- HILL LANE, which runs from Beal Street, north of Baker's Hill, to Squirrel Hill. Edward Cold, from whom this lane took its name, was an early settler. lie ws known a as "the pailmaker."

A few rods from the junction of Beal with North Street, HOCKLEY LANE runs west from Beal Street to HOCKLEY. Where this lane begins is HOCKLEY CORNER ( another Hockley Corner is on Fort-Hill Street). Hockley is an extensive district, consisting of hundreds of acres of rolling country embracing fine. meadows, woodlands, and a beautiful water front oil Weymouth Back River. It is one of the most attractive localities in Hingham. TUCKER'S SWAMP is situated north of Hockley Lane. In former days the cutting and drying of peat for fuel was quite an industry lit this place. There were about twenty-five buildings their standing in the vicinity, used for the strage of dried peat.

Near the foot of the lane is HOCKLEY RUN, Which empties into the river at BEAL'S COVE it a pretty indentation here TWO other small runs flow into the river nearby. The old crossing, known in early days as LONDON BRIDGE was not far distant.

The territory north, about Lincoln and Beal streets, including ALMSHOUSE and TOWN FARM, was formerly denominated GREAT LOTS. STOWELL'S HILL is oil Weymouth River, near the Alms House.

Returning to Beal Street, and crossing fill, head of theswamp,
182 History of Hingham

over West Street, we turn to the right into Fort-Hill Street, which passes over FORT HILL, about a quarter of a mile farther southwest. The old name was NICHOLS'S HILL, until, ill the time of King Philip's War, a fort was built upon it for protection against Indian attacks and tile name was changed to Fort Hill. When the top of the hill was cut off, the lines of the old fort were obliterated. Near the end of this street, and close to the Weymouth line, is FRESH RIVER, -,I little stream rising in Bare Swamp and emptying into Weymouth Back River. A small branch of this flows from the neighborhood of Natty Hill across Hobart Street. The bridge across Fresh River at Port-Bill Street is WEST BRIDGE. The one over it oil French Street is FRENCH'S BRIDGE At the corner of Fort Hill and French streets is a ,small sheet of water through which this little stream flows, called ROUND POND.

New Bridge Street, which runs in It southerly direction from Fort-Hill Street, crosses Fresh River, passes through 13ARE SWAMP, and skirts. the easterly side of GREAT HILL, which lies between it and Hobart Street. Bare Swamp was, like all meadows found already cleared of forest by the early settlers, very valuable to them, for the reason that such lands afforded forage for their cattle. In their system of valuation meadow property was rated highest, corn lands next, and woodlands least. How the present estimate would reverse this if a portion of the magnificent primeval forest which they found were yet standing I Bare Swamp whom they came, was found to have been cleared by the beavers, and received its name from its being bare of trees. Those animals, evidently plenty up to that time, had by their dams across the watercourses, overflowed the vicinity. This had, perhaps, been the case for centuries, at least for so long a period that the trees had died out and fallen, and meadow land was the natural consequence.

(,rest Hill is rather a barren height, as are most of the small
eminences about it ; but interspersed among these are various
little green and fertile meadows. Some of them are under culti
vation, others growing up to woods, which it is to he bolted will
advance III) the slopes of the hills, thus increasing their value
and enhancing their beauty. The neighborhood is of great in
terest to the geologist, exhibiting as it does, remarkable traces
of the occupancy of this region by the great glacier. PIGEON
PLAIN is a Sandy tract of ],in(] between the Great Hill district
and High Street. It was in early days a brand; of the wild

South of Hobart Street, and between it and High Street, lies HF51LOCK SWAMP. At the corner of French and High streets is NUTTY (or NUTTER's) HILL, 80 called because the early settlers found walnuts there in great abundance.

Ile vend High Street is Ward Street. The portion of this road, OLD WARD STREET, which used to be a, highway running nearly

            Ancient Landmarks. 183

due south to Queen Ann'% Turnpike, is discontinued, although even now it is to delightful bridle path through the thick woods. Where it crosses a small branch of Plymouth River is a peculiarly shaped field always known as OX-BOW MEADOW present part of Ward Street between its junction with Old Ward Street and Cushing Street, Used to be called Fox LANE. ROOT'S BRIDGE and ROOT'S HILL are near the junction referred to.

Riding through the pleasant old deserted Ward Street, we reach
Whiting Street, formerly ANN's TURNPIKE (or " Quean "
Ann's Turnpike). This name,, sad to say, was not bestowed in
honor of good Queen Anne, but was derived from the sobriquet
of a far less reputable individual, who kept a tavern of Unsavory
reputation upon it in former days.

This street enters Hingham from Weymouth, and makes its exit at QUEEN ANN'S CORNER, just east of Accord Pond, at the point where it meets Main Street. On Whiting Street, near the Weymouth line, is a rocky ridge across the street, called THE DEVIL'S BACK. It is said that whatever may be done !it the way of covering this ridge, or lowering it by blasting, it always in time reappears. Whether the inhabitants of an earlier generation considered this peculiarity as evincing Undue activity on the part of Satan in making travel in that vicinity more laborious, or whether they surmised that the " Ward Witches " had a hand in the mischief, instigated thereto by the Evil One, they bestowed upon the ridge this unsanctified name. The territory certainly must have been Within the jurisdiction of those " Ward Witches," who were lady members of a family which formerly dwelt in a part of the town not very far away, and who were popularly believed to practise the Black Art.

Passing southeast over this old turnpike we come to a deep
ravine through which flows, in a northerly direction, an active
little stream called PLYMOUTH RIVER. Further oil, a branch of
the same crosses the road. This " river ' " now but a brook in
size, received its name from the fact of its being oil the way to
Plymouth, as it crossed the OLD INDIAN PATH which was in this
vicinity, and which was the only road which the early settlers
had between Boston and Plymouth.

It least be noted that the little streams called 11 rivers " in Hingham, were doubtless in aboriginal days much wider and deeper than now The denudation of the country by the extirfation of the heavy forests, with the consequent desiccation of lands which then held in their sponge- like soils, mulched by thousands of generations of fallen leaves, volumes of water vastly in excess of what falls ,poll or remains in them now, has resulted in the dwarfing of the once good-sized streams, and the dirninution of file annual rainfall ; and the. dry and starveling woodlands (as compared with the primeval forest), cannot retain the moisture necessary to the formation of rivers of any size.

A short distance southeast of the easterly branch of Plymouth
184 History of Hingham

River, on Whiting Street, we come upon Cushing Street, crossingthe old turnpike. We will turn to the right and proceed a few rods until we strike Derby Street, which leads from 'the intersection of Gardner with Whiting Street, westward into Weymouth. This country is all in the old FOURTH DIVISION Ancient landmarks are plentiful in this corner of Hingham, although many of them can with difficulty be distinguished, owing to the country being now extensively covered with Woods Where formerly were farms. Consequently, in most cases their location merely can be pointed out.

South of Derby, and immediately west of Gardner Street, lies HUCKLEBERRY PLAIN, famous for the abundance of the fruit from Which it derives its name. West of this, and south of Derby Street tire the FARM HILLS. Between Derby and Abington Street and Rockland, is MAST SWAMP, where formerly grow very large pines, suitable for masts of vessels. North of Derby Street, and between it and Whiting Street, are the SMOOTH HILLS. To the south again are the THREE HUNDRED ACRES, a tract once helonging to Madam Derby. Derby Street was Dinned in honor Of this lady. Just before this street enters Weymouth, it passes through MUSQUITO PLAIN, 80 called from the supposed super abundance of these insects.

Retracing our course over Derby Street, we will turn into Cushing Street and proceed almost due north. Between this street, Whiting Street, and Plymouth River, is BREAKNECH HILL, How Hot a specially perilous descent where it invades the highway, however steel) it may formerly have been East of Cushing Street, at this point, is HOOP-POLE HILL, whore great quantities of trees were cut in the days when the mackerel fishery was in its prime, to furnish hoops for the barrels made at the harbor for packing the fish. Woods How cover nearly all the hills in this romantic and almost deserted portion of the town. A branch of Plymouth River crosses and recrosses the road along the base of these hills six times. The next point of interest is MULLEIN HILL, a Sharp ridge lying on the east side of the road. The extensive growth of mullein in this localily in past days gave this hill its name. The somewhat abrupt ranges next crossed, and extending west of the road, are those of the HIGH HILLS.

The country all about here has a peculiarly broken surface, and the Woods covering it are principally oak.

WHITE-OAK NECK lies between Plymouth River, just before it
enters Cushing's Pond, and EEL RIVER, a little stream which
flows north, crossing Cushing Street, and also emptying into this
pond. The road turns abruptly to the eastward here, and crosses
the southerly extremity Of CUSHING'S POND, a pretty sheet of
water lying, among wooded hills, upon the banks of which have
been carried on some of the most noted industries of the town.
Here is the BUCKET FACTORY, where for generations were made
the celebrated "Hingham buckets " which were sold, far and
            Ancient Landmarks. 185

wide, all over the country. It is proper to state, however, that it was the manufacture of buckets by hand, at little shops elsewhere in town earlier than tile establishment of this factory, that had procured for Hingham the sobriquet of " loicket Town." Here also were made the " Jacobs Hatchets " esteemed for their excellence and exported all over the world in days gone by. Alas, alas ! how the mercantile, manufacturing, and maritime enterprises of Hingham have holed away, never to reappear. The Thomas Iron Foundry at Thomas's Pond on Weir River, the Eagle Foundry at the harbor, the Bucket Factory and Ratchet Works at Cushing's Pend, the Cordage Factory, the Iron Works

I go
and Factory :it Trip-Hammer Pond,- the productions of all these
various industries were justly appreciated both in this country
and abroad, and none more so than those of the Stephenson Scale
Works. The shipyards of Hingham -- Hall's, Souther's, and

flag. The
fishing interests of the town employed a large fleet of fine schooners, well
commanded and manned by hundreds of her stalwart
young men. These interests built up more than one fortune,
largo for those days.

The house near Alain Street was one of the old inns of earlier days. It was known as BRIGADIER CUSHING'S TAVERN. Reaching Main Street, we will turn to the right. The first hill on the road, going south, was in early days called MAYSE'S Or MAY'S, n0W LIBERTY POLE HILL. The country south of this locality, to the town line, is called LIBERTY PLAIN,

At the foot of the southerly slope of this hill, a blind hole leads west through the woods, towards Eel River. This is EEL, RivER LANE. The gradual rise oil Alain Street from this point, south, is called DIG-AWAY HiLL (in some old papers DIDGEWAY). Further on, to the west of the road, at Gardner Street, is WHITE OAK PLAIN. Half-way between Gardner Street and the town line, at GARDNER'S BRIDGE, Main Street crosses BEECHWOODS RIVER, sometimes called MILL RIVER, the little stream flowing northeast from Accord Pond, which unites with others near the centre of the township to form WEITZ RIVER.

On the town line where Main Street meets 11 Queen Ann's Turn
pike , " now Whiting Street, is QUEEN ANN'S CORNER, and a few
rods to the west is AccorD POND, from which Hingham draws its
water supply. It is a beautiful sheet of water, of about three
fourths of a mile in length, lying within the limits of three
towns, - Hingham, Rockland,and Norwell (formerly South Scituate The
easterly shore is bordered by open country, the west
Bide generally heavily wooded. The forest in this vicinity is
largely composed of the Scarlet Oak, and at this season is in a
blaze of brilliant coloring

It is a singular fact that of all the ponds of any considerable size in Hingham, but one is a natural pond. All the rest, Cushing's, Fulling-Mill, Trip-Hammer, Thomas's, and the Mill

186 History of Hingham.

pond, are artificial. According to one tradition Accord Pond received its name from the following irennistanecs.

A treaty with the Indians was about to Ile concluded by tile inhabitants of the adjacent country, and it was decided to assemble for the purpose at the point where the three towns of Abington, Scituate, and Hingham at that time met, somewhere near the middle of the pond which lay within the limits of these three townships. The conference was held in winter, on tile ice, and was entirely successful, tile! questions at issue being settled amicably. On account of the happy accord which manifested itself between the contracting parties, the sheet of water received from that time the name of Accord Pond.

There are other traditions of similar import, but this one seems the most interesting.

One other large natural pond was within tile original limits of Hingham, - Scituate Pond ; but it lies in Cohasset, which town, as previously stated, was set off from Bingham in 1770.

A small Stream Called SLOUGH RIVER flows from the Farm Hills across Gardner Street, and empties into the northern extremity of Accord Pond.

Oil Main Street, a long house, almost the last building in Hingham before reaching the town line, was in the early part of the century SIVRET's TAVERN. The old country taverns in those days were vastly more numerous than they are now, when the railroads covering tile country have rendered them superfluous.

And now that bright yellow sunset over there, beyond the Blue Hills, indicates a fine day for to-morrow.

This bright morning follows appropriately in the wake of the past few perfect days ; and now let us start for a stroll at the old cove itself. From the Mill bridge, passing west through North Street (the old TOWN STREET of the early settlers) we come within a few rods to where the road bends slightly to the right. Here, where the millpond contracts to half its previous width, there was in tile early days of the town, a second mill, and mill-dam across to the cemetery hill. A short distance farther west is Ship Street on the right, in old times Fish STREET. At this spot the early settlers with Rev. Peter Hobart landed from their bouts.

The old houses on either corner of Ship and North Streets were formerly the WATERs TAVERNS Ali old house next to the one of these two on the westerly corner, was tile NYE TAVERN. Here is where certain British officers, quartered in town as prisoners of war during the Revolution, were brought for their meals. Tile Old house next west of the Nye Tavern, standing on rising ground, MANSION, was tile home of the

            Ancient Landmarks. 187

Rev. Dr. Gay, long the celebrated pastor of the First Parish. Immediately west of this stands a building which, now enlarged and rebuilt, was in its original condition the home of the Rev. John Norton, the second pastor of the First Parish.

Opposite this spot, South Street caters North Street diagonally. This road also was termed TOWN STREET when laid out by tile first settlers. At its very beginning it crosses the Town Brook by MAGOON'S BRIDGE

Passing oil a few rods more, we conic to Alain Street, which runs south from the. railroad depot. Oil the easterly corner of Cottage Street, which eaters North Street opposite Alain, stands the Cushing House, formerly the UNION HOTEL and earlier yet, LITTLE & MOREY'S TAVERN. This was a noted old inn in its day. Next east of it is a very old house which was one of tile " GARRISON-HOUSER" Of the time Of King Philip's War.

Main Street crosses the Town Brook by BROAD BRIDGE The
old bridge, notwithstanding its name, was formerly hardly wide
enough for two trams to pass abreast, and a watering place for
horses and cattle existed by the roadside where it crossed the
brook. It is related that a worthy citizen, hurrying in a violent
thunder strom to fetch tile doctor, was obliged to wait for a flash
of lightning to show him the bridge, which in the darkness was
quite invisible. There is no locality in Hingham Of which tile
name has a more familiar settled than that of the 11 ]'road Bridge."
Very near it, oil both sides of the road, stood many of the shops
where the town wits and celebrities used in the old time to
gather in tile winter evenings to talk over news and politics,
crack jokes, and tell stories, seat(,, of which have come down to
posterity with all their pristine savor. Pertinent to this subject
may be a little circumstance which took place -it a fine colonial
mansion bard by, where dwelt in former days a, gentleman of the,
old Hingham school, Squire Blank. "onto French officers who
had served with General Lincoln under Washington, were travelling in this
country, and cattle to Hingham to pay their respects
to the old general. Squire Blank gave It soiree in their honor
and considered himself in courtesv bound to converse ill French
instead of the vernacular. Consequently, after welcoming his
foreign guests, lie launched into a general conversation with file
most prominent Frenchman, who stood gracefully bowing and
smiling, and using the most agonized endeavors to comprehend
the Squire's French. At last, in despair of coming at his enter
tainer's meaning, lie broke out deprecatingly but vigorously, :Old
in the Squire's mother tongue, " For Heaven's sake, Mr. Munk,
speak English if you can. I "

Oil North Street, facing Broad Bridge, where the Catholic Church now is, there stood until recently a line old colonial mansion, having tapestried balls, and with some of the doorpanels decorated by sketch" painted by the celebrated Madam


          Which stood on North street opposite Broad Bridge.

                  Derby, -- the old Thaxter House At the time of the Revolution Mr. Elisha Leavitt, who was Coo it was owned and occupied by

a bitter Tory. It was thought by I tile patriots that lie suggested to
the British commander during the sege of Boston, the sending (if
the expedition to Grape island for tile purpose of securing for
age. I'D punish him for this, a 11,01) assembled and started for his
house, with tile idea, perhaps, of destroying the mansion, or possibly even,
of offering him personal violence. lie got wind of
their Corning' however, all(] had a barrel of run rolled out of his
cellar in front of the house, with other refreshments, such is
crackers and choose, for file rank and file of the mob, while cake
and wine were provided in the house for ill(, gentlemen leading
tile populace. Upon the arrival of the crowd , they were invited
to bell) themselves to the refreshments, while the gentlemen
aforesaid were received by Mrs. Leavitt ill elegant dress, and
urged to walk in and partake of the wine. This unexpected and
politic Courtesy disarmed the fury of the Whigs, and the threat
ened violence was drowned in good cheer

Just beyond South Street the road formerly divided. The principal roadway , came over the low hill upon which the DERBY ACADEMY stands, tile westerly portion of which has since been cut down. The other road ran along the foot of this hill. Between the two roads oil the high land stood the post-office, and one or two other buildings. Several old gravestones also were

            Ancient Landmarks. ISO

there, as the slope had boon in tile early days a part of the burial ground, and the FIRST MEETING-HOUSE of the early settlers with

          stood in front of the present site of the Derby

Academy. It was probably a log house, and them was a belfry
upon it, containing a bell. It was fortified by palisades.

When the street was lowered to ill(! present level by cutting
down the hill and removing the buildings upon it, many graves
were found in and about the roadway, containing the bones of
some of the First settlers. These were reverently gathered together and
reinterred within the breastworks of the OLD FoRT,
which is a circular earthwork on the summit of the burial hill,
back of the Academy. This fort was built to command the approach by
water, either of Indians in their canoes during King
Philip's War, or in anticipation of' a possible attack at the time of
tile troubles with the Dutch at New York. It is kept in a fine
state of preservation, and a plain granite shaft in tile, centre was
erected by the town to tile memory of the first settlers. Aioulid
its enter slope are set man.%, very quaint and ancient giavestones,
unearthed here and there in tile process of repairs or improve
ment of this beautiful cemetery In the airan-entent and adorn
ment of this resting-ptace of the dead, the, taste displayed all([ the
great work done by Dr. R. T. P Fisku and Mr. Joh;i Todd, the
.gentlemen who have had it in charge during, the past fifty years,
have been in the hi0iest dc~,rce creditable and honorable to them.

In this cemetery are interred sonic of the most distinguished of Americans, as well as those men who elime from over the Sea to make Ilingliain their home. Ilere sloop the long, line of eminent pastors of the First Parish, who preached ill ill(,, Old M(Tting lionse yonder, --- Hobart, Gay, Norton, Ware, Richardson, Lincoln. Many families whose inembors have attained to high position in the potitical, military, professional, or lov;iiiess circles of the republic bring their dead here to the hoine of their ancestors, to slumber in the beautifully wooded hills or valleys of this lovely spot.

Many a soldier, frolil the 101lerld Collinollidillp, all nrilly to file riflemen MID Stood shoulder to shoolder ill tile line of battle, await~ the halit reveille, lwlo. Many :1 sailor, Aillo folt(lid mider "Old Clary " behind tile eannon oil the high seaq, is roatil to start 111) from this gi oilld when " kit hands oil dvell: I " is piped for the List time. The, baid) of Major- Oolloral l"clij:111611 Lincoln, of the Revohitiollarv Arniv, i,; hert'. John Mbioll Andrew, the " "rent ANar governor" of ~Iiassaclhll.,etls 11111-ile, the Rebollioll, ics ts livic by his nionlioneld. The Shalt to those who died bvIalid or st'a ill the war for Cho l7nion crowns oil(, of thesi, IK-loilitid heikdlls.

Oil Main Sireot, in frolit of tile ellintlive to tile colneier v and on it heig it above the l"Wil, tile Illoolsonle retaining wall of which is rivalled with ampelopsk, Do", bviodihil in odinon coloriw, is Till,, OLD NIFi,.,r1NG- Il0lJsP. of ill(' I"irst Pirish, now in tile two hundred and eighth year of its VXis(CECC. Staodiitl,~ far apart Flom and

190 History of Hingham.

above all other buildings, and embowered in fine trees, it is too Well known to need description here. In simple, homely grandeur it towers there, a century older than tile republic its self. If it could speak so as to be heard by mortal ears, what might it not reveal of the dead and of the living, of tile story of the past! But to those who love Hingham and her history, it has a thousand tongues which are never silent.

Main Street, as far as PEAR-TREE HILL, Which is tile Steep bluff at the beginning of the Lower Plain, was, in the earliest times, known as BACHELOR's ROWE, or BACHELOR STREET.

The salt marshes cast of the road, below Pear-Tree Hill, are tile HOME MEADOWS.

Having surmounted Pear-Tree Hill, we are upon tile LOWER PLAIN, which is a tract of mainly level country extending South as far as Tower's Bridge, on Main Street. But we will leave this street and take Leavitt Street eastward. A large, low building on the corner, under a noble buttonwood-tree, was, in former days, LEWIS'S INN. Tile large, old-fashioned building east of it was Once tile Old ALMSHOUSE.

Leaving the Agricultural Hall upon the left, we soon come to Weir River, here crossed by LEAVITT'S BRIDGE. A short distance further oil, a Way is reached winding off to the right and South, which is PoPE's LANE, or POPE'S HOLE. At tile first turn on this lane are the CLUMP BAR,;, known also to the boys of past generations as PLUMB BARS. This is evidently a corruption, as they derived the name from being, in former times, near a clump of trees When there were but few trees in the vicinity The country thereshouts had not then grown up to woodlands, but was devoted to tillage or pasturage. Between this lane and Weir River lies ROCKY MEADOW. Turning to the eastward, the way leads into thick woods, in a rocky, rolling country, and among these, oil the right side of the lane, is the wild and romantic ledge known as INDIAN ROCK.

Nearly opposite this rock is CHUBBUCK'S WELL, and the cellar
of CHUBBUCK'S HOUSE, which house itself was demolished in 1759.
This old well, now filled to the brim with leaves and debris, yet
shows the carefully built wall, as good now as when constructed
by Thomas Chubbuck, who was an early settler in 1634.

Further down the lane there is a rocky place in the woods called THE HOGPEN.

The lane, turning westward, crosses TRIP HAMMER POND by a causeway. This pond is formed by Weir River, which flows through it. There were formerly iron works here, with a triphammer, and also a shingle factory.

Returning to Leavitt Street (the part of which leading into Third Division Woods was the old THIRD DIVISION LANE) We will stop to look into JAMES LANE, now so overgrown with woods that it cannot be distinguished, except by its location, from other cartways into the forest. It leads to JAMES HILL, in Cohasset

            Ancient Landmarks.

Near its junction with Leavitt Street is PINE-LOG HILL. The IRON MINE (so called) is here at the corner of the lane, although indistinguishable ill the undergrowth It is hard to say now what gave this name to the locality. Near it is BLACK SNARE H ILL. DISMAL SWAMP is northeast of the Iron Mine, and extends into Cohasset. Close by is, or rather was, the famous FOREST SANCTUARY. This was air open grove of noble pines, the growth of centuries, - the ground beneath them being carpeted with a thick layer of fragrant pine needles, with gray arid mossy rocks here arid there. The name was it fitting one, and well expressed the quiet grandeur of the natural beauty of this, remote spot. But it was deemed desirable to sweep away these superb trees in order to

          "coin their blood for drachmas,"

and Forest Sanctuary has accordingly long been a thing of the past.

We are now in the THIRD DivisioN WOODS, which extend far
and wide, over hill, dale, arid swamp, arid form probably the nearest
approach to the primeval wilderness which call be found
within fifteen miles of Boston. They spread over into Cohasset,
and far southward. The deciduous part of these woodlands is
largely composed of various species of the oak family ; the ever
green portion principally of the white pine, although many other
species of both classes of trees abound. At the side of the old
Third Division Road, oil the line between Hingham arid Cohasset,
is a mark which was called the STONE BOUNDS. When the Select
men of the two towns "make their rounds," they are popularly
and mysteriously supposed to reach this mark at high noon, arid
according to the ancient custom "crack a bottle " .91pinst it.
Other landmarks in Third Division Woods are Josh LEAVITT'S
BARS, oil the right side of the way near the road to Beechwoods.
Near by is Tuoui,it. Bunn's 11u,L, sit called from a Mr. Burl., n ho
owned land at its foot. GLASS ROCK was on the line of the

Division, fitr south.

Now let its return again to Leavitt. Strect, and, refrochilg our
fornior course, turn to the eastward into TtTIZKIIY HILL LIlNE,
which leads ill) over threp quite elevated eminences, until wo reach
tile pl'illCipal 110i'lit Of TURKEN HILL. It is a mile to this
summit. At tire first, bend, to the ril.-lit of the buic, are the re
inains of what was once it IMP, or enormous bowlder, nbout
twelve feet high, with a roundod tell slophil, off qiiiootltl%l to the
south. This, Was GREAT ROCK. Upon this Sillo0ill surface an
eccentric individual hall clikelled in larIge letters this odd inscrip
tioll : -

      Wlien wild in wood, tbe tilikod savalve ran,

      Lazell, Low, Llninl-, Lane, Umi~, Lincoln,

      Ifersev, Leavitt, Jacol~,, King, Jones and 1,pragne, Stenuned the wild torient (if a barbaious alue,

      And were the first invadv,~ of Ibis collotly

      Front tile Island of Gleftt 131 it3ill, in 1635.~?

192 History of Hingham.

A few feet away from the above, was also cut the following:






July 4th, 1828."

It was regarded as a great curiosity, and would have been more and more interesting- as time passed on. But, unhappily, in the year 1833 certain persons considered that the only value in the great rock was the handful of dollars which it would bring for building purposes, and it was blown to pieces and sold for a pittance.

As one mounts higher and higher Upon this bill, or rather Upon this series of heights, the view in all directions grows more and more beautiful, Until, when the top of Turkey Hill is reached, it may be called sublime.

Look at it now in this red October sunset ! To the east oil the horizon lies the deep blue line of the broad Atlantic, which sweeps round toward the north. North and northwest are the headlands and islands of the bay. In the extreme distance in this last direction the sun's rays flame upon the roofs and towers of the city. In the nearer space they are reflected in golden light from the placid waters of the harbor. Weir River shines between the green meadows, almost at our feet, like a silver thread. The Blue Hills lore misty in the far west. Villages and houses speck the landscape here and there. That great hill to the southeast is SCITUATE HILL.

Now torn southwards. There are brilliant woodlands in the other directions, but what a glory of scarlet, yellow, and green from the painted forests that stretch away to the southern horizon's Vd1oQ ]lure ! This Surpasses any other Hingham view.

it, the War of 1812 people came to this hill oil a sorrowful June
day to see a famous naval duel. The British frigate 11 Shannon "
ho~l been cruisim, off Boston harbor, and the captain sent a clial
leiiL,e in to Captain Lawrence, who commanded the frigato 11 Cliesa
peako," thea 13 ing at the navy yard, her crew litivinz heen paid off.
The American officer gathered :is good a crew as could be obtained from
the sailors in port, and hurriedly set sail to onect the
enemy. The encounter was off Scituate, and was very sanguinary. In the
midst of it the bravo Lawrence fell, mortally
wounded. As they carried him below lie cried, " Don't give up
the, ship!" But, with his fall, the Americans ]lost heart, and
after a hopeless struggle they were forced to surrender. A sad and
wretched pageant for the spectators on Turkey Fill and all the shoree!

Turkey Hill lies mostly in Hlingham, but a part is in Cohasset.
Its name was bestowed on account of the early abundance of wild
turkeys there.

Ancient Landmarks- 193
leave the old way
In descending the hill at d out through the
- --cl. a -;,-ate r
and Va. o, I P1 - - -- lope till it reaches
dark pine woods, winding b We Come Out Of
STDF-HILL ROAD, foRorb" we will turn into
these charming Woods illso PASTURE, or TRE

and proceed toward C(basset, THE BATTERY liamo is
BATTERY, was near Sido-Ilill read. The origin Of tile
singular tongue of Hingliam territory

      There is a Very I

Obscure, into Collasset, and is known as
which e-.itends over hall a mile th and tapers Off

T HE 110MESTEADS. it is only a few rods it, Wid , to nothing at the railroad crossing at its east end. 11 The U olluesteads" Were the home bonds of certain of tile inhabitants, who,

, Coluesset was laid off fron, Hingham, petitioned to be
soon aftei ~o Ifingilain. 01,
allowed to have their lauds here re-arinexed I FADOW"', and the

the north side of East Street are the Tuni(EY Al

s the, road feel,, the South and ovcll)tu
little stream which crosse ally into Lyford's

ally flows under Larribert's Lane, emptying fill

-111LL RUN.
Liking River, is TURKEY o come back to where Side-11ill Road

Retracil)g our course, w this ~ullction once stood the BLACK
ends on East Street. Near I persons on their
IloRsE TAVERN, a famous resort for gunner, an,
way to or from [it'll, Ebenezer Beal was the old-time host Of this

Bull. et leads north from this point to Nantasket Beach.

Ifull Stre, ~ )art of "The Ifolliesteads" it
From the extreme northwesterly ad Cohasset. About

forins the boundary line between Hinghano a half a mile from the railroad crossing, Canterbury Street leads

, il-ne district called CANTERBURY,
away oil the left, throngl], in Canterbury Street

    The jilage on Hull Street, extending fro mino of TU01ANUC-,

to jerusale;z road, is known by the sillgrilar I
I it used to be one Of the roost quaint mid interesting localities

aln Its ol ld little houses, man y F Of them havin- the

along the shore. the rough nod ~Ocky
front door painted in most geotis lines,

    1, the quem. little nooks 1!1110(ir eorners here and t7irc, and the

rout which pervaded.the, Arlude place, and tile inhabitants,

salty BRv-Or c it, some respects Peculiar to EL village
whose characteristics wer re wrecks were not UDCORIMOH,
on the Now England coast whe
lent a picturesque ghtluOur to the lianalet and its people. Alas
all this is gone now, and t1le, charin Whicil once hung Over this

                orever. All is How 1 spick and span,"

              the easterly end, we

              d, wiaieli has been lai

              call , 41141), dowil thO $

              which, noythward,

              East street, whiell

mysterions locality is fled f tidy and humdrum.

    This day, which will be the last Of our wanderings among the

. ION-ely Indiall-sultimer
ancient landinarks, is far colder than tile
inorujug, and sharp
granted us Until this
days which hav'3 beer, I fortably war"'.

1-3 in order to MT com tr
riding Will be rece"sa id make oil" WRY wQS
-n back again to East Street, at

We will tui crossing tile railroad track and winditl~g
ward That, little read,
194 Ilistory of Mugham.

through a rocky, shrubby country and over high lands toward Rockland Street, is Weir Street, once the, old WEIR RIVER LANE. It, affords one of the beautiful and sequestered rides for which Hingham and Cohasset are famed, The tract of high land lying cast of it, now largely overgrown by woods, used to be GREAT PASTURE.

A little further on, around -I bond in the road, we come to CUSHING's BRIDGE, across Weir River. Many rule 11 wine-glaall chns " are scattered here and there in the ineadow by the river's banks, and by tire roadside, across the Stream, is the magnificent OLo ELM, Which was transplanted to this spot in 1729, three years before the birth of Washington. It is justly celebrated for it-, size and symmetry. All the territory in this vicinity, from Hall Street to Summer Street, has always been known as ROCKY NOOK.

The read, after passing a row of sturdy red oaks on the left, which must have been old tree-, when the Pilgrims hunlLd, reaches. a descent cut through it rough ledge and known as ItocKY HILL. Just bPyOlld tile hi"ll lands to the vi~llt is CHANUMILIN's SWA~tl?, ,and the little stroma running throul-1) the lileadow, parallel with the road and crossin', it at last, to elilpty into Weir River at tile foot of the Agricultural 806CWS fll`0111111S, is CHAMBERLIN'S RUN. It is nearly dry in summer. The large wbite house between it a rid the Agricultural Hall, now a private residence, was, in the old days, a tavern.

1,ust Street ends at Leavitt Street, passing over which west to Alain Street, we find ourselves in the middle of the village of "Hinghain Centre," open LOWER PLAIN, which eXtClide from Pear-Tree Hill to Tower's Bridge, as generally understood, although tile. town book giving the " narries of Streets. laries, plains, and bridges, as established by the tolvii May 7, 1827, and since," gives the lioundaries of Lower Plain, " Pleasant Street to PearTree Hill."

Main Street runs through the village, passing Trip, Cox~wN,
lying east of tire public li6rary, and oil the west side of the road
at this point a fine old-fnsbic~ued residence, which was in earlier
da ' vs it tavern. A short distance beyoud, opposite the Grand
ArmV Hall, is a deep depression on tire north side of the road,
containing a siriall sheet of water, now hardly more than a
puddle, which was often referred to in old deeds as BULL'S
POND. Ali ALxsHousE formerly stood on the site of the Grand
Army Hall.

After a turn to the westward, about a quarter of a mile further oil, the street turns abruptly South at COLD CORNER, and a few roils bevorld is entered by Hobart Street, near the~ corner of which ~as the old TowN PouNo, where Stray cattle were impounded. Half a mile or so beyond, the road crosses ,I little Stream by Townits Brunap. From this bridge to the south line

                  meneral title Of GREAT PLAIN,

              CLAD-TIDINGS ROCS,


            lit rise froin Tower's Brid.,oland Mail Street

      li~)',lilljtlic:tiils,~ttirgl)ol~tiong are more speci,,111 designated.


a few rod~ 11"volld, r1ins West to Weymouth. Just off this strec, i" kVilim-flon~'r; Poxi). Freo Street is opposite to Ifigh, (11 Maill 14tri , ef, and runs cast to Lasell Street. JuA north of Free St roet is -I Klaftll C ofleal height. called Citow HILL, formerly a famous resort for i;ie birds of that foatbor. Near by is Caow_

A short distance further south 'Main Strect crosses the stream coluing from Ullshing'K Pend by WILDER,

I s Bmeop. From Ilas
brid"'o to Mavse'N (Lilwr(y Pole) Hill, is GLAn-TiDINGS PLAIN.

After surniouliting anttlwr -is(' in tbo road, we find on (lie west ,-idi

    - tile church of the Second Parish.

This lillage i, I Hinghain, and the stree

        " .3 8ontl _t is vert, wide

au:I st rail- I it for a loil~

, distance, runniyl~ between extensive lio.derin',, lawris and line rows of trecs. 'Back of the houses on tile east side is a high granite ledge, known as CLAD TJJ)INI;~ 1?0VK.

Ill King lihilip's War, a famous hunter, John Jacob by name, lvent, out to 'hoot deer

. near where the church now stands. lie, is quilt to have fi-equently declared that lie never would allow hillisolf to lie taken alive by the Indians if lip encountpred t1win. Thel aniliushed and Shot him dead near this rock, and one tra~litioii snys I lat. his friends, overjoyed to find that lie had 6een Cilled coutri".

,ht, and riot, captured to be, tortured to denth ' I- I lie
sava,~es, calied it (ami-Tidings Rock. Another tradillo -
counts that it wollia", lost by her friends, was diseovemd 11 , v thern
floor fire tolo of the rock, and that from this circumstance the
ledge received its name. I
196 History of ffinghain.

We will turn eastward into South Pleasant Street, on the corner of which is a notable mansion, the ]ionic of the celebrated Rev. Daniel Shute, D.D., the first pastor of the Second Parish. The house is inhabited at the present day by one of his lineal descendants.

,South Pleasant Street is shaded by noble elms, set out by a former member of the old Cushing family ; whose lands, for generations, have extended far and wide in this section, and do still, for hereabouts the population is largely composed of Cushings.

FULLING-MILL POND is oil the right of the road, and at its outlet, which is a little stream called FULLING-MILL BROOK, once stood the FULLING MILL. The bridge across this brook is PACE'S BRIDGE. Betwben Paee's Bridge and Lasell Street, on the south side of the road, is LITTLE POND. This is it sluice-way of clear water which never freezes, and is on a piece of land of about three acres in extent, which was leased by the town to the Rev. Dr. Sbute for nine hundred and ninety-nine years! The hill beyond Page's Bridge is rightly named STONY HILL.

Now we will strike off into Laselll Street, a wild and pretty road, winding mostly through woods and between shrubby waysides.

On the easterly side of this street, about one eighth of a mile from Free Street, and just north of a rocky rise, there is in a thickly overgrown and woody field, the OLD LASELL FINE.

It seems probable that this ancient giant may be one of the few mighty trees yet remaining of the primeval forest. The shattered branches, rent by the storms of ages, would themselves form large trees, and the vast trunk, standing grimly amid its own ruins, presents but a picturesque suggestion of the old pine's earlier majesty.

ROCKY RUN is a little stream flowing Under the street.

Entering Union Street, we find that FEARING's BRIDGE crosses Weir River a short distance further northward, where it flows among willows. Now, turning about, we will keep to the southward over this street. At the first bend to the east, on rising ground, there is a gateway, through which a cart road leads to Tinp-IlAbimnn POND. A short distance beyond this gateway LONG BRIDGE LANE runs eastward from Union Street, winding through woods to granite quarries, and then crosses Beechwoods River. Near the entrance to this lane is COAL-PIT HILL. A few rods further south the road crosses Beechwoods River at SPRAGUE'S BRIDGE, and then passing the place where South Pleasant Street enters it, rises on to high land, and over what is called THE MOUNTAIN, or MOUNT BLUE ROAD, Mount Blue being in Norwell across the line.

The view west and south from this vicinity is very fine, and the drive over this road, thence over Beechwood Street into Cohasset, is a most delightful one.

            Anciod Landmarks. 197

Beechwoods is a very sparsely settled district, mostly beavily wooded with beech and oak, and with much of the beautiful

nily growing at intenais. inat rare and delicate shiub, tile

ink-berry, is not uncommon oil the open roadsides of Union Stl ect.

Retracing our way, and taking South Pleasant Street, we will turn south into Charlel; Strect by Stony Hill. Here is MASTBRIDGE PLAIN, MI)CIT formerly fine inasts were out from tile forest to equip the vessels building at the harbor. AIAST-BRIDCE MEADOWS lie along Beechwoods River. This little stream is crossed by Hunspy's BRIDGE. The noble height to the east is PRO~PECT HILL, the highest in Hingliani. The view from the summit is very extensive.

After crossingliersey's Bridge the road turns southward. To the westward is THE WIGWAAI, a most interesting localitv. Here dwelt the Indians in considerable numbers, and the sl~one fireplaces of their wigwains were standing within the remembrance of persons now living. Many of their implements of domestic use and of the chase have been found here.

There renutins but one part of Hingham which has not been explored for the landmarks. To cover that, we will start at Cold Corner and take Central Street, a road laid out within a few years, which near the Ropewalks runs over a imirsh which wis once known as CHRISTMAS POND. No trace now rerilains,however, which would indicate that a pond had ever existed here. Turning west into Ella Street, we soon pass over rising ground, the portion of Which oil the rilght, between Elm and Hersey street~, was called POWDER-11OUS'll, IIILL. A red POWDER HOUSE formerly stood upon it, in which %vas stored a supply of gunpowder. It was moved here from the hill just north of the New North Church, oil Lincoln Street.

Near the corner of Elm and Hersey streets, there stood until within a few years a beautiful wool[, known as TRAN~')ITILTXTY GRovE. It was ]oil- made use of for picnics an(] various other

s-is of gi -hops, social , political, and religious. The early
ot thet ' '
I t for some of their stirrill" nleetilw's.
abolitionists Ilse( i 7

The bove" part of Mersey Street, froin Elul to South street's was in carly tinies AUSTIN's LANE, taking its naine, fniin Jonas Austin, one of the first settlers in 1636, who had his homestead granted oil Town Street (now South) at the north end of this laile.

South Street, which was, like North Street, first called Toa`N STREET, begins at North Street opposite the old Gay inalision, in[inediately crosses Alu!_~oon's Bridge, and runs west. After cross ile, Main 'Strect, and just before Lafayette Averine is reached, it until within three years passed by a li~iucly old provincial buildinlo, which was in the last century the ANcHoa TAVERN. Cvllend Lafayette once lodged in it when lie had occ:ision to pass flic night in llingharn, during the Revolutionary War. It %%as the

198 History of Hingham,

country home of John A. Andrew, the war governor of Massachusetts, for one summer during the great rebellion. The short street which contiects South with North Street, immediately west of the railroad depot, crosses the town brook, and is known as THAXTFR's BntDCE. In the old days the WHIPPING POST Was located here. About a quarter of a mile further on, and a few rods cast (if AUSTIN's LANE (now Hersey Street), formerly stood the old PINE-TREE TAVERN. Oil the Site of it there now stands a large white house which was built by General Lincoln for his son-iii-law and private secretary, Mr. Abner Lincoln. The road runs west and enters Fort-Hill Street after crossing the Town Brook at Drany's BRIDGE. On the south side of the street at this point formerly stood the mansion of Madarn Derby, who applied the properiy left for the purpose by her first husband, Dr. Ezekiel Hersey, to founding Derby Academy. Alany stories are told of this able but eccentric wonian. Among others is this one, applicable to her home.

She lead it rustiv, seat arranged among the branches of one of the trees Hear her house, front which she could observe her laborers in the fields. She was upon one occasion sitting there decidedly in dishabille, when she saw a carriave some distance off, containiDg visitors whom she bad expected to arrive later in the day, but with whom site was not well acquainted. She jumped down from tier perch, ran round to the back of the house, caught a brace of chickens on the way, twisted their Hooks and flung them to the cook with orders to broil them for dinner at once, ran through the house, and (her house Servants not being at bonic) veceived the guests, who did Hot know her in her r6le of servant, showed them to their rooms, and lialitening to her own, dressed and descended to the parlor to welcome them as Madam Deiby; and they did Dot recognize the servant who bad usbori-d theiii to their apartments in the lady of the mansion who received them in state.

When the money for the endowment of Derby Academy was brought front 1;aloin to Hingbain by Nathan Lincoln an(] his wife (lie wits a nephew of Ill-. Ezekiel Hersey), it was concealed in a bucket which stood on the floor of a chaise, between Mr, and Mrs. Lincoln. Madam Derby caused Stories ill the collar wall of her house to be removed, and the money, enclosed in woollen bags, was built into the wall, for concealment and safetv.

Wiien this old mansion was burned, in the early part of this century, there had been living in it people whose babits of life were fill- fioni being such as invited the approval of the neighbors. And certain old women who were gathered together watching its destruction, averred that the)- saw fiendg and witches ascending ill the smoke and dancing in the flames.

The nineteenth century would appear to be a little subscipient to tile era of unseemly performances on the prut of indk iduals

            Ancient Landmarks. 199

of that ilk ; but the old ladies who witneaso(l their antics at tho' fire aforementioned Nvvre %6Nes of iospeclable citizenK of the West End~ and their statcnionts are not to be lightly called ill itil"tion [ON. tile incredulous.

Yon have now beca with Hie anion', the landniarkg of these
old towns, from tho 'prini ledges off it , e eastern shote, where the
surf beats itsi-If incessantly to foam all(] Slimy oil Coluisset rocks,
to tile sill"Illor lollill", gravel niouluis at ill(! AvoA ond of Mao
halli, where tile of the last ice-poriod has left such in.
disputable loools of it', fol-liter presence, - front tile protty
landlocked harbor at tile north, tile ancient 11 Bare Cooe~" to the
secluded woodiands; which cover the gientor part of the southern
Portion of these. townships; and where the ponds, ihow scarcely
rallied shoets of bill(,. woter, lie riniong, green ineadcovs and for
esis like sapphires aniong, vincralds,-throulph oil Arcot's Slid
1"Oles full of point- of intorest to the antiquarian, end over beau
tiful hill,%, whose graceful contour form% the backguound of eicry
We maritime Now Ew-dquIdurs breathe a double inspitntion
from out- sni-roundings, for, liNvOling by ill(,, ocean, upoll AvIliell
our people haNe proved themselves worth ' v descondonts (if the
Northnion, we are at the same, thyto praoticallY mountaineers.
Our rockv hills are tile foot-bilis of t1w mountain ranges a few
Miles W114 and 1101-th Of us, Which Oil the Coast of Main" actually
invade the realin of the sei. Even upon Boston Bay, look at
those Mile Hills of Milton, who,;(! tops 9rG sometimes above tile
clouds. A %hort dishanee iniand, and Wachusett and Monalillock
allow their headK, while Mount WashinIpton itself is visible froin
tile 90.1-coast.

In the atmosphere of such surroundings, what wonder is it (hit( 1111011 MIIS COodaillill" tile Hingham and Coliasset names of Lincoln, cosi,ing, iiobart, Tower, Gay, Thaxter, Shute, Sprague, Pratt, llorseN, '~toddard. Fvaritig, and others, should be found many which have adorned the professions of the ministry, law, all(( inedicine which have become eminent '.IS those of poets, liter'di, Zirtists of men who have achieved the fortune and practiged ill(,, lik,ralitv of merchant princes ; who in the, battle line 6v land and Sea have, frona -,,liters -it their glins and soldiers in tile ranks to great generals, shed lustre upon tile Colony aud tile Republic ; N% ho have, as deputies, or congressinell, or governors, or anihassadors, reaped honorable laurels in this and in foreign hUldS ; Or laKf(V, ill ill(,' presidential chair itself, won a sinipic, homely, but ifluArious faine which will through all our future history go hand in ]land Ni ith that of Washington


Even as tile Ancient Landinarki; of Hingham and Cohnsqct tell a story of the existence and physical progress of the race and community of which those faiiiiiies wore the type, so have
200 History of Hingham.

the lives and deeds of the leading spirits of those families served as landmarks in the annals of the Great Republic; which is
herself tile tl-
hope she will be for the ages of the future, in the. history of


            BY JOHN D. LONG.

HINGHAM is one of the oldest towns in Massachusetts. There were settlers here as earlv as 1633. Its first name was Bearcove or Barecove, more likely the latter, in view of the exposure of almost its entire harbor at low tide, and as appears also in the spelling of the name in the order of tile General Court referred to below. So far as it had any legislative incorporation, it was incor oratedland this has been the usual statement of writers, Sept. 2, T635 , 0 y eleven towns having in that respect all earlier date. Perhaps, however, the term incorporation is not appropriate in this connection, the brief order which the General Court, consist~- in- of the Governor, assistants, and deputies, adopted and entered on that day being as follows, -a form used before,and afterwards, n the case of several other towns: - 11 The name of Barecove is changed and hereafter to be called Hingham."

Who was the first settler, or at what exact date he came, it is impossible to say. Mr. Solomon Lincoln, the historian of the town in 182T, gives the following interesting facts : -

11 The exact date at which any individual came here to reside cannot be ascertained. Among the papers of Mr. Cushing, there isa 'list of the names of such persons as came out of the town of Iiingham, and towns adjacent, in the County of Norfolk, in the Kingdom of England, into New England, and settled in flingham.' From this list we are led to believe there were inhabitants here as early as 1633, and arron, them Ralph Smith, Nicholas Jacob with his family, Thomas Lincoln, weaver, Edmund Hobart and his wife, from Hingham, and Thomas Hobart with his family, from Windham, in Norfolk, England. During the same year Theophilag Cushing, Edmund Hobart, senior, Joshua Rob7irt, and Henry Gibbs, all of Hingham, England, came to this country, CUSIIiTo~ lived some years at Mr. Raineg's farm, and subsequently removed to Hingbarn. The others settled at Charlestown, and in 163.5 removed to this place. In 1634 there were other settlers here, and amon_v them Thomas Chublauck ; Tlare Cove was assessed in that year. To 1635, at the Afay court, Joseph Andrews

202 Histary of Hingham.

was sworn as constable of the place. There was a considerable increase of the number of Settlers, and in that year grants of land were made to upwards of fifty individuals, of which a record is preserved. It was in June of that year that Rev. Peter Hobart arrived at Charlestown, and soon after settled fit this place.

11 1 here sulljoill the names of those who settled or received grants of land here, in tire respective years mentioned. Possibly there may be some names omitted, which have escaped my observation, and those of others inserted to whom lands were granted, but who never settled here. The list is as perfect, however, as long, careful, and patient examination of public and private records call make it.

. 11 lit 1635, in addition to those before-mentioned (namely: Joseph Andrews, Thomas Chubbuck, Henry Gibbs, Edmund Hobart, Sen., Edmund Hobart, Jr., Joshua Hobart, Rov. Peter Hobart, Thomas Hobart, Nicholas Jacob, Thomas Lincoln, weaver, Rallph Smith), were Jonas Aastill, Nicholas Baker, Clement Bares, Richard Betscome, Benjamin Bozworth, William Buckland, James Cade, Anthony Cooper, John Cutler, Jobn Farrow, Daniel Fop, Jarvice Gould, Wor. Hersey, I Nicholas Ilodsdin, Thus. Johnson, Andrew Lane, Win. Lar,~, Thomas Loring, George Larkin, Jeremy Morse, William NoltOu,'Jo=n6tis, David Phippeny, John Palmer, John Porter, Henry, Rost, John Smart, Francis Smith (or Smyth), John Strong, Henry Tuttil, William Walton, Thomas Andrews, William Arnall, George Bacon, Nathaniel Baker, Thomas Collier, George Lane, George Alarsh, Abraham Martin, Nathaniel Peck, Richard Osborn, Thomas Wakely, Thomas Gill, Richard Ibrook, William Cockerum, William Cockerill, John Fearing, John Tacker.

~41a 1636, John Beal, sertior, Anthony Eames, Thomas Hammond, Joseph Hall, Richard Jones, Nicholas Lobdin, Richard Langer, John , Leavitt, Tbomas Lincoln, Jr, miller,Thomas Lincoln, cooper, Adam Mott, Thomas Almard, John Parker, George Russell, William Sprague, George Strauge, Thomas Underwood, Samuel Ward, Ralph Woodward, John Wincliester, William Walker.

,11n 1637, Thomas Battles, Josiah Cobbit, Thomas Chaffe, Thomas Clapp, William Carlslye (or Candy), Thomas I)imock, Vinton Dieuce, Thomas Bert, Thomas Joshlin, Aaron Ludkin, John Morrick, Thomas Nichols, Thomas Paynter, Edmund Pitts, Joseph Pbippeny, Thomas Shave, Ralph Smith, Thomas Turner, John Tower, Joseph Underwood, William Larkin, Jonathan Rozworth.

11 lit 1638 there was a considerable increase of the number of settlers. Amor,-, them were, Mr. Robert Peck, Joseph Peck, Edward Gilman, John Foulsharn, Henry Chamberlain, Stephen Gates, George. KDights, Thomas Cooper. Matthew Cashing, John Beal, Jr., Francis James, Philip Jamps, James ]lack, Stephen Payne, William Pitts, 'Eawaxil-Michell, John Sutton, Stoplien Liticolo, Samuel Parker, Thom" Lincoln, Jeremiah Moore, Mr. Henry Smith, Brizoan Allen, Matthew Hawke, William Ripley.

11 All of those preceding, who came to this country fit 1638, took passage in the ship I Diligent,' of Ipswich, John Martin, master. In addition to these, tire followin.q named persons received grants of land in the year 1638, viz. : John Back, John Benson, Thomas Jones, Thomas Lawrence, John Stephens, Jolm Stodder, Widow Martha Wilder, Thomas Thaxter.

"In 1639 Anthony Hilliard and John Prince received grants of land. The name of Hewett (Iluct) and Liford, are mentioned in Hobares Diary,

              Early Settlers. 203

in that year, and in the Diary tire following names are first found in the respective years mentioned; in 164(;, Burr, in 1647, James Whitoll -1 ill 1649, John Lazell, Samuel Stowell; in 1653, Garnett and Canterbury.

11 Tire numbor of'persons who vanic over ill the ship I Diligent,' of lpswich, in theyeal. 1638, alid setti'-d io I lio~ghaia, was oil(, bombed tia(l thirtythree, All that came before wete hurty-two, makinIg ill all ooo hundred told seventy-tive. rhe whole number that came out of NO4011k (elliefly from I lingham, and its vicinity) from 1633 to 1639, and settl(A it] this Hingham, wa% two hundred and six. This Statement, On die aut'llOrity Of the third town Clerk of Hilcyliam, Must Ile. rff(oll'ilcll Witli ill(' U(t that there was a much larger number of settlers here it) 16:19 thati would appear !rom his estimate. rimy undoubtedly came in from othcr IdiUMS, aud I am llielileA to believe that there may be some omissions it, Air. Crishinlg'i list. It may be remarked here, that many of the names mentioned in the previous pages are now scattered in various parts of the country. Alany of the first settlers removed to other places during the militia diffitailtiv, which occurred within a few year., after the settlement of the town ; and a considerable number had previously obtained lands at Rehoboth.

11 The earliest record to Ile found of the prococdinl~s of' the town in relation to tire disposition of the lands is in 16,35. lit little of that yeal, grants were malle to a considerable number of individuals, and oil the l8th of September, as has been before stated, thirty of the inhabitants drew for house-lots, and received grants of other lands for file purposes of pviture, tillage, ete.

11 It was in July, 1635, that a plantation was eiected here ; and oil the 2d of September following that, the town wall incorpornled by the name of Hin.-ham, from which it appears that there are but eleven tflovici ill this State, and but one in the county of Plymouth, older than Hingliam. I (!:litriot ascertain satisfactorily when the first meeting for civil purposes was held. It is stated by Mr. Flint in his century discourses, to have beell oil the 18th of September, 1635. There is as much evidence in our town records, and in those of Cushing's MSS. which I have examined, that the first town-meeting was held in June of that year,as fit September. The state, ments fit the same discourses, that tire inhibitai&s of Hingham arrived in 1635, and that thev obtained deeds of land from the natives to form file town previously to holdimg tile first town-mectin1g, are unquestionably erro-


neous, being at Variance with our town records, Cushing s AISS., and the Indian deed itself.

,, 'rhe house-lots drawn oil the I Rth of September, 16:35, were situated on the "Pown streets' the same which is now called North Street. Hitting that year the settlement was extended to - Bmwl Cove Street,' recently named Lincoln Street. In the year following, houso-fots were granted ill the street now called South Street, and ill the nortlierly part of I Bachelor Street,' now Main Street.

"Some idea of the relative wealth of several towns in 1 (13.5 nctv Ile
estimated from the following apportionment of' t1m public rule for'that
year. Newton and Dorchester were assessed each f2G .7, ; Boston, JE25 10;
Salem, L16 ; Hingham, X6; Weymouth, X4, etv. In 1637 tire number
of met, furnished by this town to Make ill) tire number of one hundred and
sixty to prosecute tire war against the Pequods, v,4~re six ; lio,ton furnished
twerity-six ; Salem, eighteen ; We - vinouth. riA e ~ Nledfiad, till ve ; Marble
head, three. The assessment Upon this town at the ("curial Court ill An.
204 History of Hingham.

gust following, was X8 10; the least, except that of Weymouth, which was
16 16. Property and population appear to have been unequally distributed
and _4__ T. I A27 we find the first record of the - aic of
1,, -- - .--. .1 - choice -

town clerk. Joseph Andrews was chosen, and in 1638 the first record of the choice of assessors."

The following is a literal copy of the deed of the township of Hingham, given by the Indians in 1665 : -

"WHEREAs divers Englishmen did formerly come (into the Mastandrusets now called by the Englishmen New England) to inhabit in the dayes of Chickatabut our father who was the Cheitia Sachem of the sayd Massitchuseui on the Southward side of Charles River, and by the free Consent of our sayd father did set downe upon his land and in the yeare of our Lord God one thousand six hundred thirty and four divers Englishmen did set downs and inhabit upon part of the land that was formerly our sayd fathers land, which land the Englishmen call by tile name of Hingham, which sayd Englishmen they and their heires and assosiata have ever since had quiet and peaceable possession of their Towneshippe of Hingham by our likeing and Consent which we desire they may still quietly possess and injoy and bemuse ther have not yet bin any legall conveyance in writing passed from us to them conserning their land which may in future time occasion differcress between them and us all which to prevent - Know all men by these presents that weWompatuck called by the English Josiah nowCbie1c Sachem of the Massaebusets aftermayel and somm and beire to the aforimmyll Chick. mabut; and Squanuck all called by the English Daniel scene of the afouesayd Chickatabut and Alialneu - Indians: for R valumble consideration to us in hand payd by Captaine Joshua Hubberd set Ensigne John Thaxter, of Hingham aforesayd wherewith wee doe acknowledge our selves fully satisfyed contented and payd and thereof and of every part and pet-cell thereof due exonerate acquitt and discharge the sayd Joshua Flubberd anti John Thaxter their heires executors and Administrators and everv of them forever by these presents - have given granted bargained sold ei4offed and confirmed and by these presents doe give grant bargaine sell Enfeofre and confirme unto the sayd Joshua Hubberd and John Thaxter on the behalin and to the use of the inhabitants of the Towne of Hingham aforesayd that is to say all such as are the present owners and proprietors of the present house lotts as they have bill from time to time granted and layd out by the Towne ; All That Tract (if land which is the Towneshippe of Hinglumn aforesityd as it is now boarded with the sea northward and with the River called by the Englishmen weymoth River westward which River flow bum the sea; and the line that devide, betwene the sayd Hingham and Weymoth as it is now layd out and marked until it come to the line that devide betwene the colony of the Massachusetts and the colony of New Plimoth and from thence to the midle of accord pond and from tile midle of accord pond to bound Brooke to the flowing of the salt water and Be along by the same River that devide betwene Scittiate and the said Hingliam untill it come to the sea northward ; And also threescore acres of salt marsh oil the other side of the River that is to say on Scittiam side according as it was ingreed upon by the coninnissioners of the lilassachusets colony and the commissioners of Plimoth colony Together with all the Harbours Rivers Creekes Coves Islands fresh water brookes and Include and all marshes unto

              Early Settlers. 205

the sayd Towneshippe of flint'll!"n belonging or any wales apil'taineing
with :ill and 4ingular thallp'tonelices unto the p'll1i'ses or any part of them
1-1 ... lgi .... .. r any waves apo'(ainemw - Anti all out- ri,,ht title and interest
of and into tho s:lYd with their allp'tenences and every part and
p'cell there,d Ill lutAe and I u hold All the afne,;iyd Tnwt of land which is
tile Towuelbippe of lliogliate atoreayd and i, bound"I as afillosayd With
all tile Harkours Rkeis Crevio,,, CtOcs Ishinds fie~h water bro"k's and
pondi and :ill neirsh, , thcr unt') 1".1011"ill" INith tile threc"core act es of sait
mar,h .,it the other side of the lii~cr (viz.) oil Scittiate side with all und sin
gular to tile s kN I l"111iise., Or allv of them belonging unto
tile savd ibibiwid and Jobu Thaxter oil tile behalle and to tile tise
of tile aPl inliabitalus %%Ill. trv tile present. Owner ', and proprietios of tile
preivilt lool"t lotts, ill linudcon their heires and V'Sit'lleS fi-Vol tile b0fol'8
nallic.1 time ill the year(- o FOor Lold God One tholu"and Six handled thirty
all,] four for ever And Onto tile only proper use and behoofe of the (tile)
Sft)'d .),).%hit:% hubberd and John Thaxter and the illhabilants of the Towne
Of hill"111011 who are the present owners and looprietori of the present. bouse
Otis ill tile Towne of Hiull,ban, their heiresand assi,nies for evel. And the
said Ill'ouipatuck Squuntek and Aluldiden doe hereby covenant promise quit
grant to and with tile ~ayd JOShUa llUbberd and Joint Thaxter oil the behalfo
of tile inhabitanti of hingliam :is aforesayd dint they tile sayd Wonipatuck
Squmuck and Alialidan - are the true and proper owners of tile sayd l,qr
gained p'misses with their app'teumices at the time. Of the bar~-miue and sale
thereof and that the said bargained p'misses are free and cleare and ficely
and clearely exonerated acquitted and discharged of and from all and all
unmer of former bargaines intles guifts grants titles mortgages suits attach
inents actions Judgements extents executions dowers title of dowers and all
other ineumberances whatsoever from the begining (if the world untill tile
time of the bar.mina and sale thereof and that the sayd Joshua hubberd and
,join, Thaxter with the rest of the sayd inhabitants who tire the present
owners and proprietors of the present house lotts in hingham tbe."their
beires laid Assignee the li'misses and every part and parcell thereof shall
quietly have hold use occupy possese and injoy Without the let suit trouble
denial[ or molestation of them tile sayd Wouipatuck : Squmuck and Abed.
due their heirea and assignes : and Lastly the sayd NVompatuck: Squiritick
and Ahadur. for themselves their heires executors administrators and as
signes doe hereby covenant promise and grant the li'misges above dernised
with all the libertys previledges and app'tenences thereto or in any wise be
longing or appertaineing unto the sayd Joshua Hubberd John Thilixter
and the rest of the sayd inhabitants of Hingham who are the present own
ers and proprietors of the present house lotts their heires and assignes to
warrant acqaitt and defend forever against all and all matter of right title
and Interrest claims or demand of all and every person or persons whatso
ever. And that it shall and may be lawfull to and for the sayd Joshua
Hubberd and John Thaxter their herres and assignes to record and enroll
or muse to be recorded and enrolled the title and tenour of these it'sents,
according to the usuall order and matter of recording and enrolling deeds
and evedences in such case made and li'vided in witnes whereof we the
aforesayd Wompatuck called by the English Josiah sachem: and Squaruck
called by the English Daniell and Ababdun Indians : have heere unto set
our hands and sealm the fourth day of July in the yeare of our Lord God
one thousand six hundred sixty and five and fit the seaventeenth yeare of
the raigne of our soveraigne Lord Charles the second by the grace of God
206 History of Hinghain.

of Great Brittautie France and Ireland King defender of the faith
1665. - - -
Signed sealled mid delivered
In the presence of its:
Yen NOEWTHANS ladiall the marke 10 Of (L. 8.) Wor,,,,A~
~lle, marks of W WILLLAM MAN- TuCK called by the English JustAn
the marks of 8 ROBERT NIAMUN cheif sachern.
TAHOIN Indian the marks .3 of SQUMUCK (L. S.)
Joust llulz caDed by the Fuglish DANIELL
MATTIAS 9 BRIGGS senile of Chickatabut.
the marke id r ion JUDKINS tile mat ke CM of AHAUDEN (L, 9.)

'Josiah Wompatuck Squinuck Alialiden Indians Speared P'sonally the 19th of may I F;68 and acknowledged this inArtmin't of writing to be i1myr act and deed freely and voluntary without compulsion, acknowledged before

                        JNO. L9VERETT, A81.

It needs but, a glance at the zMmes of the early settlers Of Ringhain, as given above by Mr. Lincoln, to recognize the founders of some of the most respectable and influential families of Massachusetts. Few names are more distinguished ill tile annals of tile Commonwealth or nation than that of Cushing. There is reason to believe that Abraham Lincoln was one of the many descendants from Ifingliain stock who have made it illustrious in American histor ' y. Noarly all of the names in the foregoing lists are still familiar in this generation. These first settlers were men of character and force, of good Englipli blood, whose enterprise and vigor were evident in tile very spirit of adventure and push which prompted their outset from the fatherland and their settlement in the new country. Tile), were of the Puritan order which followed Winthrop raflo~r than of the Pilgrim element that settled at Plymouth a few vears earlier. The distinction between the two is now well unders6d. The Pilgrims were Brownists or Separatists later called Independents, opposed to the national church, insisc ing on separation from it, and reducing the religious system to the simplest form of independent church societies.

Indeed it was natural that the spirit that led to reform and
greater simplicity in church methods and organization, which was
the aim of the Puritans, should go still further and dertiand entire
arid indep lidence, which was Separatism, and of which
Sepal 11 0
tile = i I histrions type is found in the Pilgrims who sailed in
the 11 Mavflower;' and settled in Plymouth in 1620. It is to be
noticed that those who thus went to the extreme of ecclesiastical
independence were consistent in granting the Rome liberty to others
which they claimed for themselves ; and it is true that the Pil
grims were more tolerant than tile Puritans. Lying on the
border-line between the jurisdictions of Plymouth and the Massa.
chusetta Bay, the first settlers of Hingham are not to be too closely

              Farly Settlers. 207

Puritan colony, but from an early day they manifeated a good deal
of independence of tile Boston magnates ; and Pctor Rolla rt's de
flaut attitude towards (!ON ertior Winthrop is one of tile picturesque
features of that carly time. There is sometitiles, undoubtedly, an
inclination. to exaggerate tile religious element in the early s~itle
ments of New England. It was a mixed purpose that animated
out- forefathers. There was in them tile genius of adventure and
enterprise which in hitor days has peopled our own West Nvith
their descend ants thcre was tile seal-ell for fortAille in new coull
tries ON or the son there. was tile spirit of trade and mercantile m
vestment ; there was the, hope of new homes, and tile ardor of new
scenes, all clusterinIg around what was unquestionably tile central
impulse. to finil a larger religious freedom than tile restrictions,
legal or traditional, (if tile old country afforded. This is cA ident
from the fact that while the population of Massncliw~,ctts grew
rapi(liv by accession" from Eupland till the executiorl of Charles
tile First, , re't, as sooll .18 that ovent happened, tile republic of
CronlAvvIl and the Supremacy of Puritanism during his Prolee
torato were accomptinied by a practical suspension of immigration
to New EnIgland. For the next two hundred years it had little
other irrowth than that which sprang from its own loins,
Ill those first sctilellwnts tile ministers were the lenders. Thoir
Iluciwo was supreme. They gave tone to the time, and color to
hisforY, ; and the communities which they largely nioulded seem,
as wo look back upon them, to he toiled by the eecl"iastical atnios
phere whioli the clergy gavL to them. But with all this there was
still all tile tiou, all hurnonse deal Of Iniman nattive. rbe picture
of t1w early timo, if it could be reproduced, would present it bod ' y of
men and women engaged in the ordinary activities Of Me, culti
vating the farms, ploughing the seas, trading with foreign lands
and III I
now, thoinselves, engaged in near and remote fishezies,
lilaintainho, the school, the traiii-band, and the clan-eli, hobliw,

peoplenotwithout lomior,iiotalfog~thor innocent of q niodicuin (I onarrel and greed -.And heni-t-borliblir, yet warin Nvith the kill([ and neighborly spirit of a comnion and interdepon4vul; fellowship. The Massachusetts settlers indtilgod in no incro drealut of foltudilq a Utopia or it Saintn' Rest. TlaY AN-ere neither % isiolkilrY philosophers nor religion,,, fanof ics. Their early recorliq deal will, everN.-day detalls of farm Rod lot, of domi,stic affairs, of straviw, cattle and swine, of runiwity ipprentievs and scolding wives, of barter with the Indians, of whippim,A awl Storks and fines for ait sorts of naughtinesses, of bouu(lario~ toul miits, (if debt and 4-11al process and probate, of electiorv; and pettv offices civil and military, and now quit then the alqvinu of Avar mid the illovitable assessment of Oxes. They Smack very much iilore of the concerns, Rod the common concerns, of this World than of emicern for the next. They are the rnemorandit of a hard, prav

208 History of Hingham.

Connection with a fine for bad roads, or leave to make hay in Conihasset meadows, or Permission to use its inecting-house for a watch-house, or the appointment of a cominittei- to .-"I- .-

.11,,tu lug doncultics with Autritasket, or something of equally homely import. There is in these records no cant, our snill im,, none of that pretelitious sanctimoniousness which is so flipl;untly charged upon file Puritans. There is less reference to theology than to ways and means ; and the practical question, for instance of restraining the liquor-traftic and evil, seems to have taxed the'ingenuity and attention of their law-makers and magistrates very much as it does in the case of their descendants. There is no waste of words in the grint sentences, but a plain, wholesome dealing with the material needs of the colony. One cannot read them and not feel the sense of justice and righteousness that inspired the leaders of the settlement, and that songlit, rigorously indeed but honestly, to institute and maintain a commonwealth which should be animated by virtue, thrift ' education, the sanctity and sweetness of horne, fear of God, and fair dealing among men. They were developing th sturdy, educating' self-reliant New England town life which till forty or fifty years ago was so unique, but which since then has gradually been disintegrated and changed by the tremendous influence of the transportatiODS of the railroad, the wide scattering of the New England seed, the influx of foreign elements, the rapid growth of large cities, the drain on rural sources, and the general change from diffusion to consolidation, and from the simplest and most meagre to the most profuse and complex material resources.


          BY WALTER L. BOUVL.

TiiF. story of the settlement of Ilinghain and of the struggles, craploynicats, and daily life of her first inhabitants, is one differint, btit little froin thai of many other of the older sea-coast towns of New En'-daild. Alike in their origin, their religion, and their opilliors, silnilar ill their pursuits and experiences, inenaced by a

C0111111oll darl'-'or, and, with the exception of the Plymouth Colony Voinuilunitics, influcliced by the same holues and purposes and 111VOrloA bV the saine I:tivg, it was natural that in their growth and deNclopilleat the little hatillets forniiii~g a frequently broken thrv;ol itom thc Merriniae to Buzzard's Bay, should, for a consid,-tal.k- pot iod, Iwar a stront-, resemblance to One another. Yet i I oni I ht! li rA, possessed those pectiliar characteristics which dill,ienvos of ut,alth, the impresg of particular families, and tile inthouict, If % i,.rorous leaders inevitably create. This individualism mas; nh:oo-v(I to tho clfi~cfs of little, of situation, and of interest, an-i lit vach t!rciv up the lel-ends, traditions, and local history P.-Cillial. to it,clf.

If thIts, of our oW n toWn are devoid of the dramatic and tragic
int-id,104 %%hich 11-111t lit) the clinudub-s of Salem, of Deerfield, of
I 1:1I I I, - i" all'I Ott MI-1.1 ~ Mount ; if no 1131es Standish with his mar
fial ti.-Ior,' no Eli,l Will[ t1w velille aintly spirit, quit no Endicott
Willi 'Iw,ch atol cO111111:11141 ill', will, grace our glorv, 91111 if no
battl-l,:lalli-r like that If a 1,,xin,-don, a Coneord, or a loiliker
Ilill, about its ille ll:ilo Of a patriotic strug-le, there is
11v%I-rrhi.1,,s t0bill do, (tl our 11lodest records 11of it little to
altaken tit,- ah~,okiwz intci,-,I Which tho t;ih,s of tile vrandfather
aliva.vA bear to th-o 4 the p-noraliollA. And the local
C.)I..l if Joil 4 I'lillialow. still "low for ]is With all the
Wal-111111 of th, 11,111, -lie:11-th, and 14, the 411lailit picttlrvti~ of the,
olIl..Ik filai, tit., 111,11,mill"r of 4.11111cre alid of Near, 011h. loidga
11:1114"% iu,~ lit,01t. Th" C11:1111"I S, 'If W hil-li Oliti 'iS 0110. ficatioll Of
the i,ocfudwt~ olod tlwir dest-vtola lit , floill ill(, foli,6(tis, indus
trial, social, 4,11leatiowil. alld liubli(. rellition., ill Nthich Ave find
theill, :It,(. 111:6111% for ~11141 our ohildri~ll, bir oar gild
their list, and pb.:Isuro, loollari'll W ith little allibitioll other 01.111 to
preservc zliel 111111,111it a faill v aveurate account If the birth and
growth of our nalke tomi, -_ (lite Which eNell to this day is typical
    'Io, I -I I

2110 History of Hingham.

of those modern democracies which form the distinguishing characteristic of Now England. 'We canitot however isolate ours from the other settlements which already, two hundred slid fifty years ago, formed, like it, parts of a. complete commonwealth, with established customs, diverse interests, and self-reliant spirit.

It is inteiestinl,, to observe these sturdy and half independent plantations, bound together as they were by the common laws and necessities, re-enacting, each within its own limits, much of tile complex life of the province at large. They were truly miniature commonwealths, and the claims of the State and the claims of the Church received as well the consideration of the people of the village as of tile deputies at the capital; and tile various commercial, religious, and social interests made themselves felt alike in the town meetings and in the legislative and council chambers.

In each town, too, was the military organization and establishment, demanding and receiving from nearly every citizen active participation in its exacting and stern requirements. Like tile civil authority it was, it is true, regulated and controlled largely by the central government, but it nevertheless possessed, from very necessity, much local independence.

To the story of its part tit the life of Hingham this article is devoted. And here it may not be inopportfne to consider briefly a phase in the history and policy of the colony, and indeed of the other colonies as well, which has perhaps not at till times been accorded its full value, and which is well illustrated in tile record and experience of our own town. From their situation and surroundings the North American colonies were necessarily little less than military provinces, whose armed forces were their own citizens. Of them Massachusetts was the most prominent, and her usual condition was that of all armed peace, with many of the incidents of martial law, not infrequently broken by open hostilities with her Indian and French neighbors. For more than one hundred yearg succeeding the organization of the government,, a large portion of the legislative enactments pertained to the arming and disciplining of the inhabitants, to the erection of forts, the purchase of military stores, and to other measures of deferice and offence. ; and no inconsiderable part of her expenditure was for the raisinv and equipping of troops, and for expeditiong against the I ndians and -against Catinda. The laws oil these subjects were frequent, ininato in their details, and often severe in their requirealerts ; and they affected not only the individual citizen, but reached the towns in their corporate capacity and prescribed their duties as well.

These enactments, with frequent experience in actual service, produced not callv a hardy, disciplined, trained citizen soldiery ready for the cm~rgcncy of the hour, but, continued us they were through the legislation of a century, they created tile military tradition, knowledge, and discipline which were of such inestimable

              Military History, 211

value in tile opening days of the Revolution; and into that struggle sprall", not alone the embattled farmer, but with a value far "reater to the cause, the allert alinutc-mall who ba bc,~,l

I - ad , at tile
taking of Louisburg, tile trained-band men who, like their able
officers, find threaded the forests around Fort William Henry and
Frotitcuac, and the sturdy regiments whose leaders had climbod
the huit'lits of Quebec witil Wolfe, and seen the fall of Aloatcalul.
It is Well for U.S not to forgot that the troops of Great 13ritain
were met in 177 6, not by undisciplined levies, but by all Anneri
call ariny, whose great commander was a soldier of many, years'
ioN aluablo experience in that best of military schools, set vice in
tilt, livid ; that the hard le"ons learned by the young colonel
of twenty-one at Fort Necessity and Braddock's defeat made
possible the general of Valley Forge, Trenton, and Yorktown ;
that Putualn, with his English commission, attacking tile Span
iards in 1762 was preparing for tile sturdy old Continental com
niander of 1776 ; that Stark, tile intrepid leader at Bennington,
was but the Stark of 1756, grown a little older and more experi
enced ; or that old Seth Peal ' v, fighting in the ranks, and old
Richard Gridley, pushing on with MB artillery at Banker Hill, had
both heard the roar of French guris in the campaigns which made
tilcill veterans. These, with scores and hundreds of others, both
ollicers and privat", now enlisted in the ranl~s of liberty, gave to
a large force the true character and discipline of all arm ' Y .

One of the earlier of the settlements, situated upon the very bonfi~r of the Colony and adjoining tile frontier of that of MY, mouth, Hingham was pecilliaky liable to suffer from the diffc~r-

i which might, at any time arise between the poveratuents of
I,,-(% lace and their Indian Deigbbors. A rca~lizatioll of this
datt--ror, and consequent thorough preparation, probabl ' y accounts
for dw remarkable immunity from attack and depredation which
N'tas go long, the good fortune of the town, notwithstanding tljQ
(:let I haJ tile huliall trail to Plymouth led directiv through its
sonflo-rit part along tile shores of'Accord Pond,
Tlo, 111dian't of I Ilinollain formed a part of that great division

allool-I the red moll known fut the Ahonquiris. This mip.hh" race V. , olloisetl nunly polverful tribes, and occupied nearly iibe'vrbole territol-Y or tile northeastern United States. Tile 'strenqfb of th" NOW 1-:111-11and, and e9pocial1v the Massnebusefla nations had

      r-luced by a great 'pQstilence shortly before tile get11% luouth. For this the ~ood King Jaineg n-as duty be ~,rateflllly says in WS charter

thankful, nod I - -

;1 01:11 1- 11 of b-'ll -iven certainly to knowe that within these late years to rt. hath I'N G-C, vi,itition reigned a wonderful plague toniller with

    It,o I iki,. f 111"Ilk-r, ind 1111111iiert, cononitted antongst tile "Savages and

            on,h p"'Id'. ffl~ w I r"tolore inhabiting in a l1nonlor to the utter do. d'-poplalation o f that wbole territorye ~o that Ih, w i, nw ),-ft tor rwiny

~., leg togethor in :t inanner an-y that doe chilli or -~halft,ronl Mly kind )f illlert~,lq t1lereill."

212 History of Hingham.

These disasters were probably in 1617 or thereabouts. Only a
U+fl~ in 1614. Smith says: 11 The sea-coast as you pass
...... ......... - ---- --
shows you all along large corn-fields and great troupes of well
proportioned people." Others computed the number of warriors
at from eight thousand to twenty-five thousand. They were
divided into a number of nations, aitil these again into tribes. Of
tile former, some of tile principal were the Wampanoags, ruled over
by Massasoit, a life-long friend of the English, and whose domin
ion lay between Cape Cod and Narragansett Bay ; the Narragan
setts, who lived in Rhode Islandupon the western coast of the bay
of that name, aild whose chiefs were Cationicus and Miantonomo;
the PeqLl0dS, under Sassacus, whose territory lay between the MyB
tic and the Tbames, then the Pequod River, in Connecticut; and
the 'Massachusetts, under Chickatabut, who occupied the territory
to the South of Boston and extending as far as Duxbury. In 1633
Chickatabut was succeeded by Josiall Wonipatuck. Ili addition to
the above there were the Pawtuckets north of the Charles River,
and the Cliur-Churs and Tarantines in Maine. All played a part
more or less important in the history of the New England settle
meDts. Ilinghain, it will have been noted, lav within the land
ruled, until just about the time the first settlements were made
here, by Chickatabut; and it was his son and successor, Wompa
tuck, together with Squmuck and Alialuden, who joined in 1668
fit convc3 ing to the English tile territory now comprised in the
towns of Ilingloun. and Cohasset. For many years the intercourse
between our forefathers and their red neighbors seems to have
been peaceable and agreeable.

Tile earliest known settlement of Hingliam was made sometime in the year 1633, and tile first houses were probably located upon what is now North Street, and near the bay which the erection of tide gates has converted into the Mill Pond. This little arm of the sea although fordable at low tide was still of sufficient depth to float craft of asizu considered respectable in those days; and many a fishing smack has ridden out ill safety the gales of winter under the lee of the protecting bills which surrounded it, and upon whose sunny southern slopes were perhaps the first cleared land,; in the towt;.

Up it, too, sailed one day in the summer or early autumn of 1635, the Rev. Peter Ilobart and his company ; they landed, as we are told, oil file northerly shore about opposite tl~ where Ship and North streets intorscc~l and here ill the open air, thu first public relig,ious services ivere held. Not far from this spot, and but a few Volts in front of where Derby Academy now stands, and upon a part of the hill long since removed, was erected the first meefliv-honse. This was a plain square building, low and small as compared with modern churches, bur constructed of bewn logs and undoubtedly very substantial. It was surmounted by a belfry containing a bell, and around was a palisade for defence al,ainst the Indians.

              Alilitary History. 213

Ilere then our Military Ilistory commences, and the, church
crecledfor tile worship of Almighty God was in truth a fortress
or file j,ord al,anist tile beathen criernies of tile I body, as weli as
:tg~lillst tile bvpfilers of tile soul. Nor was the worthy pastor

aplUrOutly less lifted to command in a temporal than to lead in R spiiitual capacity. Of its actual use as a defensive post we ha% e 111) la(,~k of evidence. Ili June, 1639, according to the 11 Reconk of tile Governor and Company of Massachusetts Bay ill New England " (from which the authority for much here given is derived), Ilingliain had liberty to use their ineeting house for a watch


house slid awaiii, lb~cernber 1640, " flingliain Mecting house for
the present is allowed for their watch house." Already, in 16".6,
tile deleates in Cencral Court had ordered " that the militarv
men in llingliam Lwith other towns] be formed into a regiment
or which John Winthrop, Sen. Esq., be Colonel, and Thomas
Dudley, 1,~cut.-Colonol." This indicates the existence here at a
verv early period of at least a part of a company, and our ances
tolls certainly had eminent commanders fit two such reniarkuble
men aq Governor Winthrop and Governor Dudley. Aniong tile
interesting orders front the central authori(y about this time was
Ono providinIg thaL captains be maintained from the treasury, and
uot from their couipailies ; it was evidently passed for tile purpose
or gli% ill',' grUabo' ift(ICI)CIRIM00 to tile officers, and was manifestly
Hl I he interest of tile strict discipline towards which all legislation
c"nsimutiv teilded. It was also enaeted that 111ILsket-balls of full
bme should pass current for a farthing, apiece ; which, although
1wrtainin- to the finances and currency rather than to tile mili
tary, iA :i fact of sufficient interest to justify its mention fit this
Cloinoelion. Ili 1635 it was ordered that no dwulihig--house be
built ahme half a mile froin the meeting-liouse, and in this order
I lill._'halll hall tile hollor Of being specially included by name ; in
dirating, perlialls that she had already shown a tendency to exceed
that limit and to stretch herself out along the main street, towards
lho twit-diboriul, colony with which her people had later so much
.k..t4 pa~qed ill 1634, 16.35, :Ill(] 1610 required towns to provide
:it lheir own ellat',10 it place in which to keep such powder and
11111111111ition a, ill(, military authorities should order them to take
f-111 :11,11 lixed a penalty for negleet; commauded all
1wr"'11.4 to -1.) X%ilh muskets, powder, and ball, to all piddic
and hlrh~ob' RUV 01101 "ohl", lularilled at ally time above
('11intr-liollse and sp,
a 1161'. ti.-Ill 1w ecificidly directed " that
l1w Inilitar ' ~ ill o% el ~ town shall provide that the watches
be duk kellf ill plaovq ino~t lit, for common safety, and also .1
Ward 111 the lewd'~ di~ , ill(, laille to 1)(1grill before tile end of the
fil'.4t noulth and 1'. he conlinued until the end of September, and
ticit vverv lwr~oll rhove ill(, ag-0 of eighteen years (exceld migig
trab,4 and Vid"I'A 'IF tile ChUrChVS) shall be compellable to this
214 History of Hingham.

service cither in person or by sonic substitute to be allowed by hit-- that hath tile charge of the watch or warde for that time, with punishment for disobedience." The settlement of 1682, Vilen called Bare Cove, was in July, 1635, erected into a plantation, which carried the right of sending deputies to the General Court ; and in Septcluber o I the latter year tile name was changed to Bingham.

Rouse lots were ' -ranted to sonic fifty individuals in June and
September, and other lands for the purposes of pasturage and
tillage. Tile former were situated mainly upon Town,now North
Street, but during the year tho settlement was extended to Broad
Cove Lane, now Lincoln Street, and in 1636 the grants were upon
what is now South Street and upon Batchelor's Row, now the
northerly part of Main street. And these early- beginnings of our
modern streets comprised tile whole of the little town, with its two
hundred odd inhabitants, when in 1637 it first became a duty to
furnish a quota of lier soils for the public defence.

It was file second year of the Pequod War, and Massachusettswhich had already been acting with Connecticut - was to raise an additional force of one hundred and twenty men, to be placed under tile command of Capt. Israel Stoughton ; this number was subsequently increased to one hundred and seventy. Of these, six wele men f roin our town. We unfortunately know the names of none of thrin, but we can follow in imagination tile toilsome march of tile little army of which our forefathers formed a small part, as it slowly and painfully made its way through the virgin thickets, almost impenetrable with the stiff, unbending, knarled scrub oak, the matted masses of luxuriant-growing and lacerating liorse-brier, beautiful in its polished green, and the almost tropically developed poison-surnac, seductive in its graceful form and rich coloring; through the great forests, dark with the uncut forms of the towering pines ; and through the swarnps of the country around Narragansett Bay, with the rich, black soil of the bottouls, and the majestic white clabirs rising, like great sentries of the red man, far into the air ; and thence kip towards the Mystic, spreading widely over the country between. We need not rehearse the details too minutely here ; we know the story, - tile Indians defeated, their tribe destroyed, and a day of thanksgiving appointed ; this time October 12, when it was also ordered that the various towns should " feast " their soldiers, - an injunction doubtless faithfully obe~ed, here at least.

From the time of tile, Pequod War, apprehensions of renewed trouble with the native,,;, and the necessary precautions against it, continually grew throughout the colony. Among the enactments was one jIiissed Alarch 13, 1638, directim, 11 that Ilinglumv have a barrel of powder, to be paid for by the town," and from 1640 to 1644 frequent orders regulated the time for training the trainbands, and prescribed punishments for neglect. In the former of

              31ilitary History. 215

these years,an interesting torwil record informs us that the follow iLW vote was passed, 11 That from the date hereof thenceforth there shall Lie. no tree or trees cut or felled upon the highway upon the pain of twenty shillings to be levied for the Ilse of the town because ill good trees are to be juescived for the shading of cattle in the summer tinic and for tile exercising of tire milita'ry-11 The desirability of prcser~ in,, tile trees "for the e . .

-Xcl'Clslllg of the military " arose from the beriefit to be derived from training the latter in the practical methods of Indian warfare, wherein every savage placed the protecting trunk of a tree between himself and the cileiny ; a situation giving him a distinct advantage over troops in regular order. It was ignorance or neglect of this fact that led to the destruction of the brave Capt. Pierce of Scituate and his company in 1676 and to tire defeat of Braddock nearly eighty years later. 11 Garrison houses," so-called, which for the most part were probably private dwellings of unusual size and adaptability for defence, were constructed, and stringent laws passed for tile enforcement of military discipline. The location all([ appearance of such of the former its were then or afterwards erected in llingham, it is not possible to fully determine. Anion', them, however, was what is now knowil as the Perez Linculil house standing on North, and a little cast from Cottal,w Street. It was erected by Joseph Andrews, probably in U 11). Ile was tire first constable and first- town clerk of Hiehani. From him it passed for a noininal consideration, in 1665, to his son Capt. rhowas Andrews, and was then known as the Andrewsl house. It is the best authenticated 11 garrison house " that we have. Doubtless during many an alarm its massive filnbers an(I thick log walls gave a sense of securit), to the settlers wil, " with their wives and children, hall gathered within. A peculiarity of th is building, now perhaps tile oldest in town, is that, except ing, its first transfer, it has never been conveyed by deed, but lols oonti nuously passed by will or simple inheritance for sonic tx%,, hundred and 1wenty-five years from one, owner to another. Ahl~luozll now clapboarded and plastered, it is still one of (lie 1110~ intoresting of the old landmarks, and its sound old rills i's sooll 1%i0lill svem capable of defyinIg the inroads of another cvIlt1lrY. Alloillel, of these primitive defences steel] near what is uo~% (ill' -'sterly c(ruer of Ifersey and South streets, and oil the

site of ill,, Cazaeau housel-formerly beloindit.- to Mattliew
(,ilwohl. Another %~as the house of Capt. Jolla Smith, Oil tile
L(Ati'r Plaill, about i%herc the store of Mr. Fearing Burr now
is, T,mvr's house near Toover's Bridge was also a garri
sillk house : and ~ 0 another, fit South Ifirefliqui, ivas Capt. John
Jaroh'~ house, siluated in the pass bctwe~oli Mas~achusetts and
Pl V 111-itil. Theiv were doubtless others, of which the record is
In 1612 rnilif:ir~ officens were empowered to punish neglect
216 History of Hingham.

and insubordination by fine, imprisonment, corporal punishment,
the stocks, etc,, and every town was obliged to provide a place for
retreat for tlicir wives and children, and Ht willich to stOrUe alulmu
Dition. The inecting-liouse answered for this double purpose in
Hingham, although the military stores were often distributed
aillong tile commissioned officers of the town, th its securing greater
safetv and availability in case of surprise. Every Smith was
directed to lay aside all other work, and 11 with all speed attend
the repairing of the ammunition of the several towns, fitting them
for any sudden occasion, and Strait receive country pay for it." lit
every town there was a council of war, consistbu, doubtless of the
military officers, tile including in their
number these Sallie officers, - and perhaps other prominent citi
zears. This, council seems to have had certain advisory powers,
and perhaps even Of direction in emergencies, but in the event of
its failure to act, tile commander of the company was specially
authorized to use )us own discretion both for defence and offence.
The General Court directed, too, the maiiiier lit which alarms
might be given in case of danger. Arly inhabitant was empowered
to distinctly discharge three muskets, to continually beat the
drum in tile night, or to fire the beacon, or to discharge a piece
of ordnance, or to send messengers to adjoining towns ; and every
Soldier was to respond at once, under a penalty of five pounds. The
captains of the three towns nearest that in which the crierny should
be discovered were to proceed thither with their companies. The
watches throughout the country were posted lit sunset at the beat
of the drum, and discharged at suntise drumbeat. From this
arose the custom of payments which we filed made to many indi
viduals through -it long series of years for 11 maintaining the drum."
Thus among the disbursements paid out of the Towne rate for
tile Towiie,s use it, 1662, are the following: -
" To Joshua Beals for maintenance of ye drum, Xol 00 00.
"To Steven Lincoln for notintenaDec Of Ye drinn, too 10 00.11

And timin,-hosideg manv other similar disbursements,"John Lincoln to be paid ten Shillings a year for drumming, lie to bay his own drum ; " this in 1690.

Increasingrumorsof Indian conspiracies inducedgreatervigi
lancoand more careful preparation front yeartoyear. In 1643
the militarY officers were placed in charge of the arms brought to
public mectife,s, find the care of ammunition in the farmhouses
was given to theiii ; and in 1644 fill inhabitants were compelled to
keel) arms readv for service in their houses. At a towil meeting,
June 24, 164r;, it; was voted to erect a palisade around the
ineetiog-house 11 to prevent any dan ' ger that may come into this
town,bY any assaidt of the Indoins." Previous to 1645 Hingham
appears to have had no captain, and it is probable that for put-
poses of military organization and discipline the soldiers of Hall
and Weymouth were joined with our own in formire, a company,

            Military History. 217

and that they were commanded by a captain residing in the latter place. Winthrop says that in 1645 Hingham choso Lieutenant

1,.,l lipon flip. chief commander for tile urevions seven of- eight years, to be captain, and presented him to thG council for confirmation. For some reason not now known, the town became offended with Earnes before his new commission could be issued, and a Dow election was held, or attempted to be hehl, fit which Bozoan Allen was chosen captain ; whom, however, the council refused to confirm. A bitter controversy lasting several years ensued. Tile town became divided into partisans of the two Officers, find the quarrel occupied much of tile time of the deputies and magistrates until 1648, lit it the Rev. Peter Hobart, together Nvith many leading citizens, became deeply involved, and the issues soon came to relate to civil end reliVj,nis, rather than to military interests. Tile details of this most unfortunate affair, which cost the town many of its best families and much of its prosperity, would seem to belong more property to the chapter oil ecclesiastical history, and there they may be found at leinth.

Licut. Anthony Eames, tile first local eonamander of the town,
was one of the first Settlers, coming bere in 1686, in which vear
a house lot was granted him on tire lower plain. Ile seems to
have been an able officer tied a leading and trusted citizen, being
a deputy in 1637, 16-18, and 1643, and frequently holdire, positions
of responsibility anti bonor in the town. Tce,ctlier with Allen,
Jo4luia Hobart, and others, lie was chosen to represent the town's
interests in Nantasket lands, and in 1643 lie with Allen and
";finite] Ward had leave from the town to set un a corn mill
Ficar the cove. From Lieutenant Eames, through his three
daughters,-Ittilicent who married William Sprague, Elizabeth
wit,) married Edward Wilder, and Afarjory who married Capt.
Jelin Jacobs,_Jilanv of the people of Hingham are descended.
Pendiie, the settletiouit of the trouble in the company, tile
Gencral Court ordered, August 12, 1645, that " Lieutenant
Tory Shall be chief military officer lit Hingham, -fail act accord
ing, its other military officers till the court shall take further
orilcr.s." Lieutenant Tory was from Weymouth, and was fill
doubtedly appoinfed as a disinterested party to the. controversy.
Ile NN:14 Succeeded in tile. care of the company in Ala ' v, l(46, by
~Ibtj. Edward Gibbous. The same, day that Litarturifult Tory was
as~ivncd to fit(! charge of the company lit important Order was
passi'd b.% tile Cellerat Court to the effect that the collilliander of
ONVI'Y V"nlpauY should select thirh, men out of everv hundred in
their colikillarld N%ho Should be reffay for service at N'llf all hour's
noticl. ; :,ad furtfi(~r pr(vided In, tile thorough firinite, mad equip
pilu--- Of o%cr ouni, ivith penalties for neglect. Provision was also
made fit the _,\Iav se,~sion of the C'eneral Court for tile trainill" Of
youth betwe(-n the ages of ten and sixteen years of age, by experi
218 Mstor~j of ffinyhowl.

cliced officers, in the use of arms 11 as small guns, pikes, bows and
artows " hot excepting such is parents forbade. This order was
I'PoMV0d in uParIV fhO A391110 fill"" ilk 1"17 Ac.fhe~- cd~p e
vided that any mail not having arms might be excused from the
usual penalty by britighn, to the company clerk corn to one-fifth,
greater Value than the cost of the articles in which lie was defi
cient. 11 ],at if any person sliall not be able to provide himself
arms and ammunition through inere poverty, if be be single and
under thirt ' t, Yeats of age, lie shall be put to service by some ; if
lie be married or above thirty the constable sball provide him
arrus, and sliall appoint Iiiin with whom to earn it out." How
indicative are all these orders, both of the constant daDgel'S which
necessitated them, and of the efficient and untiring provisions
against surprise and ruin. The distaste for temporary officers

from other towns, and the danger from farther delay ah'alelitly led the people to seek a settlement of the military trouble, and we Iind in the State archives the following petition : -

Tho Horrible Petition of the Soldiers of Ilin.,liane, to the Honorable Court now sitting in Boston, Slieweth ThA Nve acknowledge ourselves thankful to you for many favors; especially considering flow little we have' deserved them, either from the Lord or you his instruments. Yet your bounty does encourage us and our own necessities forces us to crave help frorn you that so we may be provided for the defense of ourselves, wives, children, and liberties, against all oppressors. Therefore we crave this liberty, as the rest of our neighbors have which we take to be our due, to choose our own officers, "hich if granted it will be a great refreshment. But if lve lie not worthy of such a favor for present as your allowance herein, then that you would be pleased to set us in a way that we may be able to (to you servis and provide for our own safety and not be in such all uncomfortable and unsafe condition as we do. So praying for the presence of our Lord with you, we are yours as lie enables us and you command us.

III answer to this it was ordered that Bozonn Allen be lieutemant, and Josliua Hobart, ensign. Three years later at the request of the town both these officers were promoted, and Allen obtained at last the rank for which he had vainly striven six years before. Ile was a man of much force and consfderable pugnacity. On at least one, and probably two occasions he was compelled to humbly beg pardon for disre;pectful words spoken of Governor Dudley, and in 1647 he was ditomissed from the General Court for the session. He held, how-ever, many positions of honor in Hingham, being repeatedly elected a deputy, serving often with his friend Joshua Hobart. He came to Hingham in 1638, and as already mentioned was, with Lieutenant Eames, one of the owners of the mill. He removed to Boston in 1652 and died the same year. Joshua Hobart, a brother of the Rev. Peter Hobart, succeeded to the command of the company in 1653. He was a man of great

            Military History. 219

strength of character aint one of (lie raost distinguished citizens Ihv town has had. In 1641 ]1(,, was a member of the Ancient and I hunuable Artillery company, - then a military oi eanization

n-lis it depatv ocore than twerity-five times, serving with Allen,
Licuteriant fiouchin of Boston, - who, accot ding to the custom of
the time, oil several occasions served oil behalf of I linghain, - and
with other prominent citizens. III lGiO lie was oil a committee
to revise the laws, and in 1673 was chosen to audit the accounts
of the treasurer of the colony. In 1672 Captain Hobart and Lieu
lenaut Fisher presented their report upon the boundary line
bot%veon the colonies of Massachusetts Bay and Plvinouth which
they had been appointed commissioners to determine. In UN
lie was speaker of the Ilouse of Deputies. Ile was frequently a
sel(TInian and held other town ollices. Besides holding the posi
tion of commander of the military of Ifinediani durho, many years
wholl 1111weal ied vigilance, strict discipline, and constant prepai a
tiou were of the first importance to the welfare unit preservation
of the town, - for it must be remembered that suspicion, fear,
and at times open will- succeeded the defeat of the Pequods, and
that ;it no limc, was the danoer of destruction absent froin the
minds of the colonists,-Captain Hobart is said to have corn
mantled It company in active service in Philip's War. II is house
lot was oil Main Street and included the spot upon which stands the
Old Mecting-house, and here, in 1682, after haviin, been flinglialia's
ellivf offic-'r fill- nearly thirty years, lie died fill[ of boilers, at the
a.-w of sixQv_sc~vll vealls. Notwithstanding,, the uneasiness sue
cl.edill,_, the Pt~quod War,peace generally provailod betweelithe
C,doni~,ts and the Indians for It quarter of a century thereafter ;
s0th-awnts multiplied and the older towns not only grew ill linjo
I-I A, lall began to prosper wi(h the development of agriculture,
I In. pursuil"i or the lkhories, the birth of manufactures, the trade
ilk I"I'lls". and the c(ininerce whieli was already springirigg lip
with lhe Wvst India islands. [a the prosperity Ifingliam
shar'.41, altlealu'll her tn-o%%th was not rapid, and, as has been said,
the old I a IV a [if] vc(-10~ias't iCal diSSOTISiOnS at one time led to a
soli~,11~ b's, ill population, :11,11 consequent injury to the material

Th., S,.il %%:v, however fail- and in 111,111v places rich, and its slic... s,1t1I cullkation le'l to the ropid increase in the inunber and all ;L Of tht' - Idjujill" field, " which ~~Vrc I'

granted from time to
tillp" Our allapost eirellbir hn'bor slurountled and protected oil
all itb., 1, ' v hills t+)III"d with :1 noble 1--ron-th of oak, pine, and
V.-diLl', 111111 gilMd"I al il-~ t'llfrallec I)v the fill-PC beautiful islands
Idlit'll 1110' laithild S(Intilo-14 Stood :cl lailmukq ni-mingt the stornis
of I"" ol"'Il "1'1~311, carl , V 1"I'lled alle'llitin to Ilint'llinin as !ill
nd%allf~lgvolls Istillf Ior Ih-' ConIh action (I craft, ol various de
s" ipti(III !'I'll sizo, :11,41 the de% cl(pincilt of a prosperous foreign
220 History of Hingham.

Shipyards and wharves soon dotted the shore and multiplied
W:~]. ~Wd- and many , stately vessel received her
baptisin and commenced her perilous life in the little bay which
washes our coast. The commerce which subsequently was one
of the chief sources of local wealth began, too, almost with the
birlh of the town, and in 1679 we read of the loss at sea of a
vessel in which Joshua lJobart, one of lliulghant's stalwart mari
tiers, Avas a part owner. Before this Winthrop locations the over
turning off Paddock's Island of a small shallop of tell tons, in
which was John Palmer, whose house lot was oil Broad Cove, and
two otheis. This was in 1639, and ihe shallop was perhaps One
Of tile IiShili'll sallacks forming, the advance guard of the fleet which
lined our wharvcs and enriched many of out- citizens, and which
Only finally disappeared within a very few years past. But ~Oiilc
this town and fier sisters grew and prospered and pursued their
peaceful vocations, the shadow of a coming struggle lengthened,
and the inevitable contest between the white race and the red race
neared yearly and dnily its culmination. ]it 1666 the town " Lvd
out for powder, bulleis, and match, X11," -a very corisideraide
sum for the time, and indeed a very large proportion of the total
expendituies for the year. The following quaint order passed July
20, 1668, is interesting because of tho glimpse it aflords of the
customs, and vigilance of the period

It is ordered by the Selectmen of the town Ina all such p's's as are app' &, warned to watch oil the constables watch sliall from time to time appear :it the meetho, house half all hour after sunset to receive their char~ge ; and the constable is herel~y ordered to meet them there at the said time or soon after to give thein their charge according to law ; and we do also order that after tile new wqtch is come about its far as the meeting house that then the 2 constables ,hall take their watch" to give the watch in cliarge. tbit is, one coustable I watch & the other another & so by tunes till tile time is expired which the law sets for the keeping up the A watch.

A generation bad reached manhood since the extermination of
the Pequods ; tile town and till, colony Idike had attained to strength
and confidence born of prosperity, and a feeling of security re
sulting from unclaising, vigilance and preparation pervaded the
settlements. Nevertheless fear of the French, jealousy of the
Dutch, and suspicion of the Indian kept the weapons of prepa
ration bright. A rarnor now and ngain of soine forest outrage, an
actual barbarity, and possild ' v a self-consciousness of not tieing
without wron ' g on their own part, kept the colonists alert and
active. The military enactments of the General Court grow more
specific, more frequent, and more stern; the co-operation of the
towns and their own watchfulness became more marked. A
successful expedition against the French oil the Penobscot in
1653, and another to Niantick to suppress a Narragansett conspir-

            Military History. 221

acy in 1654, afforded valuable experience, although accompanied by little or no bloodshed. Suddenly the long anticipated conflict oj)vncd. An Indian was found drowned )it Assawaliset Pond near M i(lifleborough. Ile was a friend of the whites ; three Wantpanoags %vere arrested, tried, and executed for the murder. Oil tile 20th day of June, 1675, several houses were burned tit Swansea, and the greatest of New England's native warriors opened the first of the two campaigns which only laided with the


death of Philip at Mt. Hope August 12, 1676, sealing oil that (lay the fate of a mighty race, and after tile niost extreme suffering and cruelty on both sides.

Thirteen towns hall been wholly destroyed, and nian ' v more
sustained severe loss, while six hundred of the colonists lav dead
upon the battle-field. Oil the other hand, the power of tile red
mail was at On end in New England Their ivigivains had been
burned, their lvives and children sold into slavery, their warliors
slain, all(] the tribes almost swept out of existence. The history
is not a pleasant nor a wholly creditable one ; its detailed rela~
tioll fortunately belongs elsewhere. Into tile struggle howtvver,
the men of Hingham entered bravely, and within her i)orders at
Icast one incident in tile "
great tragedy was enacted. Before tell
in-- file storY of her contributions in inen and money, the lionor
ablo purt site took, and the lose she sustained, let us make it
skotch (if tho ol(l town is it appeared ill the summer of 1675,
robw:01- inel rvpcople at least some of the houses, rentaft tile. old
r0ads, -1-1ma-c at the occupations all(] characteristics and appeal-
mwe ,I tile inhabitants, and catch as we may in the gloanaing
"Ille tL%c!l-rV Of file homes and tile lives of our forefathers.
AwaY back in 1645 a limit hall narrowed the entrance to tile
iniwr kiv, thon a beauhful sheet of water, undivided by the
sIt',t lonliecting, Moill Street, and the harbor. Tide-gat" had
filullk . lost"[ the pass;i.,V, and lho fripluis Eanies and Allen had
s"I in iwoli,ol the bus% alwels which now fill- two hundred and
fift~ All lvals, in the s,ii-SlInic Spot, have Still , their music in
(he st:irlv~ 116,111i.00 alot tile oull-ey tiolilrilt alilCe, grinding file
V"Ill 1101 In, main (of the (Atlvis and their descendants for right
gvlwlati,lu~. Here,thell-ill this (pollingvear(I King, Philip'swar
tho little lihill stood a., 11mv. not, lar fl,(lll the publir landinIg-place
:it the I'mo. 1:11ilt ill lout h"-fs alul howil philks, with jolly
.1,1111 till, luill,l% ill till doore-av, ill(, rlish of :1, foaluill",
zlemn it Illut, enivr.:i I,, tile noith, and ill
d:llwill- lippl,s 1,1 flo' udu,., v poild reflevtill'-, in tile
noollin'-, fle- innts W flic for"'I which clolhod fln, sur
lwalillill'! till, 1101 viold dm%ll ill till' Non N%ofiVs ed"', it was
i1oh.,l :1 p1l I'lill pliv., : Ind 11,1o tho 1:11 lu-1. ll ilh the heavv ox
c;uI I'll In, 'mhli back roul sollul West bolinit
pol I , I In, lo (,l sl . (it(, i'ller I I out Un, toll It, the
squire, till' Captain , uld liml and agaill C\011 Parson Hobart hiln
224 Hilltory of Hingham.

church, and a man of no little consequence. Tile house in its modernized form still remains, and is the first one west of St. rank 8 1.1hurch. Directly 'In Its I-rowit is L HaNbel 1 11. loge, mintil ning the brook, and diagonally across the street, as already mentioned, was the abode of Samuel Lincoln, weaver and inariner, and of his soil Samuel, who served in tile war as a cornet of cavalry. Opposite the General Lincoln place, Broad Cove Lane, now Lincoln Street, branched off, passed a low, marshy thicket, which, cleared and filled, has become Fountain Square, climbed tile gentle slope beyond, and then descended again until it reached the broad, and then deep arm of the sea from which the lane was learned. Be)ond this point it continued for perhaps half a mile, and terminated in pastures and planting fields beyond. From it another lane running Dearly at right angles led, as does the wide avenue which has succeeded, to the deep water at Crow Point and to Weary-all-Hill, since called Otis Hill, where, through other lanes and by deep ruts and numerous bars the rich lands granted as planting lots were reached. Upon Lincoln Street were located the homes of tile Chubbucks, of John Tacker, and perhaps a few others; and oil the corner, and fronting oil Town Street, we should have found Benjamin Lincoln, great-,grandlather of General Lincoln. Be was a farmer, with a Youle, familv, and oil his lot stood the malt-bouse given him by his father, Thomas Lincoln, the cooper; here was carried on one of tile primitive breweries of our ancestors, and here doubtless was enjoyed really a glass (if flip. Mr. Lincoln's next neighbors to the westward were his brothers-in-law John and Israel Fearing, who occupied the family homestead nearly opposite to the site of the Universalist Church; while just beyond, and extending for a long distance up towards the West End, were the domains of the Bobarts, a very prominent family at the time. Here was Edmund tile younger, but now a venerable mail of seventy-two years, a weaver by trade, prominunt ill town affairs, and a twirl brother ol the minister. His house was near Hobart's Bridge, where with him lived his son Daniel, who followed his father's occupation and succeeded to his influence. Joint and Samuel, elder sells, Pind both just married, had their homes with or near their father, while just beyond. and opposite Goold's Bridge, tile Rev. Peter Hobart occupied the parsonage, which for forty years had been the centre of social ail(] intellectual life in the town. It mav be welt to mention here that the brook, which ill general occupies nearly its original bell for the greater part of its length, has had its course materbtlly altered in recent years between the site of John and Israel Fearinl,,'s house and HobarVs Bridge. It formerly fboved quite up to, ,in(] in places even into the present location of North Street between these points ; and the line of the sweep of the marsh and old Town Street is clearly indicated by the segment of a circle upon which the houses from

            Military History. 225

Mr. DaNid Cashin'-'s to the Andrews' are now built. Rev. Peter
Holail-Cs neighbors to the westward were Thomas Gill and his
sons. Liout. Thomas, and Samuel. and his son-iii-law, Josiah
Lane; and bv.~ )ad thein were Thomas and Ephraiiii Marsh, one
or Imlli of whom lived in tile paternal homestead which came
fnini Georgc'Maish, their grandfather, and which bounded west
eik, on Burton's Lane. Oil the further side of this passage-way
tile brothers Ephiahn Lane, who served in Captain Johnsoll's
eompany, an(l John Lane, the carpenter, occupied their father's
pl;ice, while near them Nvas George Lane, ail uncle. Oil Mars
Hill, Thomas Lincoln, the cooper, one of the old nien of tile vit
hl-w, and ancestor of the Benjamin Lincoln fairril ' v, occupied the
spot which has been the home of his descendants to the present
time. Jacol) Beale lived near bv, but the exact spot is not easily
located. Apparently Thivnins Hobart was the sole inhabitant if
West Street at this period, although Caleb Lincoln's house was oil
the corner, but probably facing Fort Hill Street. The latter's twill
brother Joshna, and their father, Thomas Lincoln, the husband
mail, were close by, as were Sergeant Daniel Lincoln and his soil
Daniel, Thomas ;in(] Ephraim Nicolls, Moses Collier, and Thomas
Lincoln, the carpenter, Henry Ward, Robert Waterman, Sainuel
St,mell ;in([ his sons John ~nd David, Joshua Beale, who inain
(aiia-d (lie druin, and his brother Caleb, at this tinie a coii
stahh! : all were located oil Fort Hill Street. Here also, and
probal)l , v (Pik the crown of the hill, and within a very few feet of
the sheet to which it gave its ilame, was erected at this thini one
,if tho dirce falls which formed a part of the defenlics against
lho Indians. The location was admirable, tile eminence over
hw1iin- and conunilil(thig the fertile fields on its several sides, as
11 it,; the villa,m clustered around its base, while the road to
''Y111olitil, 11111ch of the water supply, and a wide range of
cmintry wert! within the protecting file of its guns ; while signals
b% da~: or a bcaeon lk-ht at night would carry ail alarin to d :1 hant
I is
r,ints. Lvaviw~ this locality and proceeding along what is now
SoOth Sli-eut, we should have found oil the Gay estate of a later
&iv %Villiani Ilerse,Y, lind near him John and James and William
Ibosv.v fliv Yonriger, and Willow Hewitt and her brother-in-law,
Tililoth~ Hewitt. Oil the westerly corrier of Austin's Lane, now
Street, %%ere John Beale, and John his soil, while oil tile
-ist-1% collow another garrison house formed the connectile,
4b.h.11re beNeen tile fort at West Hirighain unit Captain An'
lln-s' ~1,ariis,,n house at Broad Bridee. The house belolil-ed to
Slu%cn Lincoln, 211111 tile Camearl collage stands nearly upon its

In ill(' ininiediate vicinity were Simon Cross, J;)shua LinNwhald Wood, and Sainuel Bair, who halt a daughtvi. Imin Alkil 12, 1676, -iii tile garrison,"-not improbably the glarri-1,111 h(lise (I Steven Lincoln, which was undoubtedly already Ps'"IpiUll nS a pIaC0 Of refuge in consequence of tile aflurn pre I.,i., , ~ - 15

2'~ 6 I-listary of Ilinghant.

after in tile south part of the
ceding the attack of a few d9Y8 Cutler, know,, as,, the Dutch
town. Other uOighbors were Dr. In Bate's house ,food
Arthur Caillo; while Josef)
."o-" Boa of tile eighth generation
William 0. Lincohl, who '8 tile
                W resides,- Clement Date,

ocelipyinig tile Sallie spot, 'to rell Nathaniel
irst. Next east IiN
father 0 Joseph' being the r eatable, Bud who bit a formerIv
Beal, Senior cordwaincr and C( d
'by tile sefectaleal to keep all ordinary to sell sack ail
been V110sell have been engaged in tile same
widers, and tvito inay, still bout opposite Thaxter"
stron.a His home Nvas a lot occupied by
Ordinary and
pa's"""t Across tile travelled W,a)-, ,And oil the
hr! , . t Court holds its sessions, were
tile building it, %hich tile Distric,. tile place where tile strong
tile stocks,-con"niOntlY ,ell were
ich perhaps ft~equentlY led to t1heir occupancy,
,,vitters, wit le,valtifet it, all its long course
dispensed. The street 'low so I. is the Street of tile
fr,uj Broad Bridge to Queen Anne"' COrIlc , ~gono little change
([it days V bjell we are picturing V still has ""del at that tiluc
of location. Its northeriv Part as kllo\trn at tile 11111
ins Bachelor's ROW- Ny; must TeQoltect, it - tile pres
emy stands
, file,, cctended Ove,
upon which Derby Acad ical.h. to tile houses Oil tile West,
V'ut llail" Street slopilIg down I sent level Of
. .,'south it fell as-ay io about tile Pre again com
and ilicit gain, flail wben tile Went
the street in front of Lot ing I ite tile Bit%-
      erivillating in quite a little eminence oppos

Incriced, t. but Which has jargely disappeared through the cuffing
t beyond,-- S
sOtt ))Ouse Of the swampy trac
off of tho'crowit and the filling e vicinity Of
hich rOpeated a short distance South, in thl&jIl Street
process W I oil the appearance of
Water Street. hag also niOI16 I was in fact a NBC-
      ~eriaily at that point. The old roa( I , sly until after

quito "'at descents almost continue',
j lulcents and , meeting-hullso,
cession 0 Hill. The first Ige vYb,cb 1),
tile lovel above Pear-tree 'a
reaching j,ill near Broad Bri( I
      livin the part of the I w, rods in front

stood of
been removed and probably not Is" Iyor", and a fe ell described.

Of, tile Site Oj Derby Acadcol ' I' It Ila$ already 1) -house
over the hill and probably to file eastward of the Meeting
ase, -,,is another, doubtless more easy
ran a road and around tile 1) point near the
      I The4e two CO""Dcnclng at the same

to traVe ft"aill ~Rt or near where Loring Hall
bridge, Scott united into (110, 1 mecting-bouse
, bill %lid around tile
Stands. On tile slopes Of ill less thought to
car fathers were buried, and there they douldrest in the old
      ,,disturbed forelrer,Their remains nowtiogarriSon,-a

    sleep u oil in life they were t

    fort ill the cemetery, of wU This fort, still

    most fitting sepulchre for tile sturdy old Soldiers. in an admirallic State of preservation, was Probably erected in

        cal-tv in 1676, and was tile main defence Of the inhabi-


    1675 o it, li~evlooked and commanded st of tile village and

    taills. I and in connection With the palisaded

    the inain approaches theretl , , brook, provided

    Meeting-hOuse slid tile garrirott house across tile

              Military Ilistory. 22Z

ample protection to the settlement. Tile two latter completely covered the strearn for ;I long distance, making it impossible for the Indians to deprivo the townspeople of its mvect waters. Nearly every house on the lower part of Main Street ivas within range, and under the Protection of the guns of the fort, which al so commanded all unobstructed view of tile whole territory between Captain Andrews' and tile barbor, whose blue waters, framed in their bright setting of green, then as now inade a beautiful and peaceful picture, as seen from its ramparts. The present appearance of the fort is outwardly that of a circular, sodded embankment, two or three feet in height, upon which are planted Several of the oldest of tile gravestotics; but from within, the earth walls appear to be consideraldy higher, and the excavation is rectangular, with sides about forty feet in length. In the centre, from the summit of a mound, there rises a pblin granite Shaft, inqcribed upon the southwesterly and northeasterly sides respectively as follows: -

        To TOR EnEciEn


        OF TOWN,

        11INGITAM, 11839.

The life flon. Solomon Lincoln, in his 11 History of Hingham," mentions in a foot-note a tradition related to him as coming front Dr. Gay, to the effect that " this fort was built from the, fear of invasion by the sea, by the Dutch, etc." There call be no doubt that the tradition referred to another fortification, also in tile cemetery, probably built for defence against the Dutch or the Spanish, the remains of which werc discovered a few years since while constructing a road in that part of the bur)ing-ground towards Water Street, by ~Afr. Todd, the superintendent. Tile location, as described bv him, was on the northerly side of the hill formerly owned by fBaac Hinckley, whose family lot is upon its crown, the Situation entirely commanding the harbor and its approaches, and affording a magnificent view, and a valuable outlook for military purposes. Tile defence was probably in tile nature of a stone battery, upon which it was intended to mount a gun or guns, and the remains consisted of several tiers of large "tone"' Placed regularly together and backed by earth. Unfortunately thev have been removed.

On Bacliefor's Row,and near where Plan Street now intersects tho main highway, Daniel and Samuel Stodder, brothers, and each With

· numerous family, occupied neighboring houses. Daniel attnined
· greater age than has any other person in Hingham, dying
at one hundred and four years. A few ods South, Ensign Joseph
r I

Joy, by occupation a carpenter, bore them companY ; and On tile opposite side of the street, and not far from Where'tbe Oil] Afecting-house now is, was the home of blacksmith and lieutenant Jeremiah Beale, with his family of seven children, Close by, for

~23 History of Hingham.

a neighbor, was the famous Captain of the Trainband, Joshua Hobart, the most prominent of the townspeople, excepting his brother, the minister. As already said, his lot included 'tile 11and upon which the meeting-bouse of 1681 stands.

Here too, then, or a little later, we should have found probably the only gathering-place outside the Meeting-bouse, for the matrolls of these early times in our history; for here Dame Ellen, the worthy wife of the Captain, kept a little shop, in which were sold the gloves and ribbons, the laces and pins and needles arid thread, and possibly even, now arid then a piece of dress goods of foreign make, and all the little knick-knacks as dear arid as necessary to out- great-great-grambnothers as to the wives and sisters of the present day. Upon the homestead of his father on the easterly side of the street, lived Samuel Thaxter, a cordwainer, and ancestor of Joseph R. Thaxter, who occupies the same spot ; while a little south, arid about opposite the licad of Water Street, Andrew Lane, a wheelwright, settled upon a lot of some four acres, with John Mayo near by. A little beyond, and very near to where Winter Street intersects Main, Joint Prince, a soldier of the war , - made his home. At this point also we should have Been the taimery of the Cushings, stretehing for a considerable distance along the street, as tanneries almost always do, with the sides of leather drying in the sun, the bits scattered here and there, the piles of red balk, and the inevitable tan entrance and driveway ; all making, the air redolent All an odor by no means disagreeable.

Upon the lot now occupied by Dr.Robbins at the foot of Pear-tree Lim, it rew rods north oc his residence, Mattliew Cushing, who died in 1660 :it seventy-mic years of age, the progenitor, probably, of all tile fanailies oCthat name in the United States, had established the home which remained uninterruptedly in the family until 1887 ; and here still lived his wife, who died subsequently to the war, aged ninety-six, his son Daniel, then and until his death town clerk, and one of the wealthy men of the period, and Mattliew a grandson, afterw.,iril,~licuteiiitiit,,tiidc,,tptaiii. Not far away Matthew Cushing serior'sdatighter Deborah lived with her husband, Matthias Brig ,

I g_s while oil the opposite side of the street, at what is now the Keeshan place, Daniel the younger, It weaver by trade, established a home arid reared a numerous family. The Cushings were shopkeepers in addition to their other occupations, and probably the little eild shop built onto the dwelling oil either side of the street contained articles of sale and barter, - produce and pelts and WQst India goods %all aninumition. We may suppose that these small centres of trade, together with the tannery in the immediate vicinity, gave quite a little air of business to the neighborhood,-forming indeed the primitive exchange of the period.

Not far from where Mr. Fearing Burr's store now is, Lieut. John Smith, Captain Hobart',; able second in rank, bad a horne and a fort combined, being one of the 11 garrison houses " whose wise

              Jfildary Ifistory. 229

location probably saved the town from a general attack. Licittenant Rmith is stated to have bc(,u in awtk c service (hiritiP, I lie war, an(a to have commanded a fort. Ile was a mail of neirked ability, holding many positions of public trust, repri,sunfin', tile town In tile General Court and succeeding to the command of the foot company in 168.3, after the death of iJ~;ptaiii Hobart, H(.- was also one of the wealthiest of 11higharn's inhabitants, loin ho, property valued at upwards of X1100, a considerable tuni for tile time. Commencim, at his house and thence extendau, south to tile present location of Pleasant Street arid cast to that of Spring Street and bounded north by Leavitt, and west bY Main Street, was a large common or training-lield in which, probably not far

o froin where is now the Public Librar~y, was flinghtlin's tbird fort,
doubtless under the immediate charge of Lieutenant Smith ; and
which in connection with_his garrison house, provided a fair
means of defence to most of tile houses on the plain. Armliul
this field were the lots of many of the first settlers, and the homes
of their descendants formed at this time quite it village. Among
them oil Main Street was that of Matthew Hawke, afterwards
tile third town clerk. From him is descended Col. flawkes Fear
ing, whose house~ is upon the same spot Mattliew, one of tile first
settlers, was by occupation it schoolmaster. His granddaughter
married John Foarin,~, Colonel Fearing's paternal anm~stor.
James Hawke, son-of Matthew, also resided at Hingham centro
and probably with his father,-he t(io becowing, town clerk in
1700, succeeding Daniel Cushing ; and was hirliself socceeded ill
the, same office by his son James, also a resilient of this part or
the town,and withwhointhe naineveased. Ile 1elttwodaiq,htci.,;,
one becoming the mother of John llari~ock. Next them was Fran
cis James, and but a short distance further south, aboat where Air.
David Hersey's house now is, was the homestead of the Riple ' vs,
and oil or near it were located John Riple ' v and Joint junior and
hisbrotherJoslum. Tiieiriieqrestiiei,l~lil)oi-,JoliiiBttlil~,(~'oodiii~tii
Bull " wall the progenitor of many of the present inhabitants of tile
towi;. Bull's Potid, a sruall bit of water oppoloto Gratitl Ario ' Y
l1all,takes itsnaniefrom the old sQttler,and inarks the location of
his property. On Leavitt Street Deacon John Leavitt, fidlo), and
the father of thirteen children, hall the grant of I hougo lot. Ile,
appears, however, to have inade his home is far froin the centre ql;
lie well could, as his resilience was in that part ol tho town known
as " over the Delaware." He was not onlv oil(! of (lie (ioaeons of
the church, but it trusted lind leadin-u eitizen and n1licto-, ropn~sejjt
hor the town for tuativ years in the General Court. His two soii~,
Josiah the cooper and farmer, and Israel the husbandman, lived
on the same street. Nathaniel Baker, a farmer, larg-v landowner,
and a selectman in 1676, an(] it soldier it) the wor, wits coliven
icittly located at tile junction of Leavitt and East streets. Never
theless we find under date of Dec. 18, 1676 the following : -
230 History of Hingham.

To the Constable of Illugham. You are hereby required ill his all jestvs natur. forthwith at the sight hereof to destraiDe upon the goods or chattels of Nathaniell Baker of this Town to Clio value of twenty -hilling-. for his entertaining a Indian or Indians contrary to a Town order wbi~.h fine is to be delivered to the selectmen for the use of the Town. Hereof you are not to fail. Benjamin Bato in the name of & by the order of the rest of the, Selectmen of Ifinglami.

This is a true copy of the warrant as attest Moses Collier Constable of Ilingloull.

The title imposed upon Mr. Baker was in consequence of his disobedience of all order passed by the town forbidding the craployment or entertainment of all Indian by any person. It was almost immediately followed by petitions from Baker, John Jacobs, and others to the General Court asking that they be permitted to retain their Indian servants, and it appears from the State Archives that the followin., similar request had already been granted. It is of added interest for its illustration of the conduct of the war and the standard of the times.

John Thaxter fictitious the Ilon. Gov. and Council now sitting in
Boston &c. that his son Thomas Thaxter was in service under the earn
maud of Capt. Benj~ Church at Martini's Vineyard and Islands adjoining
where the ' v made many captives and brought theta to Plymouth; and
Captain Church gave ye petitioner's son an Indian boy of At nine years
old and the selectmen having made an order that no Inhabitant sball keep
say Indiana in his family, &c. - hence the petition - Granted Jan. 11,

Froin file residence of Nathaniel Baker, going cast, there were few, if iny, houses until reaching the vicinity of Weir river on East Street, then a little travelled lane. Here, however, we gliould leave collie upon the farm of John Farrow with whom lived his Polls Jubn and Nathan, while beyond and near if not upon the very spot where the Misses Beale now live, was the last residence of Sergeant Jeremiah Beale ; and near him his friend and Deighbor Purthee McFarliti, the Scotelinian, found himself blessed with nine bonny lassies and three sturdy laddies. Beyond, in what is now Cohasget, then known at; the Second Precinct, there were a few settlements whose story seems properly to belong to that of our 4ister town. On the farther side of the common before referred to, Simon Burr the farmer, arid his son Simon, a cooper, located on a lane which has since become School Street; and not far off, Cornelius Cantleberry, John Mansfield, and big son John, arid perhaps a few others made homes for themselves. On the corner of Union Street Captain Eames had lived, and it was in that part of tile town known then as now is 11 over the river," and where let ael Whitconih grows his beautiful asters in such profusion, that Millicent Faines, daughter of Capt. Anthony, went to live with her husband William Sprague, the first of a long line of descendants

              Military History. 221

many of whom have become celebrated - and here in this exciting period was a little settlement almost by itself, of which Antony and William Sprague, tile y-

old man, his son Joseph will o""ger, "ObOck i0fics, then quit(, an
jo I his family, and tile Lazolls, Joint
and his 80118 shua arid Stephen, formed the greater part. From
the Lazells the street hearing their name, was called, and probably
their homes were ,poll it. Leaving the'
I common With its fort in
eas , v reach of all the surrounding houses, and Hlolvin~ file general
direction of Mnin street as it low lies, we slintild 11"qv(3 come, at
Cold Corner to the lot allotted John Tower- Upon it Ile built his
house, which was admirably located for defence fron, Indian
attack, ,end commanded not Only a considerable portion of Ibe
highway, but also a long line of,the river Emit no inconsiderable
part of the country in its vicinjity. Tower was a resolute mall,
who determined to take adiautag~ of big position still defend his
hoinq lintraminelled by the behosts of tile town authorities. To
this end Ile petitioned as follows : -

To the tionoriat Gov- & Council convened in Boston, March 10, 1675,
Join, Tower Senior of Hin.0non is bold to inform our Ihmors that lie
& one or tivo persons more that he may hire at his
thlath lijitshfismorwumersoper charge fortified his house & y
own cost may be allowed W hiln for garrisoning his ho begg your flavor
ouse; and may not
be called off by the Comittee of the Town for to collie into any other
ga . a sonns having deserted their own dwellings and brought their
"To , any
good, into my fortification. I shall thankfully tv-1knoaledge your Honors
ifavor herein & be thereby further obliged to pruy for a blessing oil your
counsels. Your humble Servant
                        J. TOWER, SENIOR.

]brook Tower, one of his sales, probably lived near his father, and together with John Jr., Jeremiah, and Benjamin, constituted the 11 four sonns " of which his garrison was to mainly consist. John Tower was not only- a brave mail ' but a diplomatic one also, and is said to leave possessed no little influence with the red men. There is a tradition that even during the war, and while lurking
in the vicinity, the Indiana permitted him to get water from t00 river without molestation.
Edward lVilder, Jr., ancestor of all the Hingham Wilders and husband of Elizabeth Eames ' owned at one thtle all the land between Tower's and Wilder's bridges and resided between High

and Friend streets , on Main. Ile was a soldier in the war against
Philip. With him lived his son Jabez and in the iinutediate
vicinity several more of his children, including Ephraim and John.
Tl b ban) was ocen-
is region a out the inceting-house at South Hill,,
pied largely at this time by the Jacobs a wealthy and influential
family. -Foremost artiong 'them was C~pt. John jacob, a member
Of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Compan ' v ' probably one
of its officers and perhaps at one time its commander, and ,it; able
232 History of Hingham.

and trusted officer in the war against Philip. Captain Jacob
a, , to flue com, luld of Captain Johnson's company after
suiveec eu L 1i Un-

that officer's death, nud directed the defences at Medfield when that town was attacked and partially destroyed Feb. 21, 1676. Oil this occasion there were with him Lieutenant Oakes and twenty troopers, besides his own foot company of about eighty men. The only Hingham naine upon the roll at this time of which there is reasonable certainty, besides his own, is that of Nathaniel ]'eat. With Captain Wadsworth, Captain Jacob was engraged during the winter in (nitirdinIg the frontiers from Milton 6 the Plymouth colony bounds,-Weymouth, Ifilighain, and Ifull, being, specially assi~,,ried tothe latter. The service was an importa tit and arduous one, and these towns were fortunate in having so -able an officer assigned to their protection ; it may well be that to this is to be aserdied the small loss sustained from attack by ally of them

4during the two eventful years. Ile was among thi moneyed men of the town, his estate being appraised at X1298. He owned a sawmill and a f tilling mill, besides much land and considerable perBrand property. Ile too was a son-in-law of Captain Entries, having married his daughter Marjery. Their soil John, a young man of twenty-two years and who had served in the war, was perhaps the only inhabitant of Hingham ever killed in the course of militnry hostilities upon her own soil.) Preceding the descent upon the southern part of the town , to be hereafter spoken of, he was shin near his father's house April 19, 16746. Joseph, a brother of Captain Jacob, was also a resident of this part of the town, and Samuel Bacon, who married Mary Jacob, and Peter Bacon were ricar neighbors. At Liberty Plain, Ilumphrey Johnson, who laid been turned out of Scituate, set up the house which be removed from that town, but only on condition that lie should remove it out of Bingliam on short warning, as be was it troublesome man. Later he was admonished to accept a fence line quietly. Be, however, in part atoned for his sbort-comings by, serving his country in the conflict then going on. His soil Benjamin, ablacksmith and afterwards proprietor of Pine Tree Tavern, doubtless resided with his fattier at this time. Other residents of Liberty Plain werefaines Whiten, whose house. was burned by the Imlians, and his soil James who lived near by, and William Ilifiard. Oil Scotland Street a Scoteliman, Robcat Dunbar by name, made his hoine, and from him haic descended the Dentists of the present time. Nathaniel Chubbuck, also one of those whose houses were destroyed oil the 20th of April, lived not far away, and probably near or upon Accord Pond.

On the 25th of February, 1675, it was ordered, on request of Capt. John Jacob, " that his house Atinding in the pass between this colony and Plymouth be forthwith garrisoned, and such an are his nearest neighbors are to joyne therein." This was the last of the defences of the town of which we have any knowledge,

            Military Kistory. 233

although it is more than probable that there were other garrison houses in file small hatialets, like that " over the river " or the one in the viclulty of We'r Mver. The , pass- where Captain
                      F I

JacollB garrison house was situated is somewhat uncertain. It may have meant simply the-Sstreet leading toward Plymouth Colony, or possibly~ the Indian trail near Accord Pond was so denominated.

This, then, was the Hingham of 1675, and those, with perhaps a few more whose names the kindly and gentle hand of time has shadowed into the great oblivion, were the heads of families in this olden time,- a little town consisting of perhaps one hundred and twentv homes, divided alitiong several small villages and it few nearly isolated settlements; a lialf-dozen or so streets, of whieliTown, 01' North, Fort Hill Street, South, Bachelor's Row, it part of Leavitt, what is now School, and the part of Main f runt Bacliclor's Row proper to the extreme southern boundary, were the principal., These strects,however, were incre grassy lanes,almost unimproved, whose deep-cut ruts were strangers toany other vehicles than the heavy, lumbering teams which served as farm wagons two centuries ago. Here and there it is probable that necessity or the public spirit of an individual, or perhaps the combination of several, lead resulted in tfiffin~g attempts at road making, and in some of the swappy sections bits of corduroy were constructed. One such, at least, was upon the low approaches to the brook at Broad Bridge, and some of its remains were found several years since, and e% ~n yet lie in the bottona of its bed. Road surveyors and superintendcuts and working out of taxes, and even taxes themselves, were for the most part blessings of a later period. There were no sidewalks either, and along the little side paths leading front house to house and farm to farm, the blue violet bl",sonied in the early days of May as now, and the white violet scented the air with its delicate fra-rance, while the wild rose and the golden red in their season made the ways bright with their beauty. The chipmunk, his checks filled with the yellow Indian maize stolen f rom the adjoiiiin-, field, sat saucily upon the fresh-cut stmop and chipped at the passer, while the golderi-winged woodpecker tapped for instTis in the tree overhead, the kingfisher flashed his steel-blue breast across the waters of the bay and uttered his shrill cry, and the robla and the cat-bird danced along with their falmliar friendliness before the settlers' feet. On either hand, and nestling near tolgetber for mutual protection, were the low log or liewri-board thatchroofed homes of the people, in most of which glazed windmvs, were unknown, the light entering through oiled-paper pare, ind the opened door. Heavy board shatters added soniothin-,, to the warmth and much to the safety of the interior after dark. rhe roolng were few in number, implastered and not always %heathed inside, while a single. chimney, with it great open fireplace :1114 a crane, served as oven and furnace alike. Here and there, how

234 , Histai-y of Hingham.

ever, more pretentious, and in one or two cases perhaps, even stately edifices bad been crected, Some of these had a second story" overhanging slightly the first, and this added greatly to the power of resisting an atta~k. A few had glass windows, and here and there a little shot) protruded froul one end. Besides there the three forts, the garrison houses, and the InCetilIg-bouse gave a certain diversity and rough picturesqueness to the landscape. Fine tracts of wood covered a large part of the territory, but nuuncrous planting fields had been granted from time to time, and the axe of the settler during forty years had made no inconsiderable mark, and the clearings had been industriously cultivated from Otis, or Weary-all-Hill, to World's End. The roil Was Dew and fairly good, and prosperity had lightened the lot of not a few, so that while certaitily far from rich as wealth is measured in tbeRG days, the appraisal of some estates indicates the accumulation of the means of considerable comfort and influence. The people were for the most part sturdy, industrious, EDglisb farmers with a fair proportion of carpenters, blacksmiths, and coopers, more, probably, than the necessary number of inn-keepers with their free sale of stroug-water and malt, a few mariners, several inill owners and millers, two or three brewers, not a larger number of sholi-keepers, a tailor, a tanner perhaps, one or two 41 gentlemen," a schoolmaster, and last, and on inany accounts most important of all, the parson. As already said, the inhabitants were for the most part English, but a largc~ proportion of the younger generation was native born, and there was also a small sprinklp

of Scotch. In addition there remained a few Indians, whose wig
wams were pitched outside the settlement, besides a small number
employed as servants in the house,; of several of the whites ; and
in the same capacity a nogro might here and there have been
found. From a people mainly composed at first of the British
middle-class, impelled to emigrate and settle rather froin an am
bition to improve their worldly lot than from any dee"cated dis
satisfaction, either with the government or institutions of home,
or even from especially intense religious aspirations, there had
developed It rober, industrious, earnest, self-sustaining community,
whose energy wng already laying the foundations for the com
merce with the, West Indies which afterwards became extensive,
and for the varied manufactures which for so many years gave
employment to our people. A few small shallops too were
owned here, and wine of the inhabitants had an interest in one or
two vessels of larger size; but fishing, which subsequent] * y became
a great industry, had scarcely began at this period. The real
business of the settlement as yet was farming. The families of
the day were not small, and year by year added to their proper
tions ; Rev. Peter Hobart himself was father to no less than
eighteen children while others were hardly less numerous. Men
and women alike were commonly dressed in homespun, and un-

              fflilitary Ilistary. 235

doubtedly the style of their garments was that so often seen in the pictures of the period. Carl we not, for the moment, people our st-ots with them once. more ? - the men in their tall-crowned, broad-brimined hats, the short coat close-belted, with broad buckle in front, the knee breeches, long stockings and buckled shoes varied by the better protection of loiny boots worn by others, especially ill winter, and in this latter season the long cape lian~ing gracefully from the shoulders ; the women in their beMen, g hoods, faced it may be with far, the straight, rather short skirts, and the long enveloping cloaks, with gloves or mittens ill cold weather.

The costumes were picturesque if the materials were not of the finest, but we have no reason to suppose all uttor absence of more elegant fabrics when occasion demanded, and not a few are the traditions of silks which would stand alone, carefully treasured as their chief pride by our great-great-grandiuothers, while doubtless velvet costs and knee-breeclies, with famous pasto or silver buckles, ana perhaps even a bit of gold lace, about this time forbidden by the General Court to all but certain excepted classes, found proud and dignified wearers oil days of inipoitance among the town fathers and military commanders. We read, too, of the bequest of swords in some of the Nvills of the period, and it is not unlikely that they were at least occasionally, worn by the grandoes of the town, as well as by the trainband officers, oil ceremonious occasions. Nor must it be forgotten that froul necessity, as well as by mandate of law, the musket had become so constant a companion that, though strictly not an article of dress, it may at least be considered as a part of the costume of the men ; it was upon their shoulders in the street, it tested against the nearest tree when the former toiled, it went with him to inecting oil the Sabbath, and leaned, ready loaded, in the corner at the house when he was at home.

The heavy cloud which had so long threatened Plymouth, and which finally burst upon Swansea in June, was exicilding over Massachusetts also. The border towns were ininiodiately upon the defensive. Hingham, with her boundary upon that of the Plymouth Colony, and peculiarly bound to it by neilghborlicod, by frequent marriages between hop families and those of the Pilgrim settlements, and by the removal of some of their people to live among hers, may well have benefited by the kindly intinences of the sister colony, and imbibed a liberalisin and iinalgination not common among the Puritans. At all events, no persecution for conscience' sake mars the records of the, old town, which a little later loyally followed for more than half t~ century the teachings of Dr. day, with his broad and embracing Christiftnity. Now, with sympathy for her friends and apprehension for berself, the town quietly, soberly, grimly prepared for the contest, and awaited the call for duty.

236 Hi3lory of Hingham.

Under Captain 17fobart's direction tile three forts were erected
the garrison houSes provisioned, and the careful watch and Strict
discipline maintained. The -11'111.Cr Slilo)VA ilA'a,V. the 1)0(1)IC
pursuing their usual vocati ons. The drum-beat at sunrise
relieved the wear , v Sentinel, called to life tile sleeping, town, an(]
put in motion the industries of the field, the shop, all(] the bomp.
And while the men labored at their various vocations, the women
were qually industrious ; for not milly were the children and the
homes and the dairies to be cared for, but the Ter ' v clothes must
be woven and made in tile kitchen of c~ery house. Probably the
mill, the imis, and the inalt-houses were favorite places of
gathering for the men during their leisure moments, while Mrs.
Hobart's shop formed the ladies' exchange of the period, and
numv it confidence tied bit of gossip were here whispered, only
to rjach tile goodman's cars a few hours later.

Oil the Sabbath-day all attended meeting, and after the services - probably several hours long -lingeted around the porch to exchange greetings and make inquiries hbout friends and relations too scattered to visit during tile week.

Ali occasional sail whitened tile placid bosom of the little circular harbor, whose outlet was nearly hidden by the three islands with their dark cedar foliage. Grand old trees here rairrored theinselves, and again in the waters of the inner bay and the beautiful pond, which belonged to Plymouth and Massachusetts alike, while fields of maize ripened and yellowed on the hillsides.

The sharp stroke of the axe, the occasional rep~;rt of a musket, the voice of the plowman talking to his cattle, the grinding of the mill wheels, the music of the anvil, the merry splash of the bounding Stream, the whir of the partridge, the not distant howl of tile wolf, the stamp of tile startled deer, the cracklitig of dry boughs beneath the foot of art Indian, whose swarthy form flitteil silently and ominously along the trail to the sister colony,these were the every-day sights and sounds of the summer of 1675.

The weeks following the attack oil Swansea had seen the up
rising of tribe after tribe, allies of Philip, the destruction of town
after town in various parts of the colon.c, and tile ambuscade and
defeat of various bodics of troops under brave and able officers.
United action oil the part of Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Coil
neeticut became necessary. Governor Wimdow was appointed
c mmander-iii-chief, mid :~dditional companies were raised b ' v tile
turee colonies. Among these was one commanded by Captain
Johnson, of Roxbury, -already a distinguished' Officer, who had
led a company of' Praying Indians in tile earlier days of the cori
flict. Ife was known as the brave Captain Johnson, and in his
command it was the good fortune of a part of the men froun
our town to serve. The following quaint report marks Hing.
bam's entry into tljo struggle, and indicates also the names of
thoge who served IA%r in the field: -

            Military History. 2,37


in perstlanCe, Of all order from the lJon. Major Thomas Clarke bearing into of lhe 29 of v' 9 in 167.1), we have accordingly by the Constables ,iven notice to our soubliers impressed for tile COUTILrys service to appear ;s expressed in the sayd order and find those that appear completoly iurlished for the service. Others we are informed [are] to be at Boston nakitc, provision for the sayd service. So as we [he able] they will be !Oulpletely furnished according to sayd order.

The names of these iouldiers ire as fc0lows, Benja Bates, John Jacob, -John 1,anglee, Edward Wilder, Thomas Tbaxter, Ebenezer Lane, Soulmerwell Lincoln Jun,, Ephraim Lare, John Lqzell, John Bull, William Woodcock, Williain Hersey Jun', Francis Gardner, Nathaniel Beal Jaw, Nathaniel Nicols, Humphrey Johnson.

JOSHUA HOBART, Captain. JOHN SNEIT11, Sergt. HINGHAM, DeC. 1, 1675.

Upon inilairy 4 of the above souldiers are found to want coats which
,ve hope will be taken at Boston to supply. J. H.

William Woodcock was missing when the time came to march, but lie Subsequently appeared and Served.

In addition to the above, the New E, ngland Historical and
Genealogical Re0ster gives the nimes of the following as in
aervicefroinHinglutin: lionryChaluberliit,WillianiChiinl)erliii,
Joseph Benson, Christ. Wheaton, Isruic Prince, Isaac Cole, Sam
nel Nicholson, John Dunbarr, Paul Gilford, Richard Francis, John
Chamberlin, and Dr. John Cutler. Dr. Cutler, known as 11 the
Dutchman," was one. of the Surgeons attached to the Massachu
setts reniment under Major Appleton at the great battle with the
Narragiro;ctts. In his professional capacit ' Y, the care of John
Langlee and John Paxton, wounded fellow-townsmell, fell doldit
less to him. A note also says that Josiah the Saganioro went to
fight against the Mohawks. A report of Capt. John Holbrooke,
of Weymouth, shows that lie hall open his rolls six men and four
horses, and two men I rom flitilvioun, but that among tile 11 de
fcctq" were Jac. Feros and Arthor Sherman front our town.
From the town records we ~et the muries of many individuals
paid for arms and coats lost in the war. Among them are Samuel
Stodder, a sergeant, James Whiton, AndreW Lane, Ephraim Wil
der, and Simon Brown. By the Same authority we learn that
Nathaniel Baker helped fill the town's quota. The following
pvtition from the State archives adds two soldiers to our list: -

To tile much hou" Governeur and the rest of Y, llon'4 Ma.,estrates now sitting in Courcill, the petition of James Bate of Hingham, fluillbly showeth, that whereas your petitioner havine, now for the ,pace of more than two niontle; had two sons prest nltO the service against the I ndians whoruby many inconveniClICYCS and great Damages have been Sustained i:' ~ u, for wzolt of my Vldest Son who hath house' and hold and Cattle Of I i; own adjoining to mine bcin.g a mile from tile Town and therefore nobody to look after them in his absence, and whereas there are many in

238 History of Hingham.

our Town that have many sons that were never yet in this Service who have also declared their willingness to take their Turns and seing God

1 ~ ath men p, 1 -1 . . I . _. .
1 icased hitherto W spare their Jlves, JI he should Pow take
them away before I doe again see them (upon several considerations) I
know not how I should beare it. My hunible request therefore to your
Ilonours is that you would be pleased to consider our Condition and
grant them a Release from their Long service. So shall you its lie is in
duty bound for your Horiours prosperity pray and remain yours to serve
in what lie is able.
                          JAWlEs BATE,

These sells were probably Joseph and Benjamin. Besides these, Cushing tells us in his diary that, oil October 28, 1675, his sou Ybeophibus was pressed for a soldier, and marched to Alendon, unit that oil December 11 lie returned home.

]it 1725 seven townships were granted to the officers and soldiers living, -end the licit s of those deceased, who were in the war of 1675; one of these townships was Bedford, and among the grantees were it number from Hingham. Besides including part of the nanics already given as in the service during this eventful period, we find those of Joseph Thorn and Samuel Gill, then still living. Cornelius CURtlebury's heirs, John Arnold's heirs, and Israel Vickery for his father. lit this connection it may be interesting to add that on June 6, 1733, a meeting of the proprietors of Bedford was held oil Boston Common, and that Col. Samuel Thaxter presided, and that subsequently lie, with others, was appointed on a committee to lay out the town. Including Capt. John Jacob, we are thus enabled to furniAll the names of some forty-five inch who served from RiDghant in the war against the great Indian warrior. Besides these there were the six or eight in Captain Holbrooke's company, and doubtless very many others whose names the imperfect lists have failed to preserve to us. Indeed, if tire tradition that Captain Hobart commanded a company in active service is well founded, the probability is very st~oag that it was largely, if not entirely, composed of Ifinghain men.

The day after the draft for Captain Johnson's company was observed as a " solenin day of prayer and humiliation, to supplicate the Lord'B pardoning mercy and compassion towards his poor people, and for success in the endeavors for repelling the rage of the erienny."

Oil the 20th of December, after a night spent in the open air
without covering, and a toilsome march through deep show,
tile combined troops of Massachusetts, Plymouth, and Connecti
cut arrived before the great fort of the Narragansetts, near Po
casset, in Rhode Island. At about one o'clock the little army
moved to the attack the advance led by Captain Johnson, who
4~firc, as was Cnittain Davenport, who fol
was killed at the fir L
lowed him, Before gaining the final victory, six captains were

            Military History. 239

lost, and over one hundred and ninety of the English were killed or wounded, of whom over one hundred belonged to Massachu~ setts, out of a total of about five hundred and fortV.

In the 11 great Narragansett fight " the men of Hingham, under their unfortunate captain, led the way. We must regret having but little record of their individual experiences. We kuowj however, that the retreat from the Narragansett country was one series of hardship and suffering, and that besides the death of many of the wounded on the way, that the unharnied nearly perislied from exposure and hunger; so that when General Winslow reached his headquarters four hundred of his little army, besides the wounded, were mint for duty. On the 24th of February, Weymouth was attacked and seven houses destroyed, and by Allarch the Indiana had become so aggressive that Massachusetts ordered garrisons to be established in each town, filed a select numbor of minute-men were to spread the alarm upon the first approach of the Ravages.

That the three forts, and perhaps all of the g,arrison houses were occupied permanently at this time there call be little doubt. Lieutenant Smith, as has been said, is known to have commanded a fort,-tuore than probably that near his residence upon the Lower Plain; while Captain Hobart, though exercising general supervision of all the defences,took immediate personal charge of the one in the ceineterv, directing, we may presume, the garrison of the fortification A Fort, Hill to obey the orders of Ensign John Thaxter, then the third officer of the company.

The Tbwn Records have the following: -

11 At a meeting of the freemen of Hingham on the 18th day of October, 1675, on complaint inside against Joseph the Indian and his family, who were in the town contrary to the views of most of the inhabitants, and on suspicion that he will run away to the enemy to our prejudice, therefore the freemen at the said Town meeting passed a clear vote tloit the. constable forthwith seize the said Indian and his family, and carry them up to Boston to be disposed of by the Governor %Pd Council is they shall see cause.,,

October 13, 1675, Hingham was ordered to pay X30 toward carrying oil the war. Besides this tax, the selectmen's records show many allowances for arms lost, for money allowed the soldiers, and sums voted for transporting them to Boston, and various other military purposes, including ail allowance for 11 lickars " for the committee having some duty connected with the war.

In February, 1676, the selectmen forbade, under it penalty of twenty shillings for each offence, any person from harboring or entertaining any Indian within the limits of the town.

Early in February the little army of Massachusetts returned to Boston, and the men were dismissed to their homes. But the vigorous prosecution of the campaign by Philip in the very first

0,40 Ni8tory of Hingham.

days of spring, his successful attack on one place after another,
tog --- 11_ _;A. file destruction of Captain Pierce, of Scituate, and
nearly all b4i command, while in pursuit of a body of Indians
near Seekonk, the burning of Marlborough, and the murders at
Long Meadow, all oil March 26th, imperatively called for the
speedv reasseniblage of the troops, and for vigorous measures by
Clio thuee colonies. It Would not be easy to overestimate tile
anxiety and alarin at this time. Various plaus were proposed,
and anuing them was that of building a continuous stockade from
Charles River to the Merrimac. This was only negatived because
of its magnitude. fit the various towns the forts and garrison
houses N% etc constantly occupied, and th- utmost precaution taken
against surprise. May we venture, for the sake of the better
understanding of the titne, to attempt one more sketch, outlined
by the recorded facts and the bits of tradition, but shaded and
filled in rather by the assistance of our general knowledge of the
people, the times, and the situation, than by any particulars of
the especial day?

It is the 16th of April, and the Sabbatli-day ; a bright, crisp morning, but the sun is already softening the surface of the quiet pools thinly skimmed, perhaps for the last tirue in the earlier hours; the frost coining out of the ground inakes moist the patlis ; the brook at the foot of the meeting-house hill is dancing with its swollen flood and sparkling in the sunlight, while over and along it the pussy-willows are already nodding, and the red maple's blossoms go sailing, and tossing in the pools and eddies. A little further up the stremn the ever-gramful elms are beginning to look fresh and feathery in their swelling and opening buds, while oil the slopes rising up from the valley the blossoms of the wild cherry and the dogwood glearn white among the (lark trunks and branches of the oaks and the sombre shadows of the evergreens. In the warm nooks the blue, and in the swarnpier meadow the white violet breathes out the same faint sweetness which in the same spots, two hundred years later, will delight the sebool-children of another age, while above them the red berries of the alder and the seed-ves%els of last year's wild roses give brightness and color to the shrubbery riot yet awakened to its new life ; the bluebird, the soulm sparrow, and the robin twitter in the. branches, while a great black crow lazily flaps his way across to the horizon ; possibly here and there, in some shaded and protected places, the inelth;g remnants of a late snow linger Yet, but in the clearings elsewhere the young grass has already veiled the earth in fresh green. The furrows of the planting fields show that the farmer has already commenced his preparation for the spring sowing, but some of the more distant lots tell of the universal apprehension, for last antumn's stubble in them still stands unmolested. The quiet of the Puritan Sabbath has no fears for his highness the barnyard cock, whose clarion and

              Military 1jjSjojj


cheery notes ai-e heard far and near, while faint colunins and blue wreaths of slo(ke rising here and there each inark the home of settlere Hours sincn5 witil the, 1,W11" Quo Af""Pm Lineoln has beaten the drum, and the-"tired

been relieved and replaced bv the," warde for the Lord's day

the quaint, paligaadicidouslogofbi~'vi~I)di~isilli,l),No~-fitla, ii,itsel)iieilgfri))~l,aewelifioelri ptiabd serve, so long as

lie conference, of refoge ill alarm, of Stol-age to[. alluillillition of defence from danger, and which is getting old and must sooll, be deserted, still stands overlooking the village, its doors wide open for the nine o'clock service, and the cl of its little bell biddiiv the living to "remember the =It day to keep it holy," while to theni under the little green mounds oil the slope between the two roads it tolls a requient Goodman Pitts, the venerable sexton, still restrains with his watchful eye the small boy and awes him into a temporary quiet, while the people move

decorously into their allotted places, the men and the women each into their own parts of the house. 8ee them as they come picking out the best and dryest places between the deep ruts and along the paths, now two or three abreast, and now in single file, stretelling along the ways leading to the meeting-house. How sturdy the men look, with their belted coats and broadbrimmed hats, and the inevitable inusket, which each places against the building or some neighboring tree before entering, How cheery the Oodwives seem, even in the midst of the get)cral anxiety, as they greet each other and pause for it word of inquiry about the children - by no means fell, in number- who are trailing along after; and how sweet the Puritan maidens seem to its as they glance shyly at the great rough buls, whom danger

and responsibility have s4 quickly transformed into mumly young soldiers. Here from file Plaill comes John Bull, and his young wife, Goodman Pitts's daiighterl bringing perhaps a message and report to Captain Hobart from Lieutenant Smith, whose watchful care for the forf keeps hint away to-day. Indeed, many

a one is forced by the threatening peril to an unusual absence and the attendance will be strangely small. Still, most of the people from the lower part of the toi~n are on their way ' though with anxious hearts, still inativ a fluawlit will wander from the loin, sermon of the dav to the iittle boule, and every sound front without will strain lq,ain tho already weary ears. There, crossing tile bridge by the corditroy road, is John Langlee, leading his little

daughter Sarah, and talking bv the way to young Peter Barnes ; while close behind come Serge~nt Thomas Andrews, with his wife and six children ; and a few rods further back we see Air. Samuel Lincoln and Mrs. Lincoln, with tbeir straight young son 8anuiel, whose title of cornet is well deserved, and who is not only the pride of his parents, but one of the heroes of the town for his gallant part in the, great Narragansett fight; there, too, are his vOL 1. - 16

242 History of Hingham.

brothers, and two or three of his little sisters, following as so]. enud:v is youth arid a bright day will permit. Just stepping out of his door is Benjamin Lincoln, whose wife, Sarah, with her little son John and six-years-old Margaret, are BtOppin- to gl'eCt


their uncles, John and Israel Fearing, who live next door. Rounding the corner of Baclielor's Row, with a brisk stride and erect carria", we see Ensign John Thaxter, who has come down from the fort oil Fort Hill, where all seems tranquil, leaving Sergeant Daniel Lincoln in charge while he atterids meeting and holds a council of war with Captain Hobart, On his way we presume fie stopped at the garrison house at AuKtin's Lane to speak a word of warning and make a kindly inquiry for Mrs. Bate and tire four-days-old girl ; arid only a moment ago we saw a sterner look as he sharply inquired of the luckless inmate of the stocks what folly had made him a victim on this Sabbath morning. Near a large tree upon the hill, and against whose broad trunk rest half a dozen muskets, quietly awaiting Ensign Thaxter, stands one of Hingham's two foremost citizens, the late speaker of tile House of Deputies and captain of the town forces. Captain Hobart is sixty-two years of age, and among the darker locks the gray hairs are thickly scattered, yet in his well-knit figure there is little sign of 'age; a strong, able, brave, wise man, loaded with all the honors in the gift of his townsmen, faithful for many years in their service, he is crowning his work by a care and watchfulness which will save those whose confidence is so well reposed in him from the horrors which have devastated so many sister communities. Even now lie might have been seen coming along the path among the trees that runs between the meeting-house and tire central fort, the garrison of which latter he has in part relieved for the services of the day.

As the soldier ill long boots, sbortbelted coat and sword, with his alert military air waits, we note the similarity and yet the dissimilarity between him and the sliglitly bent and older figure which in long clonk and buckled shoes is rather slowly mounting the hill, though declining the proffered arm of Ensign Thaxter. It is Parson Hobart himself, ten years the senior of his distinguisbed brother, and in disposition scarcely less a soldier. His long ministry is drawing near its close, but there is little ditninntion in tire sparkle of his eye or the vigor of his manner. We can almost see the grave salute with which the Captain greets the Elder, and the equal gravity with which it is returned ; we seem to hear the brief inquiry and reply, after which tile one passes into the presence of his assembling congregation, while the other remains for a short interview with his subordinate.

Within the house are the Hobarts, brothers and nephews of the old parson, the Beals, Dr. Cutter, Joseph Cluirch, Daniel and Samuel Stodder, with numerous members of their large families, Joseph Joy, Samuel Thaxter, and many others. Even now we

              Atilitary History. '?4,3

call almost feet the uneasy restlessness which pervades tile, wor.
shippers, Many of tile friends, usualIN, so regular in their attend
ance, are away in tire forts and garrisolt holls-".-, h

U U11 Unroug file sermon, probably several hours long, the thoughts of t1w listeners wander, and tire strained cars catch Nvi th apprehension every unusual noise from without. We imagine, too, that whelk at last Captain Hobart and Ensign Thaxter enter to join in the service, neither will take their accustomed seats, but more likelY will remain near tile door, and where perhaps the keen eve of the commander can keep within vietv tire muskets without, ai~d occasionally catch a glimpse of the " warde," moving from one point of vnritage to another. Meanwhile the latter, not perhaps sorrv to Ile in the open air this April morning, keeps eye arid elir aleit for sign or sound of the wit), foe. Froin the suironit almost the

whole of the lower village can be seen. Across the glassy waters of the inner bay, which, stretching away from his very feet, are broken into several sbady coves arid dotted with islands, he is following with ill-pleased attention a carloo paddled by air Indian, who a moment later may be seen climbing the cliffs oi~i the eastern shore and losing himself in the forest paths which lead toward Neck Gate Hill, from behind which a faint blue smoke vises arid

fades slowly away. There on the southeastern slope, and ncarlv at the foot of tile hill, are the wigwams of the little-trnste4 countrymen of Philip w o yet remain in the vicinity. This spot ' by tradition said to have been the last canipin-place of the Indian in Hingham, is comprehended in the property now owned In, Mr. 7'. T. Bouv(1 arid called, from the fact and tho configuratfoll of the hind, "Indian Hollow." The smooth lawn of the

present day shows no sign, but the plow would reveal a long and broad line of disintegrating clant-shells, doubtless a shell-beall of the former inhabitants, ,tied several implements have been picked tip ill the immediate vicinity which were formerly I'll ase by them. Howm~er, beyond it mental growl of dissatisfaction at what he termed tire folly If allowing the encampment to remain, our sentry of 1676 could do nothing ; so, turning towards the blue waters of the harbor, his eye falls upon tile

          Wliain Pitts, tire first one established in Ilin,diam.

He lYatrdhc`,,', too' for a few moments the white sails of a West
jud'ann -land

'in as she passes between Nantasket and George's Is arid thence towards Boston. Then fie walks slowly over to the new fort, and carefully scans the country in every dircetion is far as the eye call reach and the forests permit. Ali.] so the long hours pass away until tire close of like service blill"s file,

uncasy officers out of tire meeting, first of all for it conference with the watch, who ' however, Iraq little to repoit. And now the worshippers are wending their way hoineward, Bin1gly arid in groups, some discussing the weather, arid others, it is probable ' commenting, like their descendants of later geuvrations, upon

244 History of Hingham.

tile sermon which they have just heard, white we may be sure all are thankful to returi; once more to undespoiled hor~es. Others, who come from a great distance, meet together and cat the frugal luncheon between the inornin" and aftei noon service, while a few, husband and wife, mount pillion fashion the horses which have been aW:Litill,g tile CIO~e Of the Services under the trees, and ride to their homes.

As the tich glow of the setting still crimsons the glassy harbor and tui its to gold fit(, flecey clouds of April, while the shadows Creep up from the valleys, the tap-tap and rattle and roll of Suncil Lincoln's drum sings the vespers of the Ptuitans, and the Sal)bath is over. Then comes the new watch, win) being properly instructed and posted begins his hours of vigil. The garrisons areearefully looked to ; tile orders for the night issued. The pool- victim of the stocks, if not before released, is now given liberty. The restraints upou the children are relaxed, and during the brief period of twilight secular pursuits are resumed ; the cattle are seen to, the. wood brought in, and the wide old-f a8hioned fireplaces blaze and crackle with the long sticks, while above the kettle hisses and sings and its cover rises and falls and rattles. Acre and there the tallow dip assists in its poor faint way 11 the blisY housewife ply her evening care," and then all hour later, the low thatched-roof cottages are wrapped in darkness, and the stars shine out upon the town at rest. Only the half-chilled, weary soldier oil eviard watches for the beacon, or listens for the si-nal &ulls which sliall call tile men of flingliam to the aid of Nan~asket or Scituate or Weymouth, or awaken them to the defence of their own wives and children and homes.

What a dreary duty it is, too, this waiting and fearing for the dreaded warwhoop Of the Indian in tile still and lonesome hours of the night. How the eve grows strained peering into the darkness and the car weary fistening, and with what a nervous start each new sound, each before unnoticed shadow is noted by the young sentry moving among the aisles of the great trees on tile beight overlooking the Tillage I What a relief, though all too brief, is the visit of Captain Hobart, whose vigilance causes many a restless and wakeful hour in these trying days ; and bow doubly

appolling seems the solitude as the sound of the Captain'B retreating steps die away in the distance, leaving the longbours until

dawn to be. counted away alone, before whose coming the sentry'8 breath shall more than once stop, while lie hears the beating of his own heart, at tile imagined creeping form of an Indian.

The defences of 11 ingliam and the preparation for the protection
of her inhabitants have already been described. Even in the
absence of other evidence, the comparative immunity of the Bottle
ment from serious loss and the total failure on the part of the
Indians, almost constantly lurking in the vicinity, to effect any
thing like a general surprise, would in themselves be strong

              Military History. 245

indications of tile ability and watchfulness of those responsible tot, the safety of the town. The incidents attending tile several attempts upon it, and the intelligent location of tile forts all(! 111all ison liouses,with their garrisons ,it this tinio neule perinallent, tile inutual support which they afforded each other and the fact that swarcely a house from Fort Hill to Broad Brid", t, and thence to South flinglumi, was beyond tile range of fire of olic Or more. of them, added to the. vigilance which anticipated and forestalled panic wheal the hour of perif and trial at last came, furnish inditbitable proof of the military instinct, knowledge, foresight, and faithfulness of Joshua Hobart, John Smith, and John Thaxter. Belyond question it is to this due that the five known atteniptA al"Ailist the town met with comparative failure ; of others, contemplated but abaudoned, owing to the thorough dispositions for inectinIg them, we of course know little.

In this connection we recall the old tradition that Philip himself was at one time concealed within our borders and a%vaiting pur. haps a favorable opportunity to make a descent. As the story runs, he lay somewhere in tile region known as the SwOulp, which

in those days extended with scarcely a break from Broad Bridgti to near tile Weymouth line, and included the location of Round Pond and the district known as Bear Swamp. The sagacious id ief probably concluded that the chance of success was too sniall at:d the risk of severe loss too great to justify a move licilt al'ainst file lower part of the town, and therefore Prudent;y withtfrew. No amount of caution, however, could insure individual life or tile safety of isolabod farms against the silence and celerity of the Indian war parties. One of these, having perhaps cluded Captain Jacoh, whose small force could hardly hope to cover the long hoatior assigned to its care, was moderately successful lit South

Hingham in bringing the terror and horrors of the war home to our own firesides.

Oil Wednesday, the l9th of April, young John Jacob, who, as it will lie recalled, had served against Philip tile previous autumn,

all([ had Been his brave captain fall before the fort of the Narragansetts, took his gun and went out to shout the deer that bad

been trespagsing upon a field of buckwheat near his father's house and not far from the Bite of the present (!rest Plain Meeting-house.

Ile was a famous hunter and of a fighting stock, and he had beent heard to declare that be would never be taken alive by the Indians. Little did he dream that spring morninIg that his would be the only blood ever Blied by a public enemy upon the soil of his native town.

The simple and brief accounts, with a little assistance perhaps of the imagination, bring like a living panoranka before its the P,vents, the homes and the actors of that and tile following dav in the far away ti;~e when our prosaic town was making it Part (;f the history which has become one of the romantic chapters of Now

246 History of Hingham.

England's story. On this 19th of April, then, of the year 1676, and shortly after the ill-appearnuce of Jacob, the sound of a musket lueakim, the stillness slid echoing against the great solitary rock that stands like a mighty monument in the field not far from the travelled way, momentarily attracts the attention of the neighbors whose liabits of industry- have overcome the general prudence, and who had been enticed to a little early planting on the home lot. Beyond the fleeting thought of their friend's success in his efforts to chastise the mischievous destroyers of the winter wheat, the incident attracts tie attention, and soon passes from the minds of 9ie workers. With the lapse of considerable time, however, and the continued absence of the hunter, there arises a feeling of strained uneasiness; finally a search is made, and there beside his gun, which has been battered to pieces, the young soldier Ues dead. The terrifying truth flashes across the searchers as they tenderly and hastily bear their neighbor to his filfber's home. The Indiana are in Hingham and have been lying concealed during the night near the wheat-field, and almost close to the homes of the settlers! And now in ail instant and from every side, out of the calm and quiet of the village street there starts the life, the uncontrolled excitement, the panic and terror of the community, above and about whom the threatening horror of the tomahawk and scalping-knife already seems to gleam, and before whose fevered imagination come all too readily pictures of cruelty and torture. The blanched faces of men and women alike, the clinging fear of the children, the hurrying to the nearest garrison houses of those not already therein, the exaggerated stories and rumors, the. or%, " The Indiana! the Indiana! " rising above all other Bounds, repeaied again and again, carrying consternation from the Great Plain to the harbor, and falling upon the startled ear of the farruer in the field and the wife in the kitchen, -how the si.alitB and the sounds of that day thrill us through these passed centuries!

And soon we bear the Bbarp clanging of the little bell on the meetin.-house, the beat and roll and rattle of the drum, the sharp reports of the three alarm muskets, and into the forts, the paliBalled church, and the garrison houses come the streaming, hurrying throng. We fancy we can see brave Joshua Hobart making, calmly and sternly, his dispositions for defence, and even personally visiting and instructing each Nutty and urging to unceasing vigilance; or brilliant John Thaxter ably seconding his chief, and inspiring with confidence the, garrisons at Austin's Lane and Fort Hill; or John Smith cheering the people as they flock into the protecting works on the common field. And there come before its, too, sturdy John Tower and his sons and 11 one or two more persons," as his petition reads, holding his little fort and covering a long section of the river and the homes of his neighbors with his muRkets, while he,checks the panic with his plain,

              31ilitary History. 24T

,strong words. Nor is it possible to overlook the figure in the
long cloak, moving more slowly, it is true, than when speaking his
mind to Cite magistrates, Nit still W41, ";,- ., "I fl"~

I ..~, 11-1 _6", _n_ __ natural grace of a limit of superior mind and strong, will; every(lie recognizes 11111110diately the venerable ininistei, and many a word of hope and inany ail admonition to ditty lie speaks as he passes among his people exerting his quieting it;fluence upon them. With our knowledge of his younger days, we cannot lielp thinking that lie had moments of impatience in the reflection that his age and calling prevented a more active participation in the movements against the enemy ; nor would it surprise us to learn that Parson 11obart more than once thoupht, and even said, that if lie were Captain Hobart the military operations would be conducted with more reference to ail offensive policy. Be that as it may, the latter's dispositiona saved the town and the lives of those whose safety was committed to his care.

Succeeding the first alarm there followed many weary hours
of anxiety nrid waiting. The day, with its exciting rumors and
exaggerated stories, wore away, and a night of watchfulness,
with a terror hanging over the people huddled together ill their
strange quarters diflicult to picture, seemed interminable. Nor
was the dawn much more reassuring, for soon the Bmokc from the
burning, homes of Joseph Jones and Anthony Sprague 11 over the
river," and of Israel Hobart, Nathaniel Chubbuck, and James
Whiten rose into view from widely separated points on the south
ern horizon, and added fresh consternation to the anxious
watchers. These fires, however, were the last acts of the Indiana,
who abandoned the attack. The second visit was just one month
later, being the 20th of May. It was even move fruitless, and the
savages soon passed into Scituate, which the ' y largely destroyed.

Oct. 12, 16T6, the General Court ordered 11 That~ Ilinglia'in be allowed and abated out of their last tax rates towards their losses by the enemy the Beat of ten pounds."

The soldiers from Hinglimin appear to have been engaged in some of the most arduous service of the war, for besides leading the van in the great Narragansett fight, as already stated, we find them serving under the immediate command of 'their old townsman, the brave Captain Church, on Martha's Vineynrd and the adjacent islands ; and it need not be said that service under that officer was of the most active kind.

August the 12th Philip was killed at Mt. I-Tope and the war closed, but the military preparations of the colony rather increased than otherwise, and the towns as a necessary consequelice participated in the general activity. In 1679 it petition for leave to form a small troop of horse in Hingham, Weymouth, and Hall, signed by Captain Hobart and others, was granted, and in June of the following year Ensign John Thaxter, whom we have already Seen R8 one of Captain Ilobart'R company officers,

248 History of Hingham.

arid who earlier, in 1664, had served with such distinction in the
expedition 9gainst the Dutch in Now York as to be " preferred
for," lis the phrase runs, under orders of Cromwell, was commis
sioned to its command, with Samuel White, probald ' y of Wev
month, as lieutenant, and 3lattliew Cushing as corrict, "so as the
said Alattliew Cushing take the oath of freedom," which he
appeals to have door. The same Mir Jacob Nash was appointed
quartermaster, and the new troop together with tile r"t of tile
military in the town was attached to a new reginient under
Maj. Will. Stoughton.

Sergt. Jeremiah Beale was appointed ensign of the foot company Alay 11, 1681, which remained under conilinind of Captain Hobart until his death in 1682, when the periodical trouble which this company seems to have given the government whenever new offieers were to be chosen again called forth it sharp reproof, with a reminder that all acknowlelb,ment of error was expected. This time the diflicultv was over tile desire of a part of the command that Thomas Andrews be commissioned ensign instead of James flawke. The magistrates, however, disapproved of both, and appointed Lieutenant Sinith to be captain, Ensign Beale as lieutenant, and Thomas Lincoln to be ensign.

A reminder of 11 The late Indian Warr," as the old State paper term% it, is found in a grant dated June 4, 1685, as a reward for sorvices, to " Samuel Lyncolne and three inore of flingham, and others of other towns, of ]arid in the Nipunick country."

Among the, many interesting entries in Daniel CushiriWs diary, froin which not a fittle of the town's history has become known, is this: 11 1688, Nov. 5th, soldiers pressed 11 to go against the Indians." These men were perhaps a part of Sir Edmund Andros's small army of eight hundred with which lie marched to the Penobscot, an expedition in which, it will be remembered, little was accomplished of value.

April 18, 1689, Gov. Edmund Andros was arrested by the people of Boston, who had risen against the tyranny and corruption of his government. The next day the conduct of public affairs was assumed by the Council of Safetv of which Bradstreet was chosen president. On May Sth, actin,; ~oubtless under the orders of this extraordinary body, the train build went to Boston where on the ninth were gathered the representatives of forty-three towns. Cusbing's diary tells us that a town meeting was held on the 17th to choose a member of the Council. The choice fell upon Capt. Thomas Andrews, already distinguished in town affairs, and who had been a representative in 1678. It was a distinction wisely bestowed, an(] doubtless while performing the delicate duties of his new office in a critical period, attention was called to that ability which soon after gave him the distinguished lionor of being selected as one of the twenty-one captains appointed for duty with Sir Win. Phips in his attempt at the redue-

              Military History. 249

tion of Canada. This officer, recently appointed high-sheriff of New England, sailed from Boston car] ii the spring of 1690 for I ort Royal. Ine fort surrendered witli but little resistance, and lbrev weeks later Sir William returned to Boston to prepare for the more ambitious attempt opon Quebec. August 9th, lie sailed with upwards of thirty vessels arid two thousand iViassachusetts Inen, alnong whom were Captain Andrews, Lieutenant Chubbuck, and other Ilijigham men ; how many we do not know.

October 5 the fleet dropped anchor beneath the castle which Nias commanded by Fronternic, all old and distiuguislied French officer. The attack commenced oil tile 8th, and was coritinued (hiring the two following days, when the colonial troops retreated .,ker suffering great loss. Sir Willian.

the remnant of his army and fleet, arr, i ,`it least one of our townsmen was I Quebec, while ,mother, Isaac Lasell, di( h1v of wounds, while Paul Gilford, &Burr, Daniel Tower, and Jonathan Ma town " were carried off by the small p( fleet and added its misfortunes to the d

Oil the 25th of the month Captain Andrews ~u,
dreaded disease ~ a stone in the old Granary buryii.,
inarks his last resthig-place. The succeeding day Lieutcuab~
Chubbuck died also. This ill_fated attempt was followed by the
long struggle between France in the New World and New Eng land
and the colonies south and west, which only torminatril a few years
preceding the American Revolution. The history of the period is
that of exasperathu, and wasteful incapacity, oftentimes oil the
part of British commanders in this country, of disastrous defeats, of
glorious victories, of cruelties on both sides which we would gladly
forget, of bravery, persistence, and enterprise by, Massachusetts
men of which we may well be proud, and of final triumph, due in
very large measure to the arms of New England and the training
of a soldiery under the laws of our own and the neighboring
colonies which only made success possible. It is the history of
Louisburg, of Fort Necessity arid its gallant young commander,
of Crown Point, Fort William Ifenry, Acadia and its pitcous story,
Shirley and Winslow, Wolfe and Abaucalm, and tile Ileights of
Abraham. During its tollin ' g we learn of Braddock's defeat, of
Ticonderoga, of Fort Frontenae ; we become acquainted with file
flowes, with Gage, Fraser, and a score of other English officers
who afterwards played a part in the contest with the, mother
country. We first meet Washington and soon come to know why
none other could have been the f Liture American commander ; we
see Gates and Putnam and Stark in their earlier days, while
Franklin and Otis already are shaping the legislation and destiny
of their respective States, During all this period, in all the wars,
and in nearly every battle fought in the North we sliall find, oil
250 History of Hingliam.

sea and on land, the sons of Hingham creditably participating.
thp emiteRt as soldiers, as officers, as councillors and
advisers, and in numbers which seem at times almost incredible
considering the probable population of the town. It is interest
ing too, to note the individual names of those concerned in the
later French wars, and afterwards to observe the use to which Be
many put the invaluable experience and knowledge then gained,
in the subsequent service of the Revolution.

The extremely small scale, as compared with modern days, upon which financial matters were carried on by the town in connection with its military interests, will doubtless have been observed. Ali interesting illustration is afforded by an entry in the Selectmen's Records of 1691, as follows: -

The first day of July, 1,691, then received by the Selectmen of Hingham tenn pounds in silver money of All. Daniel[ Cushing, Sen., of Hingham, which hee, the said Daniell Cushing, lend to the Country for the carying one, the present expedition against the Common enemys of the Country and is to have it payd to him, his heirs, exexutors, administrators, or asigns, in silver money on or befor the last day of September next insubw the dat hearof.

Cushing's diary, under date of July 14, 1694, says that 41 Edward Gilman was pressed to be a soldier to go out against the French army," and under date of October 29 of the same year we are informed " that Edward Gilman came hom6 out of the country's service." This small draft from Hingham, if indeed it was all, was probably her proportion of the force raised to meet the harassing and incessant incursions of the Indians, incited by the French, which for the ton closing years of the century left no peace to the colony, and which had for its principal episode in that year the attack on Groton, July 27th. Captain John Smith, who died in 1695, was probably succeeded in the command of the company by Thomas Lincoln, who had long served as an officer, having been an ensign as early as 1681. At all events we find in the town records of 169T-98, the following - -

The town stock of alaunlDition is in the hands of the 3 commanders of Divs. viz., Capt' Thomas Lincoln I bbl. of powder and 198 weight of bullets and 260 flints; to Lieut. David Hobart, I bbl. of powder and 200 and a half of bullets, gross weight, & 260 flints: to Ensign James Hawks I bbl. powder & 190 weight of bullets, net, and 260 flints.

In 1702 a second company was formed in that part of Hingham which is now Cobasset, anif which became what was formerly known as the Second Precinct.
In 1722 the colony declared war, owing to exasperating Indian - depredations upon Ipswich and other places, and among the names of men serving under Captain Ward, of Scarboro', are

              3tilitary History. 2531

those of Jolla Murphy, a corporal, and Edmund Moorey, or Mooney, both of Hingham.
      I __ __:.. f_-A _ ------ g u_'_

At'll-PUY wum again 1-1-1 bui ving a- 1116L the brench on behalf of 1fimhaminl725,-this thrie upon a smallvessel of which Lielit. Allason Brown was commander.

Among the many conferences held with the Indians of Maine in the endeavor to secure file safety of the settlements, was one by Governor Belcher, at Falmouth, in Casco Bay, in 1732, at which lie was accompanied, as would appear from ail account found in the Thaxter papers, by Col. Samuel Thaxter, Rev. Nathaniel Eells, and Ebenezer Gay. Colonel Thaxter was a very prominent and trusted citizen, was colonel of the regiment in which Hingham's companies were included, and held many important offices. Among these was that of one of his Majesty's Council, in which capacity probably lie acted as adviser to the Governor. On one occasion, while moderator of a meeting, lie was grossly insulted by - Cain, who dared him to fight. Colonel Thaxter quietly ordered the constable to remove Cain, The meeting being concluded, however, Cain obtained all the fight he wished, for Colonel Thaxter found him, and administered

It is probably safe to assume that, although a severe thrashing. frequently moderator of the town meetings, Colonel Thaxter was never subsequently troubled by personal challenges. This ineident recalls to mind the fact, that with the occupation. of the now meeting-house of 1681, there followed the uses to which the earlier building had been applied, and that not only were the town meetings held in the same place as the religious services, but that the military character of the old belonged, at least to .1 degree, to the new building also. We should find in searching the yellow and stained records of the selectmen for the year 1736, ail account of ail inquiry made by those officials into the amount and places of deposit of the town's ammunition, and the discovery that in Colonel Thaxter's hands was a barrel of powder weighing two hundred Pounds, two hundred and sixty-three pounds of bullets, and a thousand flints, besides a large amount held by Capt. Thomas Loring, and considerable by Mr. Jacob Cushing, till of which, together with other purchased bY the town, 11 we removed into the ammunition house made in file rnecting-house of the first parish in Hingham." In the absence of other information, this record may justify the inference that Captain Loring then commanded one of the Hingham companies. Of this, however, there is no certainty. Captain Loring represented the town at one time in the General Court, and from his son Benjamin are descended some of the present Hingham Lorings.

During the colonial period there were two expeditions, at least, by Crest Britain a gainst the Spanish possessions in the West Indies in which New England actively participated, and in which, almost as a matter of course, men from Hingham served. The

252 Ifislory of 11inghoon.

first of these was in 1740, when Governor Belcher received orders to enlist a force to be sent to Cuba to the relief of Admiral Vernon, who was in need of reinforcements. Among tile five humbled soldiers recruited in Massachusetts, there is much reason to believe that quite a number were recruited in Hingham. The rolls are, liowcvLr, not only very, imperfect in other respects, but they fail entirely to name the towns from which men served. We know, however, that among the officers was Lieut. Joshtia Barker, who had declined a captaincy, and who now went as second in the company commanded by Captain Winslow. Lieutruant Barker was one of the very few survivors of this ill-fated expedition, in which, it will be recollected, was Lawrence Wash. ington and a Virginia contingent. The foiceR of Massachusetts and Virginia together stormed tile castle of Carthagena, the principal town of the Spanish Main in New Granada. The place was not taken, however, and the expedition was a dismal failure. It is said that only fifty of the men front Massachusetts returned. Lieutenant Barker afterwards, as Captain Barker, served in all. the wars of his country front this time until 1762, when be was again engaged !it the second and more successful attack upon the Spanish West hidies. Ile held a commission in the British service, and was a kind and able mail. Ile resided upon the spot where now stand? tile Hingham Bank.

There. was also a Nathaniel Chublitick in this service, who may have been a townsman.

Oil the night of September 30, 1741, a number of the Spanish prisoners escaped from Boston with a large sail-boat. As they were armed, great fear was felt for the safety of the New England coastim, vessels, and Capt. Adam Cushing, formerly one of Him,ham's selectmen, slid now an able officer, was ordered in pursuit, with special instructions to search the creeks of Hinghain and Weymouth. There remains no account of his success or otherwise.

In 1740, a division of the town into the wards whose limits remain unchanged to this day took place, and it is interesting to note that this division was solely for military purposes, and that the ward boundaries were inerely those of the several companies, which the town thereafter maintained. At this time CohasBet, which had been made the second precinct in 1702, continued to be so designated, while the third comprised what is now known as the middle ward, embracing that part of the town south of the town brook, as far as Cold Corner, the remainder lying in the former fourth, now the south ward. The first, or north ward, then as now, embraced the country north of the brook. The first powder-house in Hingliam wag built by the town in 1755. It stood a little north and nearly on the site of the New North Meeting-liouse. Afterwards it was removed to Powder-bouse Hill, near where Mr. Arthur Hersey's house now is, off Hersey street.

              Military Ilistory. . 253

Frequentl ' v in the archives of the State and of tile various
towns there are references to the " Old French War," to the 1, Ex
pedition to the Eastward ' " to tile " Expedition to Cape Breton,"
and to the " Capture of Louisburg." Tile expressions are all
nither misleading, because they were, and unfortunately still
occasionally are, indiscriminate[ - v used in referring to each of the
soleral attempts made at different times upon the French pos
sessions in the northeast provinces, or to either of the several
wars between France and Eindand fit America subsequent to
1700. The inischief of tile expressions becomes the greater
when leading, as it sometimes docs, to historield errors. Indeed,
it is to this cause that the accurate phicing of a number of our
own citizens, as to the time and place of service, becomes iinpos
sible. Tile expression "Old French War"-and indeed the
othei s mentioned also- more generally and more properly relate
to the events in North America between tile years 1744 and 1748,
chuiro, which occurred that wonderful New England military
expedition and crusade which resulted in the capture by some
four thousand men, assisted by the English fleet, of the strongest
fortified city in the New Worlil, and which was Considered capable
of resisting an army of thirty thousand. In the limits of a local
history it is impossible to give even tile outlines of this romance
of New England's arms. We call only tell the very little of
which we have any record concerm . ng our own townsmen's con
nection with the brave Sit' Williatia Pepperell, and Commodore
Warren, and the officers and men who sailed from Boston in
Alarch, 1745, and entered as victors the "Dunkirk of America "
on the ITtli of June following. It is most unfortunate that the
rolls of these troops are lost from tile State archives, and that
suell as exist in tile possession of Clio Massachusetts Historical
Society are not only very imperfect, but are comparatively value
less, from the fact that the places from which the met) enlisted
nie not given. It is probably owing to this that we are enabled
to give the names of only, a few as serving from Ifingfiam. These
,are Thomas Lewis, Ralph Smith, and Edward Ward.

Among a number who signed a voluntary agreement to em,age in a hazardous attempt to storm the Island battery in the hi`rbor of Louisburg, we find the name of Ebenezer Beal, presumably a Hingham man. Israel Cilbort, who died later in the service, is said to have been a soldier in the " Old French War."

Sanotel Lincoln and Joint Stephenson were also at Loui8burg it, soule capacity, and received pay, for assisting in " wooding tli'e 1~1:111)ison." The following were also soldiers at Louisburg, and there can be little doubt were flimfloun men - John Lowis, Joshua Lasoll, Thomas Jones, Samuel Gilbert and John Wilder.

fly tile terms of the peace, of Aix-la-Chapelle, concluded in 1748, Louisburg was surrendered to the French, and the work of taking it had subsequently to be done again.

254 History of Hingliam,

The peace was, at least in America, more nominal than real, and the usual encroachments of each party upon the claimed possessions of the other, with all the attendant barbarities of border war, recommenced almost with the signing of the treaty. Nevertheless, the fifty years' conflict between the civilization and aims of the Saxon and the civilization and aims of the Latin was drawing to its close, and the year 1754 saw the beginning of the end. In the South its first notes were heard in the conflict between the Virginians under Washington and the French oil the Ohio ; in the North the real signal was the march of an army of eight hundred Massachusetts men, under Gen. John Winslow, to secure by forts the passes from Quebec to New England, although negotiations were carried oil between France and England even months later for six amicable settlement of all disputes between them. Ceneral Winslow fortified several places oil or near the Kennebec. In his regiment, in Capt. John Lane's company, were Sergeant Elijah Cushing, Ephraim Ifall, and Isaac Larrabee, of Hingliam.

Engaged in this same expedition probably, was the sloop

Mermaid," of eighty-five tons, of which Samuel Lincoln was master, Samuel Johnson mate, and Charles Clapp and Jnmes White were sailors. Clapp's residence is unknown. The others, as well as the sloop, undoubtedly belonged in Hingham. Samuel Lincoln was styled Captain in later life.

In the spring of the following year, negotiations having been broken off in December, troops and transports began to arrive from England, and in April Shirley and the other colonial governors met Braddock in consultation. The events which followed can be scarcely more than named, Parkman, in his "Moriteallit and Wolfe," has related them with a charm and grace which give to the hard facts of history the enchantment of romance.

Yet with many, perhaps nearly all, of the occurrences in the North and East, Hingham was so closely and intimately connected, through the very large number of tier sons who participated in them, that some brief explanations, expandilig occasionally into narrative of what has elsewhere been better told, may be allowable here. If the rolls of participants in the first taking of Louisburg were incomplete, and the numbers serving from this town were apparently meagre,the fulness of the former and the length of names making tip the latter, which are to be found in the Commonwealth's papers, at once surprige and gratify, although the task of eliminating repetitions in the different returns, and crediting the men properly to the places to which they belonged, is extremely difficult. After the death of General Braddock, Governor Shirley, of Massachusetts, became for the time the commander of the British forces in America, and among the several expeditions planned by him was

              Hilitary Ilistory. 255

one having in view the capture of Crown Point -on Lake Chain-
"" end a large number of men were recruited in Now
Vain. York, and New Jersey
Eugland, r the burden, " usual. fall
le., , I upon Massachusetts, which voted both troops and
, prlll'i~a ly
1110licy with a liberal hand. To William Johnson, afterwards
knighted for his services, was given the command. Oil Sep
teinber 8, Baron Dieskau, with a force of French and Indians,
attacked Johnson near the bead of Lake George, but was:
defeated. The attempt upon Crown Point was however alcan
doned for the time, and the troops went into winter quarters at
Fort William Henry. For this expedition there was enlisted in
flingliam a compan ' y commanded,by Capt. Samuel Thaxter, and
attached to Col. Richard Gridley s regiment. A note in Heil.
Solomon Lincoln's private copy of the 11 History of Hingham "
says that this company marched September 23, 1755, with fifty
five men, and that they were at Fort Edward. Besides the
flingliam men there were undoubtedly many from Weymouth
and other towns in the neighborhood.
Those from Hingham were-
    Samuel Thaxter, captain, Joseph Jones, private,

    Thomas Gill, Jr., sergeant, Joseph Lyon,

    Samuel Joy, clerk, Silas Lovell,

Thomas Hollis, corporal, Geo. McLaughlin,
Lot Lincoln, corporal, William Magnor, 64
Hosea Dunbar, corporal, Richard Newcomb, 11
Nehemiah Blancher, private, John Sprague, 11
Thomas Chubbuck, Stephen Saulsbury, "
Joseph Carrel, Benjamin Tirrell, "
--- -Joseph Dunbar, Abet Wilder,
Seth French, Jonathan Whitten,
Thomas Hearsey, Samuel Tra8k,
Mathias Hartman,

In the mean time the expedition which finally resulted in the Acadian tragedy had been planned by Gov. Shirley, and sailed from Boston ~May 22, 1755. It consisted, in the main, of some two thousand men, under the immediate command of its lieutenatit-colonel, John Winslow, Shirley himself beingg its noininal colonel. On the let of June the fleet and transports anchored off Beaus6jour, the French fort at the small isthmus connecting Nova Scotia with the main land, and oil the 16th the fort and garrison surrendered to the En~fflisb. Within a few days after,ull of Acadia fell into British hands. Then followed the removal of the unhappy people of this province from their homes, and their dispersion among the English colonies from Massachusetts to Georgia. The sad story has been the subject of poetry and romance; the best and most just account is to be found in Parkman's pages, but there are local associations with the events whose relation property belongs here. One of the most inter

256 History if Hingham.

esting of these is that Joseph Blake, whose father had been a resident of Hingham, was, although but sixteen years of age, an officer under Colonel Winslow, and was sent with a delachm-Ut

f the French Neutrals, as the Acadians were called, to th :'
0 is
Lieutenant Blake, who afterwards came to live bere, went to
Crown Point the next year as an officer in Major Thaxter's com
pany. Little is known concerning the Acadians who came here;
eve~i their naines are for the most part unrecorded and forgotten.
The ' v were, however, generally very poor, and worked at almost
any employment obtainable, Some of them were for a time
loiiged in the old Hersey house on Summer Street, now the prop
erty of A. ff. Hersey and Mrs. Andrew, where within a few
years a window was preserved upon whose small panes some of
the exiles had scratched their names or initials with the stone
in a ring belonging to one of thein. In the field near this old
house, so tradition says, these poor unfortunates were in the
habit of meeting, to bold, in quiet and peace, religious services
in the faith of their Youth anj their homes.

Another family occupied a part of the old Cushing house at the foot of the Academy Hill; and still another what is generally called the Welcome Lincoln residence at West Hingham. The few names that remain to us of these people are as follows: Joseph and Alexander Brow, Charles, Peter, and John Trawhaw, and Anthony Ferry. Beyond the inhumanity of their expatriation, the treatment of the Acadians by the people of New England was often kind, and even sympathetic. Without a country, separated from the neighbors and friends with whom they had spent all their happy days, in some cases members even of their own families lost to their knowledge, their suntly hinnes destroyed, their kinds forfeited to the stranger, deprived of the ministrations of their religion, hearing always a foreign tongue, seeing always unfamiliar faces, watched, f3twpected, trammelled, poor, their condition, let us be thankful, Was at least not aggravated by extreme bodily suffering, or by, the coldness, neglect, and indifference of their conquerors. Indeed, many of those who reached Canada lookml back with longing eyes towards the land of the Puritans, wlecre a kinder welcome and more generous charity softened their hard lot than that given by their compatriots.

The town records of Hingham contain many entries Bbowing liberal disbursements for the benefit of such of these people as were in want; and in the volumes devoted to the French Nentrals in the State archives, are several accounts allowed by the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the town for money expended in their behalf. Among these is the following in relation to a family which came here Nov. 29, 1765: -

            Military History. 25T

71) the Hw& Josiah WoVard Asq. Secretary

In pursuance of an act of the Great and Gen' Court of the Province afor"', the following is the account of the Selectmen of the town of flinglion in the County afor" of their expense in the support of the French called Neutrals law Inhabitants of Nova Scotia seat to said town by order of the Committee appointed to dispose of the same, the family seat to sd town were Anthony Ferry & wife & five small children and one sim,le woman in %11 Eight, this accompt is from the First day of June 17;Wt, the tenth day of Nov' 1756 for tools & provisions &e is twelve pounds fourteen Stirling and four pence X12: 14: 4

                  DANIEL 13HAL Selectmen

                  ENoco DNcoLN ~qf 17te Towa

                  JOSEPn THAXTER ) Of RiUghaM.

This family was subsequently increased by the arrival of an aged mother and by the birth of another child. The Ferrys were removed to Boston in 1760 by order of the committee. Some of the old diaries contain references to the employment, from time to time, of one or another of the Acadialis, about the farm-work then in hand. Here are a few extracts: -

1760 April 18 Two French boys for husking corn

May 23 Employed the Frenchmen. Charge them with 38 lbs. Salt Beef Joseph Brow, Alexander Brow, Charles Trawhaw, Peter Trawhaw, John Trawhaw.

Oct 28 Fmployd the old Frenchman Alexander Brow and Peter Trawhaw also the other Brows and Trawhaws at Husking for several days

The fate of these families is lost in the obscurity of history. It is probable that they entirely died off or removed front IIhn,ham, for no descendants of any of them are known to exist.

Among the men impressed and enlisted by Colonel Lincoln out of his regiment for service in Canada in 1759, were, besides Lieutenant Blake, Capt. Jothani Gay and Gideon Hayward, of all of whom he speaks as having been in the Nova Scotia expedition of 1755. Whether there were others or not is not known, as the rolls of Winslow's troops are not to be found.

Af ter a year of open hostility, E ugland on the 18th of May, and France on the 9th of June, 1756, at last declared war. The capture of Crown Point was by no mcans abandoned, but; the French during the interval had constructed a powerful defence at Ticonderoga, and this too was included in the objects of a new expedition planned by Shirley, who chose John Winslow for its leader. Before the campaign commenced Shirley was removed and the command was first given to General Abercroniby, who arrived in June, and then to the Earl of London, who came in July.

    voi- . - 17

258 History of Hingh(un.

In the mean time the raising of tile new army went on. The method was to call for volunteers, bill if the requisite number did not appear a draft was made, by the colonels of tire militia regiinents, of cuotefli men to supply tile dcficienc~y. This will explain some facts to be hereafter related. A bounty of six dollars was offered to stimulate enlistments, and the pay of private soldiers was one pound and six shilhugg a mouth. If a man brought a gun his bounty was increased two dollars. If not, one was supplied, for whi~h he was to account, as well as for powder-horn, knapsack, cauteen, blanket, etc. Subsequently a coat of blue cloth, a soldior'-, hat, all(] breeches of red or blue were supplied. Probably this was the first American force of any considerable size wear ing a uniform, although some regiments had done so previously ; it will be noted that the color wits the same which has since become enshrined in the affections of tile armies of tile republic who have succeeded these troops. The regiments gen. erally were composed of toil companies of fifty men each. Besides their rations each mail was promised and insisted upon having, a gill of ruin daily. The troops mustered at Albail) , and soon enevouped a short distance up the Hudson.

One of tile regiments was commanded by Richard Gridley, afterwards conspicuous for his services at Booker Ilill ; its major was Samuel Thaxter, who, in accoi dance with tile custom of tile time, was also captain of a company. This hitter was from flingham. There are several rolls in existence at different periods of its service. The fit st bears date of May 4, 1756, and contains the followilor names of men from this town: -


    Samuel Thaxter, major andcaptain, Robert Tower,

    Joseph Blake, lieutenant, Win. flodge,

    Jeremiah Lincoln, ensign, James Fearing,

    Jonathan Smith, Knight Sprague, Jr.,

    Cileb Leavitt, Daniel Stoddard,

    George McLaughlin, Abet Wilder,

    Elijah White, Joseph Loring,

    JoshmL Dunbar, George Law,

    Israel Gilbert, Joshua French.

    Thomas Slander,

A roll of about the some time added the names of
    Thomas Cashing, Zebulan Stodder.

Another roll, bearing date Oct. 11, 1756, gives the following names of tliii,gham men, in addition to those previously mentioned
    Noill Beals, George Lane,

    Istale Gross, John Lincoln.

We also learn from it that Ensign Lincoln was killed or taken an account of his capture and escape is given later ; that John

              Alilitary History.

CItandallwining, Thoinas `41ander losiah Toullill Robert Tower,
antcrintry, Joshua Dunbar, Israel Gilbert Wit - Holbrook, George

and E'Iijz~ll While were already '(lead in the gel-vice, While ionathan Stnith, James Fearing, Will. ffodge, and Will. Jones weic sick at Albany or elsewhere.

Tho lucil might well be sick, if the accounts of re(rillar fritisli officers of the camps of tile New England troops are not exaggerfiled. Liout.-Colonel Burton describes them as dirty beyond deseription, especially that at Fort William floury ; ho speaks more favorably of the camp at Fort Edward, but says that, generally s1waking, there were almost no sanitary arrangeincots, that kitchens, graves, and places for slaughtering cattle were all


mixed, that the commit and stores were in great confusion, tho a(Mince (niard was snot1l, and little care taken to provide against surprise. The several chaplains in tile canip prescut a similar moral picture of the arloy. Meallwhile, Oil tile l4th of Ate,ust O'so'c"'o surrendered to the French, and all thoughts of file capture of Ticonderoga or Crown Point were, for the time, abandoned. Of the miserable jealousies of tile colonies, tile dis1.1raceful failares of a campaign conducted by twelve buildred tile[ sand people against eighty thousand, and tile, I"song it leaches of t;ie superiority in military matters of all army over it inob ' of' the trained soldier over the political civilian, only the briefvst mention call be made. The summer and autumn of 1756 lurnishes a striking illustration, and perhaps an unusually pointed ono ; for here were men, many of them, used to discil~diiio, and experienced in more than one war, sacrificed to tile lack of

methods, discipline, and leadership, indispensable in tile siiceessfill conduct of war. The opposite of all this was truc ill the French camps, and the results were equally different.

Loudon had ten thousand men posted from Albany to Lake George. Of these about three thousand provincials were at tile, lake under Winslow, with wheat was Gridley and hih re~,inlcut. Morricalm wag at Ticonderoga with an army of about live thansand regulars and Canadians.

On the 19tb September, Captain Hodges, of Gridlev's command and fifty men were ambushed a few miles from Port Williain Henry by Canadians and Indians, and only six escaped.

Bougainville, aide-de-camp to Alontealm, who was with the expedition says that out of fifty-three Enp-lish, all but one were

taken or killed; be adds that a more recital of the cruelties coiriinitted oil the battle-field by the Indians made him shudder. Among the dead was Captain Hodces, and undoubtedly also Israel Gilbert, Thomas Slander, Elijali' White, and Robert Tower; Ensign Jeremiah Lincoln, then apparently a lieutenant, was, with others, captured. Those men all belonged to Major Thaxter's company,

Mr. Lincoln, in the history of the town, says that a mail named Lathrop, who also belongea here, was killed at the sarne time.
260 History of Hingham.

Lieutenant Lincoln wag taken to Quebec, where, after spending the winter, 'lie inado his esca"o in the night with three othes-B. Two of these because so exhausted that they went to surrender to the French at Crown Point, while Lincoln and big companion finally reached Fort Edward after great Buffering, during which they were obliged to subsist upon the bark of trees.

Ili November the army dispersed, leaving a small garrison at Lake George. The provincials returned to their homes, while tile English regulars wore billeted in different parts of the country; those at Boston being sent to Castle William.

To the lists already given as serving in the Crown Point army, there should be added the following taken frosia a note in Mr. Lincolu7s private copy of his history : -

    Ralph flaswil, John Blancher,

    James Hayward, Jonathan Tatint,

    Seth Stowers, Jedediall Newcomb.

    Elijah Lewis,

Engaged also in this service was the Hinglearn sloop 11 Sea
Flower," commanded Is ' v John Cushing, a brother-in-law of Gen
eral Lincoln. Here is a copy of a paper at the State House ~ -

A Portled,p Bill of sloop Sea Flower, Jno Cushing all and sailors in His llila~esty's Service in the Crown Point Expedition


    Jms Cushing master Sept 30

    Jno Burr mate,

    Seth Davis pilot

    Samuel Tower sailor

    Timothy Covell

    Isaiah 'rower

    Joseph 131alle.

To hire of Sloop Sea Flower 74 tons at % per ton a month from Sept 30 1751; to We )5

On tile back of this is an acknowledgment by Benjamin Lincoln
for Capt. John Cushing of the receipt of 27 !' 8 X.

Captain Cushing married Olive, daughter of Colonel Lincoln, and resided at South Hingham. John Burr, his mate, at this time lived on Leavitt street. Samuel and Isaiah Tower were brothers. Bosid" all these, Isaac Joy served in Colonel Gridley's own earnPally, sull Robert Townsend, Jr., in Captain Read's company, in ColonelClapp'sireginumd. Mr. Ceorge Lincoln says that Nehemiah Joy was also in the service at Lake UcorV.

The next, year London with the best of the army sailed from New York for Halifax, leaving Lake George comparatively ung,uarded, with tile hope of taking Louisburg, -an expedition, by the way, that proved a total failure. Meanwhile Montealm gath- A ill~aEjaX at Ticonderoga, and by the end of July be had

              mil"tary ifi"tory, 261

eil,ldt thousand French ' Cnrind!"Rus,aled saiages enclunped there.
Parkinan ' ives a ivoilderf,21 Inct'lle of this arins, and its ansich
to%rards Fort Willinin Iltop., oil th, tbil.(I of Alo,loBt it InI)e! 1. d
I eforo tile fort, which was bv ' 0, -.2 ~_, R c

-eldollel Moolo, it Zotell veteran. with him were tlVerd)-two lorinfred )[tell ill~ cludingg eight hundred from Miss8achusett8, Lueder Colonel Frye, who at-rived on the first of tile njolith, j,be s

                        iege oil ill


fourth, while Celleral Webb at Fort J'Award did nothing Out Scull

to the colonies for militia which could V 'to Possibility arrise it, tilne. They llowm,er made the attempt 4e,,11 as fill' as~from cast-

vni MassaAasetts. After a brave d0fe'll(T the garrison qr,,u,
dered, and the next day, the fenth, occurred tile fij,q,tful

"poll the character of Moritcalin.
ll"s"c"i of tile Prisoners, wiliell Illia cast, the only ~eriojj,' stain

fix the intreached canip where tile ' v had passed the night,
and as they were about to riarch under escort for Fort Ed~
lVard, the English army Nvith inany wouien and children a-vie
startled by tile warwhoop of file Inaialls. lot tiled iately tile )to).
rible butchery commenced. Probably towards a hundred were
shin, and settle two hundred carried into captivity. Aniong the
latter ivas Zebrilon Stodder, whoin Colonel Lincoln wrOes of
Under date of July 25, 1758, as being heard from in Canada.
Knjo)t Sprague escaped after being partialiv stripped. Ili :in
account afterwards lie said that fifteen out of fiftv of tile coluplul ' v
to which he bebuu~ed were killed that day. His captain ilns
stripped naked, as Were, nially Soldiers and %Volliell lie passed in
big fliolit towards Fort Edward. Spragne's captain n-as probaldy
still .1fajor Thaxter although ive have no roll of tile coulpativ at
this time. Major 'ilia 'xter was stripped of his clothingr, Innuoi to
a tree, and about to be roasted alive, when lie was saied bi :i
Preach officer. Slith Stolvers, who ~Subsequerjtl~v bocame a captain
in the Revolutionary service, at, the of, the aftack
upon the prisoners stuffed his coat with articles of clotbiii,,, taken
froal tile military" Stores, and darted into the Woods, lie was
inuriediatels- pursued by a number of ill(,, Indiineq. As the fore-

Most got dangerously rioar, lie would throw soinu of his burden il~ lar as possible to one side. The greed (if his pursiters for phillder was go great, that thel, w'(1141 stop to recover tile abandoned

Igarnient, thus enablin" hills to gntlin slightly upoll 111vill. Re
pe;lting the rose its fell, its file articleg held out finally gave hills
sulliciont %dvanta'-e to olude flulsoit. Other flillurfelle 111011 who
uscaped death ivei-Q Thomas Gill, T1101111119 nlli~ I,,'1ij;lI1 I,elvis :
there were probaldly inanly inore. Thomas Burr boennio :1 fielitell
aut in the company- commanded by Capt. Peter Cushing in the
Revolution, and Elijah Leis-is was also a soldier in flwt~lvnrl "is
were Lot Lincoln n-nd Thoinns Herse ' v ' both prel, imesly loulled as
on Captain Thaxter's rolls, Hersey I jecoinho, it captain in the
service of tile patriot sirri'v.
A list of tile Hill"hisin racri not included in the surrender, be
262 History of Hingham.

longing to Major Thaxter's company, is as follows; the men were probably oil some detail away from the fort: -

    Johnson Anderson, Benjamin Joy,

    James Caunidy, Stephen Randall,

    Joseph Dwelly, Freeman Smith,

    Jameig Hayward, Joshua Bates.

Another account gives the name of Townsend Sinithw
To these lists there should be added a list of invalids, whom
Lieutenant Blake reported as belonging to Ifingliani alid able to
march, and who were probably members of Thaxter'.9 company,
The date is June, 1757, and it is not unlikely that these men were
at Fort William Henry and included in the surrender. It would
appear from Knight Sprague's account that a large proportion of
the couipan ' v were murdered, and this may explain the fact that
little more appears to lie known concerning them. They were
as follows: -

    George Phillips, Benjamin Sampson,

    Moses Bradbury, Reuben Donnells,

    James Bunker, Dennis Morrison,

    James Brayman, Samuel Winchester.

Major Samuel Thaxter, scarcely less famous than his able grandfather Col. Samuel Thaxter, was a brave soldier Pis well is a prominent and trusted citizen in civil affairs. Ife was reported in Hingliain as having lost his life in the massacre which followed the surrender, and a funeral sernion was preached by Dr. Gay. After the sermon Mr. Caleb Bates was engaged in driving his cows at Rockley, when whom should lie meet but the Major himself coming home on horseback. Throwing up both hands in astonishment, Mr. Bates exclaimed, 11 Good God, Major, is that you ? Why, we have just buried you! "

Major Tbaxter was a quick-tempered and kind-hearted man.
On one occasion lie got into considerable trouble by killing some
of his neighbors' (logs, who were worrying deer driven into the
town by a severe storin. Ile bad a number of children, among
them Dr. Gridley Thaxter, doubtless named after his old colonel,
who served will; credit in the Revolutionary army. The Thaxter
home was on North Street; and not far from him, after the war,
calue to live his old commander, Gen. John Winslow,and his lien
tenant, Joseph Blake. Ceneral Winslow resided until his death
on Main Street, where is now the house of Air. John Siders. The
chureb-bells tolled when his body was removed to Marshfield. Lieu
tenant Blake lived where the Bassett house is, opposite the Old
Meetin ' g-liouse on Main Street; his son Joshua was a lieutenant
in the United States navy. We can imagine that these three old
veterans spent many an hour together in the after years, recalling
the stirring events of the last French and Indian war.

              Iftilitary History. 263

To General Webb's request for Militia to march to the relief of Fort William, there was immediate response fron, tile colonies, and Massachusetts esliecially wasted no time in vettinL, a larze number of incit into t le field. We already ktlow~ilie u~clessnc~s of the effort; indeed, Monro had already capitulated several days before the troops froin eastern New England started ; although this was of course not known until later. Upon receipt of the ucceasary orders, Col. Benjamin Lincoln commanding the third Suffolk reginiont, at once detached from his command the coinpany in Ilingliam commanded by Ebenezer Beal, and started it on tile march the 15th of August. The roll of Ifinghain men in the company was as follows : -

          Ebenezer Beal, Capt.,

          Daniel Lincoln, Lieut.,

          Benjamin Cushing, Ensign,

        11 Stowers, Sergt. Nath` Stodderl

    Josep Daniel Tower,

    John Fearing,

    John Blancher' " Solo: Dunbar

    Obadiah Lincoln, " ~unl Dunbar,

    David Farrow, Corp., David Wilder

    John Keen Zach Loring

    Elislia Toover, Jr., Sam, Gill, Jun.,

    Abijah Whiten, Drum., Joseph Sprague,

    Peter Lincoln, Private, Asa Burr,

    Obadiah Stowell, " John Wilelit,

    Joshua Remington, John Wheelwright,

    Matthew Lincoln, John Pratt,

    Ezra French, Calvin Cushing,

    Philip Nye, Price pritchart,

    David Waterman, Jacob Beal '

    Ephraim Marsh, Frederick Bate,

    William Murch, Job Tower,

    Isaac Gross, Simeon ate,

    Consider Jones, Hosea Orcatt,

    Jotham Loring, Benjamin Beal,

    Isaac Burr, Japhet Ilobart,

    Ignatius Orcutt, Elisba Lincoln.

    Natha Lincoln, Micah Nichols,

    Isaac Lincoln, Jun., Nelierniall Joy,

There was also a company, containing a riumber of Ilingham men, under the command of Capt. Fbenczer Thayer of Prointree,

in Colonel Lincoln's regiment, which marched at tile same time. Their narnes were: -

            Stephen Cu8bilig, Lient"

    David Cushing, Cornet,

    Noah Nichols, Corporal, Joseph Cushing, Private

    Benjamin Thaxter. 4, Thomas Barker, ,'

264 History qj'Hiughoin.

    David Lincoln, Private, Lot Lincoln, Private,

    Thomas Lothrop, Joseph Loring, 11

    John Burr, Cniell Joy, It

    Uriall ~akes, Obadiah Beal,

    Berijamin Garnet,

It will be recalled that soon after the termination of the war with Philip, permission was granted to Capt. JoBbua Hobart, and others, to form a small troop of horse in Ilingliam, Weymouth, and Hall, and that John Thaxter became its first conkniander. With the foot companies of Hingham and other towns in the vicinity, this troop was attached in 1680 to a new regiment under Major Win. Stoughton. It would seem that subsequently the troop came to be composed almost entirely of men belonging to Hingliam and Braintree, and that was still the fact when, August 12th, 1757, it marched to the relief of the fort, which had already surrendered. By the above roll it will be seen that a majority of its officers were from the former place. Its service ended the 23d of the same month.

In July, 1767, Pitt, who shortly before lead been dismissed from office, became the controlling force in foreign affairs and in the department of war. With him there came a new light to England and the colonies; the tide of defeat and disaster was checked, hope was reawakened, and a vigor and wisdom instilled into the conduct of public affairs, which eventually led to the triumph of the British arins and the conquest of Canada.

Early in June, 1758, Admiral Boscavven and General Amherst,
with eighteen frigates and fire-sbips, twenty-tlirce ships of the
line and a fleet of transports, oil board of which were eleven
thousand six hundred soldiers, all regulars except five hundred
provincial rangers, appeared before Louisbourg. Amherst's briga
diers were Whitmore, Lawrence, and Wolfe. July 27th the felt
surrendered after a determined resistance, and over five thousand
men became prisoners in the hands of the English. In the siege
Jothain Ca ' y, who coninianded a company from Bingham shortly
after and perhaps at this time also, is said to have participatA.

Among the Massqcbusetts regiments raised for the prosecution of the war was one cominqiided by Col. Joseph Williams. It was recruited early in 1758, and coniained a company of Ilinghaill men, commanded by Capt. Edward Ward, who had already served at the capture of Louisbourg in 1W. The roll of t1iis com-

pany was is follows: -
Edward Ward, Captain,
Isaac Smith, Sergt., Nath' Bates, Private,
Lott Lincoln, Corp., Joseph Beal, It
James Howard, Mordica Bates, 46
    James Lincoln, Joseph Battles, Jr., 11

              Alilitary History. 265

    Joseph Carrell, Private, Thonlas Lothrop, Private,

    PriolUS Cobb, negro, John Ncal,

    Seth Dunbar,

    Solomon Punbar, Jr., J081111a Remirp,ton,

    Jonathan Farrow, O1)adiqb Stowe`il,

    Ezra French, Nath' Stoddard,

    Natha Garnet, Jr., Oliver Southward,

    Norman Garnett, Jerollie Stevenson,

    Isaac Gross, Solon Stevenson,

    Ezra Garnett, Daniel Tower, Jr.,

    Noah Humphrey, Joseph 'rower, Jr.,

    Japhet Hobbart Shadrich Tower, 14

    Peter Jacob, Jr., David Waterman, 11

    Nath' Joy, Solonioll Whiten, 11

    Elisha Keen, Jonathan Whiten, 11

    Elijah Lewis, Jonathan Ward, 11

Another roll of this company, probably one of a few unniths earlier, contains these names, not included above: -

    Thomas Colsen, Calvin Cushing,

    David Bate, Thomas Colson,

    Aliner Bate, James Lincoln.

    Beza Cushing,

Thomas Burr also served in this regiment, but in Captain Parker's company, - probably with other Hingham men whose names are not preserved. A journal kept 1)), 111*111 gives Some particulars of the experience of the cornelmol ; and from this and a return of Colonel Lincoln, in 1759, showing former service of certaiii enlisted men from his reginient, we learn something of the
        I ~c conquest of Canada.

part which Hingliam loid in th
The fifth of July, 1758, Aborcroniby, with over si- thousand
regulars and nine diousand provincials, left his caunp oil the scene
of Dieskau's defeat and Moutcalin's victorv and embarked upou
Lake George. The army was in nine hu~('Ired 1):Iteaux, a bull
dred and thirty-five whaleboati, find a nuerbor of flathoats carrv
in,, the artillery. The da ' v was bright, and amid the romantic
scenery the line, mix mile-, in length, vvith gorgcous uniforms ind
waving banners, presented a superb spec7icie. The life of the
army, and its real cominarider, was Lord Howe. a brother of the
brave general who led the EnOish at Banker Bill. In the even
ing, lying by the Bide of John Stark, then all officer of Rog rs'
rangers, lie inquired about the situation and best manner of at
tacking Ticonderoga; and the next dav while tit, the head of the
column with Major Israel Putnam and two hundred rangers, lie
fell dead under Zhe fire of a small body of French commanded by
Lang . The loss of Howe was the rain of the armv, and Aber-
cromby preserved neither order nor discipline; indeed, lie was "poll
266 11istory of 11ingham.

the point of abandoning the expedition. Colonel Bradstreet, how.
ever, opened the way for the army and it reluctantly followed his
lead. In the mean time Montcalin, on the seventh, threw up -
wonderfully strong defence,and here with thirty-six hundred men
lie awaited the English. At one o'clock on the eighth the attack
commenced. At balf-past seven the French gen e ral had won his
great victory, and the British army, after losing two thousand men,
was in full retreat, covered by the provincials. In this disastrous
attempt Captain Ward's compan ' v probably participated, us Colonel
Lincoln incutions a number of men as engaged at Lake George
whose names occur on the above roll. He speaks also of William
Russ as a soldier of his re(,iment on the same service.

After the defeat Abercromby reoccupied slid refortified the camp which be had left but a few days previously. Colonel Brad. street obtained, after much persuasion, three thousand men, mostly provincials, and with these and a small number of Oneidas be, embarked, August the twenty-second, in his fleet of wImIeboat8 and pushed out (into Lake Ontario. His destination was Fort Frontenac, and as Thomas Buri, who was in this expedition, RavB in his diary, the troops came in sight of the French works on die twenty-fifth, and landed about dusk, and to quote the diary, " pitched against the fort" on the twent-v-sixth. The next day the garrison surrendered, together with nine armed vessels and a large amount of stores and ammunition.

Forming a part of Colonel Bradstreet's cornma;:d, and pnrticipating in I& triumph was Captain Ward's compa y of Hingham men,- if indeed,tbe whole of Colonel Williams' regiment was not in the expedition. Subsequently many of them were at the ('rest Carrying Place. This latter was the name of a post upon the Mohawk, then being fortified by General Stariwix, with whom Bradstreet left a thousand men on his return frou) his victory. Among them were Beza Cushing, Noah Humphrey, John Neal, Isaac Gross, Isaac Smith, James Hayward, David Tower, Jonathan Farrow, Townsend Smith, Joseph Carrel, Robert Dunbar, Solo. Whiten, William Cornett, and Thomas Lathrop. Not previously named, but at Frontenac, in addition to others, were Ralph Hassell, and John Sprague; they would seem to have enlisted in other companies in Colonel Williams' regiment.

May 4, 1759, Cov. Tbomas Powmill sailed from Boston with a regiment commanded by bimself, and constructed a fort upon the Penobscot. Among Colonel Pownall's captains was Jotharn Car, with a company from Ilingliqn). Captain Gay's company sc~ins however to have been sent to Halifax somewhat earlier, -,tied a return sworn to by him indicates thnt it formed part of the garrison of that post from Alarch until November of that year. Capt. Jotharn Gay was born in Hingham, April 11, 1733, and as already seen, w.;s in the king's service from 1765 until near the close of the last French war. Subsequently lie was a colonel in the Continental army, and a representative from

              Military Ifistory. 267

Ifingbaut in 1799 and 1800. His brother Calvin died at Quebec in 1765. They were sons of the Rev. Ebenezer Gay, who was iiii-tister of the Old Church in Hingham for sixtv

I .... -nille years.
Rev. John Brown, of that part of Hingham which is ilow Cohasset,
was a chaplain in the army in 1759, arid was stationed at Halifax.
Ile was a friend of Dr. Guy, who corresponded with him, and in
it characteristic letter, dat~d June 25, 1759, be writes to Mr.
Brown, 11 1 wish you may visit Jothani (captain) and minister
good instruction to him and company, and furnish him with suit
able sernigns in print, or i . n your own very legible, if not very in.
telligible manuscripts, to read to his men, who are without a
preacher; in the room of one, constitute Jothain curate." Colonel
Ga , v (lied October 16, 1802. The following is the list of the
Hingham men in the company commanded by him in 1759: -
            Jothain Gay, Capt.,

            Goorge Lane, Licut.,

            Thomas Lothrop, 11

    Isaac Smith, Sergt., Caleb Leavitt, Private.

    Nathaniel Bangs, Levi Lewis,

    Elijah Lewis,

    ivate, Urbane Lewis,

    14 Israel Lincoln,

    11 John Laseff,

    11 Joseph Levis,

    11 Ephraim Marsh,

    11 Mienh Nichols,

    11 John Neal,

    11 Charles Ripley,

    Isaac ce, 11 William Bust,

    11 Lutber Stephenson,

    11 Jusitanus Stephenson,

    11 Joronic Stephenson,

                  John Sprague,

                  Kjii~ht 8praguel

                  Daniel Stoddard,

                  Diniel Tower,

                  Seth Wilder,

There is also a roll in the State archives giving the names of
    Samuel Joy, Corp. Joseph Blake, Pr Benjamin Beal, Issachar Bate, Isaac Burr, Reza Cushing, Calvin Cushing' Jacob Dunbar ' Jonathan Farrow Gro Noah Ifuniphroy, job n Hobart, Ord ion Howa rd , Micall Humphrey

    Za h H ' I I

    'rlcs; W vc-d ,

    Joseph Jones

    John Lincoln:

the following, and headed A return of men Enlisted fr his Majesty's Service for the Total Reduction of Canada, 1760:

      John Stowel , John Nash,

      Nath, Joy, Job Mansfield,

      Japhot flobard, Levi Lincoln,

      Enoch Stoddard, Abijah Hersey,

      Joseph Sprague, Daniel Lincoln

      Samuel Burr, Joseph Beid, 7

      Asa Burr, Joshaa Remington,

268 History oJ'Kinghton.

      Znebeus Barber, John Garnet,

      William Lincoln, Stephen Frances,

      Richard Stodard, Seth Dunbar.

      Benjn Stowel,

Of the particular service of these men there appears to be no record. The following from the papers belonging to the Connmonivealth indicates, however, that a number of them were with tile army in New York: -

11 Money owed John Fave, for money paid by him to invalids returning from Albany, &~., &c., 1760:

Berij. Stowell, Hingliata, in Col. Thoinas' regt., Capt. Bradford
Richard Stoddard, 11 " 11 11 11 11 o "

There is it carious and interesting record in Vol. 98, page 361, of the rolls at tile State House in connection with the invalids at Albany, which seems to have escaped notice elsewhere. It is an account of a payment " to Col. Ranslow ]or his Battalion of Negroes to carry Small Pox people to Albany."

Wolfe had climbed the Heights of Abraham, gained the crown of imperishing faine, and laid down his life in the moment of victory, while Motitcalm, his dying thoughts for Canada, slept the soldier's last sleep in the Convent of tile UrindincB. September tile l8th Quebec surrendered. The following spring L4vis made a bold attempt to recapture it, but abandoned tile attempt upon tile arrival of an English fleet. Oil tile fifteenth of July, 1760, Murray, with twenty-four hundred and fifty men, left Quebec and inarclA toward Montreal ; lie was subsequently reinforced by seventeen hundred more under Lord Rollo,

In the mean time General ffaviland left Crown Point with an army of thirty-four hundred regulars, provincials, and Indians, while Amherst with ten thousand men embarked from Oswego on the tooth of August, followed by seven hundred Indians under Sir William Johnson. On the sixth of September the three armies encamped before Montreal. With Amherst and Haviland doubtless would have been found Hingham's recruits enlisted " for the total reduction of Canada." September the eighth the remnants of tile French army, consisting of about tweirty-four hundred men, surrendered to General Amherst, who was about to open fire upon Montreal, besieged as it was by his force of seventeen thousand.

If with the death of 3lontealm and the surrender of Quebec, France ill the New World died, so at Montreal was buried all hope of her resurrection, unless, indeed, through the medium of diplomacy when peace should at last be declared. Even that hope was destined never to be realized, for with the signing of the articles at Paris in 1763 French dominion in North America became only a matter of history. However. during the many months and even years that intervened, the Bea coasts had to be guarded, and tile various military posts garrisoned. Probably engaged ill

              Military History, 269

this or similar service, we find Hiligharn men serving as follows: -
Under Capt. Samuel Bent, from June to ~ oceinber, 17,631

    Ralph Hassell, John Neal,

    Elijah Lewis, David Stoddard.

    Levi Lewis,

    Under Capt. Ephraim Holines, March to November, 1762: -Jerciniah Chubback.

Under Capt.William Barrows, November, 1762, to July, 1763 -
Nathau Lewis, Arthur Caill.
Under Capt. Johnson Moulton, 1762 and 1763:
Jeremiah Chubbuck, Lieut., Levi Lewis,
Elijah Lewis, Sergt., John Neal.

Impossible as it is to give an absolutely correct list of our townsmen who " went out against the French " (hiring th"e long years of warfare, there are nevertheless preserved and here phiOd oil the rolls of the brave, the names of some two hundred and twentv-four different individuals who fouAt trader tile king's colors and shared in tile glory of the final triumph.

Moreover, at least fifty of these re-enlisted, fifteen served three times, four four times, and one loan seems to have been a recruit oil live different occasions, so that there must be credited as serviii~ in Iliturharn's quota, during some part of the period, about three hundred and twenty soldiers. Among these were more than a dozen officers, of whom the most celebrated wag Major Thaxter,

Ill glancing at those old company rolls we notice the frequent recurrence of certain family names having a large representation aniong the present inhabitants, while others, then boria, by it considerable number of persons, have entirely disappeared from ihe town. Of the former, tile Lincohis, with seventeen names on the lists, easily lead, while the (hishings; and Dun(airs each furnish nine, the Burrs six, the Beals the saitio number, tile Stoddard,,; five, and the Towers four, Oil the other hand the Cni-nets, of whom five enlisted, have ceased to exist by that nanic, althoic,li under the not very different form of Oardner, there arc still representatives here, while the ('i.ys, Joys, Cilberts, Gills, and others, including tile once 1111111c)-oins Slophellsons, hme few or none to preserve their names rind families.

From the close of the French wars; to the opening of the Rovelution, we know little about the local inilitary. Colonel Lincoln continued to command the regiment down to about tile close of the war, hat under (late of January 21, 1762, a list or the commh~sioned officers names Josiah Quiney as colonel, Joint Thaxter of Hingham as lient-colonel and captain of the first flinginua company, and Theophilus Cushing, also of this town, as major and captain of the second Hingham company. The other officers belonging here were Joseph'Thaxter, - afterwards captain, - and Ca eb Bates, lieutenants, in Lieut.-Coloriel Thaxter's company, and

270 History of Hingham.

Samuel Hobart his ensign; Capt. Pyam Cushing, who succeeded Major Cushing in the command of tile company, and his lieutenant, Robert Camel, and ensign John Jacob; Daniel Lincoln,

captain of the third company, with Isaac Lincoln, liclitearant, and

David Tower, Jr., ensign. The fourth Ilingbain company was

commanded by Thomas Jonem, and his lieutenant was Benjamin

Thaxter, with Ebenezer Beale, Jr., for his ensign. Tile troop of

horse which still existed was officered by David Cushing, captain,

BenJarain Hayden, lieutenant, Jonathan Bass, cornet, and Joseph

Cushin"', qu~rterm aster. Soon after, James Humphrey became

first major, and Benjamin Lincoln, Jr., second major of the


In 1771 this old command, formed in the early days of the colon) , and so long known as the Third Suffolk, had become the second regiment, Nvith John Thaxter, colonel, and Benjamin Lincoin, lie u tena nt-colonel. The companies from Ifingliam were officered as folloii s : Ist company,James Lincoln, captain; Elijah Lincoln, livatenaut; 2d coiinpa~i~, Enoch Whiten, Jr., captain; Theophilus Wilder, Jr., lieutenant; 3d company, Isaiah Cushing, captain; Peter Cashing, lieutenant; John Burr, ensign.

There was also a ti in of artillery attached to this regiment,
which evidently belonged here, as all its officers were from Ifing
learn. The ' v weic as follows: Francis Barker, Jr., captain ; ~am
iiel Thaxter, Ist lieutenant ; Jothana Loriulg, 2d lieutenant ; and
Levi Lincoln, lienterialit-fireworker.

Lieut.-Colonel Lincoln was in command of tile regiment at the opening, (if the Revolution, and the muster rolls of the day style it 11 Col. Lincoln's," although there is some uncertainty about his being so commissioned.

In tile stirring and exciting events preceding and leading up to the war between the colonies and Great Britain, Ifingham was an active participant. With that of so many other towns, her hiatory contributes to the familiar narrative of the great part taken by Massachusetts in tile resistance to tyrannical and oppressive acts of parliament and king. The names of flancock, Otis, and Lincoln have for her more even than the interest elsewhere surrounding them, for to the families bearing them she feels the affection and pride belonging to the children of the household.


John llancock, Major-Gencral, President of Congress, and Gover

nor of Massachusetts, was the son of Mary Ilawke of Hingham,

who first married Samuel Thaxter, Jr., and then John flaricock, of

Braintree ; while, John Otis, the ancestor of the patriot, was one

of the earliest settlers of tlic town and the possessor of large tracts

of land here, and his descendants resided in Hingham for genera

tions. Mary Otis, daughter of James the patriot, married the

soil of General Lincoln, while other members of the family were

connected by manrica0genswifith the Thaxter,5, Gays, Lincolvis, and

Herseys. The n If the pages of local and common-

            Military History. 271

wealth history with tile story of their services in the field, the town, the halls of legislation, and the council chamber, from the earliest days to the present time. During tile French war we have seen h enjamin Lincoln, its colonel of his regiment, the historical Third Suffolk, to which the companies in flinglenn had almost from the settlement of the town been attached, taking In active part. He was also for seventeen years a member of his Majesty'q Council, but resigned in 1770, at tile time when it was fast becoming impossible for patriotic Americans to hold longer the king's commissions. Colonel Lincoln died March 1, 17TI, leaving, aniong ot iers, the son Benjamin who so worthily filled the place lie long occupied in public estimation and usefulness. The affection which is felt for the great President Abraham Lincoln, also a descendant of a Ilingliam family, has given a national faille to the name in later years.

Am early as Sepieniber 21, 1768, the town, in response to a cir. cular from Boston, " chose Joshua Rearsey a committee to join the committees from the several towns within the province to assemble at Boston oil the 22d of September, current, thou and there to consult such incasuies as sliall be necessary for the prc%clIvIlition of good order and re.pilarity in the province ,it this criticat conjuncture of affairs." Ifis instructions were its follows: 11 We advise and direct you that you use your endeavors to preserve peace and good order in tile province and loyalty to tile khq ; that you take every legal and constitutional method for the preservation of our rights and liberties, and for havire, redressed these grievances we so generally complain of and so sensibly feet ; that all possible care be taken that the troops that should arrive have provision made for them, so that they be not billeted in privite families, and at so convenient a distance as not to interrupt the people ; that you encourage the inhabitants to keep at) military duty, whereby they may be in a capacity to defend theniselves agains , t foreign enemies; and in case you are exposed to any charges in prosecuting any of the foregoing preparations, we will repay it, and as these instructions are for your private use, hitprove them for that purpose and for no other whatever." The instructions were drawn up ky Ezekiel Hearsey, Benjamin Lincoin, Jr., and Capt. Daniel Lincoln.

In response to the circular, delegates from sixty-six town%, the number of whom afterwards increased to ninety-eight, met oil the day appointed, and continued in session from day to day, until the 29th, during which they adopted a letter to be transmitted to the agent of the province in London, and also voted to publish a result of their conference, in which, while declaring their ,tilegiance to the king, they also declared their rights under the clearter. March 5, 1770, occurred the event known in American history as the 11 Boston Massacre." Without discussing the events which led up to the riot and bloodshed in King Street on

217 2 11istory of ffinghain.

that memorable occasion, the fact of HinOam's sympathy with the people as against the soldiers is perfectly evident from resolutions passed at the annual meeting of that ;rar. They are not to be found in the town records, but are contained in the following letter from General Lincoln, then town clerk, to the committee of merchants:

                      HINGITAN, AfRich 24th, 1770.

To the Gentlemen the Committee of Herchants in _13oston;

GENTLEMEN, - At the annual meeting of the town of Hingham, on the 19th day of %rcb, A.D. 1770: Upon a motion being made and seconded (though omitted in the warrant), the inhabitants, taking into consideration the distressed circumstances of the people in this and the neighboring Provinces, occasioned by the late parliamentary acts for raising a revenue in North America, the mantier of collecting the same, and the measures gone into to enforce obedience to them, and judging that ever), society and every individual person are loudly called to exert the utmost of their abili.ty in a constitutional way to procure a redress of those grievances, and to secure the privileges by charter conveyed to them, and that freedoin which they have a right to :Is men and English subjects, came to the followir%g votes: -

Voted, That we highly approve of the patriotic resolutions of the nice, chants of this province not to import goods from Great Britain till the repeal of the aforesqid acts; and viewing it as having a tendency to retrieve us from these burdens so inuch complained of, quit so sensibly felt by us, we will do all fit our power in a legal way to support them in carrying into execution so worthy an undertaking.

Voted, That those few who hive imported goods contrary to general agreement, and counteracted the prudent ;end laudable efforts of the mer~ chants qlid traders aforesaid, have thereby forfeited the confulence of their brethren ; and therefore, we declare that we will not directly or indirectly have anv commerce or dealings with them.

Votei, That we will discourage the use of foreign superfluities among us, and encourage our own manufactures.

Voted, That we heartily sympathize with our brethren of the town of Boston, in the late unhnppy destruction of so many of their inhabitants, and we rejoice with them that there yet remains the free exercise of the civil authority.

Voted, Th4 the town clerk be ordered to transmit a copy hereof to the committee, of merchants in Boston.

I cheerfully comply with the above order and herewith send you a copy of the Votcs~ I am, gentlemen, with great esteeni, your most obedient and most humble servant,

                    BENJA3tiN LINCOLN, JUN'R.

At a meeting held January 11, 1773, a committee consisting of Bela Lincoln, Benjamin Liie~oln, Joseph Thaxter, Jacob Cushing, and Joshua Ilearacy, was appointed to draft instructions to John Thaxter, the town's representative. This was done on the I Sth in ,it communication urging him to use his best endeavors for the redress of the grievances under which the province was suffering.

            Military 11istory. 273

At three o'clock in the afternoon of December 16, 1778, young Josiah Quincy finished his great speech to the people in
                      Old Sonth lifcefing_leoiisc~ qfid the DOODIC reaffirmed the vote s

of November 29, that the tea in the , hips in Boston harbor
should not be landed. Towards twilight, Alr. Roch, the owner of
(Ile of the vessels, returned from in interview Nvith the Governor,
who was at Atilton, with a refusal to permit the ship to leave the
harbor. A warwhoop rang from the gaitery of the Old South ;
it was taken up from the outside. The meeting adjourned in
,,real confusion and the populace flocked toward Grillin's wharf,
near the present Liverpool wharf. Here were moored the 11 Dart
mouth," Captain Hall ; the 11 Eleanor," Captain Bruce ; and the
11 Beaver," Captain Coffin. Led by some twenty persons dis
guised as 31ohawk Indians, a party numberin,,, soine hundred and
forty boarded the vessels, and in two hours three hundred and forty
two chests of tea were emptied into the harbor. Arnon', the bold
actors of that night were Amos Lincoln, then twenty years of age,
afterwards a captain in the Revolutionary Army, and a brollier
of Lieut.-Gov. Levi Lincoln ; Jared Jo ' v, twerity-four years old,
also a Revolutionary soldier later; Abralkan) Tower, just twenty,
subsequently a soldier in Capt. Jot) Cushings company; and
Samuel Sprague of the same age, afterwards the father of Charles
Sprague the poet.

These young men all belonged in Hingham, and their participatient was quite likely the result of an agreenient among them to he in Boston until the question of the landing of the tea should be settled. It is significant that at least three of them should have become soldiers in the war for independence which so soon followed.

The action of this 16th of December was followed by more. papers and letters from the Boston Committee of Correspondonce. To these the town responded at the annual meeting by resolutions declaring,-

" First, That the disposal of their property is the inherent lilght of freemen, that there is tie property in that which another can of right take, I . roin us without our consent; that the claim of Parliament to tax America is, in other wordi, a claim of right to lay contributions on us :it pleasura.

" Secondly, That the duty imposed by Parliament upon tea lande(I in America is a tax on the Americans or levying contributions on them without their consent.

"' rhirdly, That the express purpose for which the tax is levied on the Americans, namely, for the 8upport of government and administration of justice, and the defence of his Majesty's dominions in Ameri,~a, ha4 a direct tendency to tender assemblies useless, and to introduce arbitrary government and slavery.

" Fourthly, That a virtuous and steady opposition to the ministerial plan of governing America is necessary, to preserve even a shadow of liberty ; and it is a duty which every freeman in America owes to his countrv, to himself, and to his posterity.

roe. L -IS
271 History of Hinghant.

"Fifthly, That the resolution lately come into by the East India Com. pany, to sea(( out their teas to Americ% subject to the payment of duties on its being lauded here, is an open attempt to enforce the allioi5tprial plan, and a violent attack on the liberties of America.

" Sixthly, That it is the duty of every American to oppose this ,attempt.

" Seventhly, That it affords the greatest satisfaction to the inhabitants of this town to find that his Majesty's subjects in the American colonies, and of this province in particular, are so thoroughly awakened to a sense of their danger, arising from encroachments made on their con8titutional rights and liberties, and that so flrm a union is established among them ; and that they will ever be ready to join their fellow subjects in all laudable measures for the redress of the many grievances we labor under."

August 17, 1774, the town adopted the following agreement as reported by a committee - -

"We the subscribers, taking into our serious consideration the present distressed state of America, and in particular of this devoted province, occasioned by several late unconstitutional acts of the British Parliament for taxing Americans without their consent-blocki up the port of Boston -vacating our charter, that solemn compactnLween the king and the people, respecting certain laws of this province, heretofore enacted by our general court and confirmed by his majesty and his predecessors, we feel ourselves bound, as we regard our in~stimable constitution, and the duty we owe to succeeding generations, to exert ourselves in this peaceable way, to recover our lost and preserve our remaining privileges, yet not without grief for the distresses that may hereby be brought upon our brethren in Great Britain. We SO]eMDIY COVetaUlt and engage to and with each other, viz.: Ist, That we will not import, purchase, or consume, nor suffer any person or persons to, by, for or under us to import, purchase, or consume in any manner whatever, any goods, wares, or merchandise which sliall arrive in America, from Great Britain, from and after the flrst day of October, one thousand seven hundred and Seventyfour, until our charter qndC0DStitUthMal rights sluill be restored ; or until it sliall be determined by the major part of our brethren in this and the neighboring colonies, that a new importation, or a new C0138111uptiOn agreement will not effect the desired end; or until it sball be apparent that a neer importation or new consumption agreement will not be entered into by this and the neighboring colonies, except drugs and medicines slid such articles, and such only, as will be absolutely necessary in carrying on our own manufactures.

44 2dly, That in order to prevent, as far as in us lies, any inconveniences that may arise from the disuse of foreign commodities, we agree that we will take the most prudent care for the raising and preserving sheep, flax, &c., for the manufacturing all such woollen and linen cloths as shall be most useful and necessary ; and that we will give all possible support and encouragement to the manufactures of America in general."

In September Colonel Lincoln was chosen to attend a Provincial Congress at Concord, and in October the town 11 recommended

              Military History. 2 7 5'

to the militia officers to assemble their men once in a. we(!Ic and instruct them in the art of war, &,c." In November the eoll,Gtols of tqvo..q were directed to Tuty all nioneYs c,liected to llenry G

'11rdner, Esq., of Stow, appointed treasurer by the Provincial Congress.

December 26 Colonel Lincoln was a-ain sent to the Proviiicial Congress to bo held in Cambridge. January, 1775, the town chose a committee to take into consideration the, state of the militia. The members of this committee were Colonel Lincoln, Enoch Lincoln, Jothatu Lincoln, Samuel Norton, Jacob Leavitt, Samuel Thaxter, and Seth Stowers; almost every one of whom served in the nriny subsequently.

May 24, 1775, Colonel Lincoln was chosen to represent the
town in the Provincial Congress then sittin ' g at Watertown ; and
at the same meeting Benjamin Lincoln, Benjamin Cushing, and
David Cushing were chosen a committee to correspond with other
towns in the province.

July 10 Colonel Lincoln was chosen to represent the town in the General Court to be held at Watertown on the 19th agreeably to a resolve of the Continental Congress.

The following are some of the expenditures of the town in this year 1775 ordered to bp paid by Thomas Loring, Treasurer: -

To Jacob Leavitt for making carriage for cannon, timber, &c. 9-0-2
To Capt. Isaiah Cashing Company for exercising as per the
Clerk's Role made up 4-16-4
To Jacob Leavitt for shop candles, &c., for company 1-1-7
To John Fearing for timber for the cannon 0_9_0
To Capt. Jonses C(unpan ' Y for Exercising, as pr Roll 2-8-4
To Capt. James Liticolni Company for Exorcisiagg and Allow
ii~nce for house Liquor, Candles 7-6-4
To Capt. Jotharn Luring for hii Company Exercising Evenings
    and the allowance for house candles, &c. 8-0-111

To Adam Stowell for 4 16. Ball Led 47 18 His Comma shot C 20 0-4-7
To Joshua Leavitt for 38 lb. Cannon Ball C,! 2 6-4
To Jerh Lincoln for part Cqpt-Tonses Company Exercising house
room candles, &c. 2-0-4
To Enoch Whiton for part his Uompqny Exercising house room
Candles, &c. 4-11-0
To Theop. Wilder for part of Capt. Whiton Company Exercising
house. room Candles, &c. 2-9-8

Adjoining the office of the Sceretar ' V of the Coin monweal tl i, in
the old part of the State llonse in Boston, itself the depository of
some revered historical relies, is a lon ' , rather low alcoved room
with several large tables, a case or two of drawers, and man ' v
shelves. A number of persons may always be found here: clerks,
whose duty and pleasure it is to assist the numerous visitors,
students, and writers of history ; men and women curions to see
the old documents ; descendauta of revolutionary and provincial
276 History of Hiagham.

sires desirous of finding some record of their ancestors, or seek
ing for a glHHps- or perhaps a tracing of ail autograph of family
or national celebrity. Well may this quiet apartment be tile
mecca for hundreds arid thousands of those to whom the stor ' y of
their countrv's settlement and carly days comes like a fresh
breeze of eitrnestuess and purpose, of faith and devotion and
bravery. Here such come from the East and the far West alike,
art(] feel as one most, whether at Lexington or Bunker Hill or
plyinouth. as, though oil sacred ground. For here the whole
atmosphere seems to breathe of the past ; the Archives of the
colony, tile Province, and tile, Commonwealth ; quaint and loved
names of the Puritans arid the Pilgrims, and quainter records of
their doin,s and trials arid expeditions ; votes of the deputies,
orderr, of the 111flulistrates, proclamations of the Royal Governors,
queer old yellow and stained papers written in characters so pecu
liar as to requiie a special knowledge to decipher them ; copies or
originals of the famous Hutchinson papers; correspondence with
tile French authorities in Canada or the Pilgrim governor in
Plymouth; a treaty Nvith some famous Indian sachem ; an account
of a pirate ship, or ail order for the hanging of its lawless chief;
a report of Captain Churcli ' or a rumor of Myles Standish ; laws
for the legulation of religion ' the promotion of education, tile
encouragement of commerce - letters of Winthrop, of Dudley, of
Harry Vane ; appointinents to the command and grants of men
and money for the attempts apinst Nova Scotia arid Louisburg
and Canada; victories and feastings and fastings; the story of
Acadia and tile wanderers, crudely arid disjointedly told in various
papers. more letters and signatures, but now of Washington
and Franklin, of Knox and Hancock and Adams and Lincoln and
Warren -, committees of safety and their doings; conflicts with Brit
ish sailors and officials and soldiers; preparations for the Revolu
tion and commissions for its officers,- all these arid many more are
to be form(] here, with papers whose contents are hardly yet known,
and affordbig doubtless rich stores of original research arid infor
mation for tile historian. Here too are great, untivieldy volumes
filled with the master rolls of the officers and men who served
their kintr against the French in tile North, the Spaniard in the
Main, tile Indian in the forest; who fought too, when tile tinie
Caine, file king and his redcoats from Boston to Yorktown, and
his Hessian allies at Stillwater and Trenton and Princeton. We
may read - sometimes in a hand, and oftentimes in a spelling,
that almost silences criticism - the signatures of our grandf atherB
or great-randfatheri to receipts of money or supplies ; and we may
proudly Follow the record of their devoted services through year
after rear of warfare arid privation in their struggle for freedom
and nationality. Among the bound papers we should find a sur
prising number, filling indeed three large books, numbered 11, 12,
13, known as the 1, Lexington Alarm Rolls." These contain

              Alilitary History. 277

not alone the names of the brave men of Lexington and Concord arid Acton and the other towns whose soils were actually engaged and sonle of lv1mrn laid down fl-ir li- it, file first battle of file Revolution, but also those of the equally brave from remoter places who hastened toward the field of conflict at the first note of alarin, and who rightly share in the honor and glory of the victory of that 19th of April and the service that immediately followed. The rolls of these companies are very numerous, there being in fact several hundred of them, of which four tell the story of what Hingham did in tile dawning of the eight years' conflici. Of these troops, there appear to have been three foot-companies, or what would now be termed infantry, and one -that coremanded by Captain Loring- artillery, then termed the 11 Train." Probably all were attached to Colonel Lincoln's command.

Omitting the details of expense, pay, and sonic other items of little or no interest, an exact copy of the rolls of these companies is here given : -

A true return of tile traveland time of Service of the men under my Command in Col. Benj. Lincoln's Regiment Assembled tile 19th April, 1775: -

    Isaiah Cushing, Capt. Joshua Loring,

    Jacob Leavitt, Lieut. Othriel Stodder,

    Charles Cushing, Lieut. David Wilder,

    Jacob Cushim,, Jr., Serj,, Caleb Brimhall,

    Isaac Sprague, Jr., Thomas Burr,

    Shubael Fearing, Sam Burr,

    Thos. Jones, Jr., Benj. Sprague, Jr.,

    Anma Sprague, Corp., Sam Lazell,

    David Burr, Fearing,

    John Blossom, Thomas King,

    John Burr,Jr., Jos. Leavitt,

    Levi Burr, Drum, Benj. BarneB,Jr.,

    Peter Hersey, Benj. Cushing, Jr.

    John Lincoln, Jared Line,

    Seth Briggs, Jacob Thaxter,

    Sam Leavitt, Abiler Loring.

    David Sprague,

ISAIAH CUSHING. On the back is the following: -

Suffolk as.
Decent. 11, 1775. Then Capt. Isaiah Cushing Subscriber to this Roll personally made oath to the truth of it.
Col. BFNj. LINCOLN, JUS. Peace. E xamined and compared with the original.
                    Edw' Rawson C

                    Jonas Dix om.

278 History of Hingham.

In Council, Apr 16th, ITT6, read & allow'd & ordered that
a warrant be drawn oil the Treasury for 11. 2, 8. in full of this
roll. JoHN LowELL Dpy Sec'- S. T.

The other rolls have similar indorsements.
It appears also from details not here given in full, that this company was in service three days at this time, and travelled thirty-six miles.

A true return of the travel and time of Service of those men under my command in Col. Benj. Lincoln's Regiment assembled
the 19th of April, A. D. 1775. JM4Es LINCOLN.
James Lincoln, Capta. Jere Hersey, Jr.,
Isaac Lincoln, 1st Lieut., Gilb Hersey,
Nath Lincoln, 2d 11 Step Lincoln,
Joseph Beal, Sorgt., Bola Stowell,
Knight Sprague, c-_` David Beal, Jr.,
Hernial Lincoln, Jesse Dunbar,
Noah Hersey, Joint
    Elijah Real, Corp. Benj Beal,

    The. Marsh, Jr., Jon~ Lincoln,

    Isftiali Lincoln, Royal[ Lincoln,

    Bradford Hersey, Jesset Bates,

    Zadock Hersey, Drum, Joseph Blake,

    Real) Hersq, Fife, John Ilobart,

    Ja% Lincoln, Jr., 16 Isaiah Hersey,

    Tho. Waterman, Jr., Nathan Stodder,

    The. Marsh, Japhet Hobart,

    Jacob Beid, John Souther,

    Zerub Hersey, John Beal,

    Abijith Hersey, Levi Lincoln,

    Tho' Stoddard, Jere Lincoln,

    Jacob Stoddard, Sam Todd,

    Barna Lincoln, Nat Fearing.

    Josh Stowell,

Hinghtim, Dec. 5, 1TT5. Then Capt. James Lincoln made oath to tire foregoing list.
                Before me BFNj. CUSHING, JB. peace.

This company was in service thirteen days and travelled thirtysix miles " I rom aid to home."

A trite return of the travel and time of Service of the men under my Command in Col* Benja Lincolna Regt Assembled 19 April, 17 T5 : -

      Enoch Whiten, Capt., Josiah Lane, 2 Lieut.,

    Theop. Wilder, Lieut., Elias Whiten, Serg.,

              Military History. 279

    Sam Gardner, Serg., Abijah AVhitoll,

    Jacob Sprague, Corp., Bell I j Whiton, Jr.,

    Ezra Garnett, fif, Zenas Wilder,

    Reuben 8111-ague, drum, Jere Ual-diier,

    Jon' WhitoZ Heze. Ripley,

    Jacob Dunbar, Abe] Whiton,

    Josh Garnett, Ezek Whiton

    Theo Cushing, Nat Damon,

    Amasa Whiton, Melzer Dunbar,

    Sol' Whiten, Daniel Wilder,

    Tho' Cushing, Math Tower

    Garnett 3d, David Lorina'

                      ENOCH WHITON, Capt.

Suffolk, Der. 11, 1775. Then Capt. Enoch Whiten
Subscriber to this roll personally mCaodleB,)ntNhJ.tLoItNhCoOLtNr,utJhU$ofpite,ace.

This company was in service three days, and travelled forty-two Miles.

A List of the Company of Train belonging to Hhn,ham under the command of Capt. Jothana Loring, April 19, 1775' -

    Jotham Loring, Capt. Sam' Gill , Private,

    Seth Stowers, Lieut., Israel Flearsey,

    Tho' Fearing, 2d Bela Tower,

    Isaac Cushing, 3d Theodore French,

    David Cushing, 4 Jonathan French,

    Hawkes flobart, Sergt., Stephen Stoddard,

    Daniel Cushing, Jesse Sprague,

    Edwd Wilder Nathan Gilbert,

    Elijah Whitton, Nellem! Ripley,

    Isaac Rearsey, Corp., Stephen Tower,

    Joseph Wilder, Elijah Lane,

    Moses Sprague, Jesse Gardner,

    Edmund Hobart, John Jones,

    Josh' 'rower, private, Natlil Sprague;

    The, Cushing, 11 Allen Lapbam,

    Laban Tower, Beiij' Joy,

    Moses Whitton John Spra.gue,

    Abijah Lewis, James 'rower,

    Jonath" Ifearsey, Job Curtis,

    Joseph Tower, Abraham Whitton,

    Abijah Lewis, Jr., Isaak Stoddard,

    Seth Sprague, Benj" Ward,

    Joseph Jos" ph Sprague,

    Zechariah Whitton,14 Bela Cushing. 41

            Signed JOTHAN LORING.

280 History of Pil?gham.

This was endorsed: Capt. Jothana Lorings Billeting Roll
at Hingham in 1775.
                  118. 10. 8

These men also were in service thirteen days.

Four companies, numbering in all one hundred and fifty-four
men, marched from the old town oil that bright April mornin~g
when the grass was already ]oil,, enough to be waving in the soft
spring breeze and the cherries I were white in tile glory of their
blossoms. The occasion and the scene were never to be pre
cisely re-enactcd. On tile 'light Of tile 18til Revere slid Dawes
had left Boston, and commenced their famous ride, alarming the
inhabitants to the north of that town. Messengers were sent to
the surrounding country, and the, response was so prompt that ill
tile records of the killed and wounded (1, the 19th, names appear
of persons from no less than twenty-three places.
We seen, to hear again tile rush and clatter of the loaTrYing
horseman throllgh Weymouth and into our own streets, and the
startling cry "To arms!" "To arms!" We seem to see our
forefathers as they gather oil the company training-fields at
South Hingham, the Lower Plain, and Broad Bridge, while Levi
Burr,Peter Hearscy,Reuben Sprague,and ZadocUerseywakc the
sleepers with the continual roll of their druing, and the cheerful
notes of the fifes in the hands of Ezra Garnett and Rouben Her
soy sound the reveille of the period. But this is no holiday
parade these men are engaged in, and there is little of the pageantry
of war in the gathering of these carnest, seller country farmers
and mechanics and sailors. The call has not been entirely unex.
pected, however, and the companies move out for their long march
with fall ranks, their bright silk colors gleaming red in the sun
light, and the veterans of the Canada campaigns at their head.
We (10 not forget, as we watch them leading their men, - Captain
Loring, with his artillery lumbering along the uneven roads, or
Captain Lincoln with bi;lnrP company of down-town foot, - that
their names became familiar long ago oil the rolls of those who,
under Samuel Thaxter or Edward Ward or Ebenezer Beat or
Joseph Blake, bravel * yfouallt in his 31ajesty'g service; and the
sight of Seth Stowers recails the sad scenes around Fort William
Henry on the blood ' v morning of the terrible August day in 1757.
When these men, and many another now again in the ranks,
marelied out of Hingham tell years earlier, the commander of the
re~iment to which they belonged was Benjamin Lincoln; now
too, their colonel's name is Benjamin Lincoln ; lie is the Bun of
their old commander, and is destined to become for all time
Hingliam's most famous citizen.

Too remote from the field of battle to have made active par. ticipation in the conflict possible to her organized military,

              Military History. 281

    Hill. am still has, by a fortunate circumstance, the proud disgh

tinction of being among tile towns represented on that ineinorable day. Joseph Thaxter, a groat-randson of Col. Samuel Thaxter, and a graduate of Harvard College, was preaching as a candidate for the ministry at Westford, when lie heard of the approach of the British troops towards Lexington. Hastening to Concord oil horseback, armed with a brace of pistols, lie was among those who received the enemy's fire at Concord Bridge. Ile was subsequently appointed a chaplain in the army, and was attached to Colonel Prescott's regiment at the time of the battle at Breed's Hill, which is known in history as the battle of Bunker Hill, and in which he is said to have participated. Later he was chosen as a representative in the General Court from Hingham, but resigned for active service in the army, where we shall hereafter meet him. Mr. Thaxter participated in the cerenjonies of the 17th of June, 1825, at the laying of the corrier-stone of the Bunker-Hill nionunient, bein~g at that time the only surviving chaplain of the Revolutionary army. Ile died at Edgartown in 1827.

Although but a short time in the field, the value of the service rendered by these and other companies which responded to tile Lexington alarm, call scarcely be over~eatimated. Comparatively few were able to reach the battle-ground and participate in the glory and renown of the victory, but its fruits wore yet to be secured, and to the men who marched on that inemorable morning and then remained patiently on duty until all army could be raised and posted, is due much ;f the credit for the uitimate success. Ill the mean time the British were to be watched, and any aggressive movement on their part to be met and frustrated. These companies were encamped near and about Boston, virtually commencing even then its siege, and offectoally guarding tile military stores in the towns near by. Within a ~crv few days after the battle of Lexington, the Provincial Congress of IMassachusetts ruet at Watertown, and took measures to raise a large permanent army composed of twenty-eight regiments numbering between thirteen and fourteen thousand men. To each soldier, as a bounty, there was promised a coat upon his enlistment, and the towns were ordered to furnish thirteen thousand coats. In vols. 56 and 57 at the State House, and known as the 11 Coat Rolls," are to be found the names of the officers and men composing this force, which was enlisted for eight months, go(] served from early in May to January of the following year; the enlistment of some of tile companies is said to have dated from the 19th of April. These with a few regiments from Connecticut , Rhode Island, and New Hampshire, composed the greatei part of the army which maintained the siege of Boston. It was stationed at Dorchester, Roxbury, Cambridge, Watertown, ond other places near the base of operations. General Ward ivis in

282 11istory of Hinghont.

command until the appointment of Washington. Among the regiments was the 25th, commanded by Gen. Win. Heath, one of wfi'ose companies was from Hingham. The roll of iflis Comurand ' however, speaks of it as being 11 in ve 86th Regt. of Foot in ye Continental Army, Eiicamp'd in Fori No. 2." It is as follows: -

            Charles Cushing, Capt.,

    Elias Whiten, Lieut., Zadoc flearsey, Private,

    Benjamin Beal, Ensign, David Bearsey, 11

    Sam' Gill, Sergeant, James Hayward, Jr.,,,

    John Lincoln, 11 Japhetb Hobart, 11

    Isaiah Hersey, Daniel Hearsey, 16

    Moses Sprague, Be"j, Joy, 11

    Abijah Whiten, Elisha Lane,

    John Burr, Corporal, Urban Lewis,

    John Blossom, 11 Abisha Lewis, 14

    Chris' Kilby, 4 David Loring, 41

    Tho' Marsh, Josh' Loring, 11

    Nadi' Dill, Fife, Lot Marsh, 91

    Jon' flearsey, Drum, Bee Ripley, 11

    Abel Barns, Private, John Ripley, 11 Scituate,

    James Bates, John Roberts, 11 Boston,

    The' Bqu,~81 Jacob Stodder, 11

    Seth Brigs, Othniel Stodder,

    Caleb Brimball, Stephen Stodder,

    Jot) Curtis, Josh, Stowel,

    Tho' Chubbuck, David Sprague,

    James Cooke, Israel Stowel,

    Jesse Dunbar, Joseph Sprague,

    Itteizar Dunbar, Reuben Slodder,

    Jncob Dunbar, Hozea Stodder, 14

    John Dill, Allin Simmonds, 11

    Josh4 Dunbar, 11 Seth Wilder, 11

    Jon' French, David Wilder,

    Jacob Gardner, Abel Whiten,

    Ezra Gflrduer, Ilozea Whiton,

    -James Hayward, David Gardner

The roll of another company also belonging to this command is here 'pSken, although its members for the most part came from that section of tire old town which, formerly composing the Second Precitict, had within a few years been set off as the town of CobaBset. Its captain subsequently commanded a Hingbana company, and so large a proportion of the men composing it afterwards served either upon Hinghain'R rolls or in connection with her recruits, that it seems desirable to incorporate their names in this place: -

              111filitary 11istory. 283

        Job Cushing, Capt., Nath" Nichols, lst Lieut.,

        ,Josiah Parker, "d


    Eleazer James, Sergeant, Galen Lincoln, private,

    Gideon Howard, 11 Jorani Lincoln,

    Isaac Burr, Cliarle Lurietiod,

    Peter Nichols, Joseph Neil,

    Abraham Tower, Corporal, Caleb Nichols,

    Adna Bates, Daniel Nichols,

    James Bates, Eben, Orcutt,

    Bela Nichols, Ephr"' Orcutt,

    Levi Tower, Drum, Luke Orcutt,

            Fife, Hough Orcutt,

            rivals, Joshua Oakes,

    Sam' Oakes,

    Caleb Pratt,

    Oliver Prichard,

    Richard Prichard,

    Elisha Stephenson,

    Luke Stephenson,

    John Sutton,

    Amos Brown, Joseph Souther,

    Calvin Cushing, Jaines Stodder,

    Obed Dunbar, Berij. Stutson, C

    George Humphrey Reuben Thorn, 14

    Benja Jacob, Jesse Tower, 44

    Jared Joy, Isaac Tower, 11

    Melze~joy -rick,

    Jolla Ibv Jesse Wai

    Rich . John Whitcomb,

    ard Kilby, Cershani Wheelwright,

    John Kilby, Jr., Benia Woodward.

thaMmr.LLoitrzienoglnatiidncl)oism'p'aCnensteernviiidaiiiiAdCdorloosisi,e'I s(areattoliai'ts (regitI.Dentat Roxbury, until June ~2, when Lieut. Charles Cushing c-,Is appointed captain, and that the company served until the close of the year. It is certain that both this and Captain Job Cushing's
    William Stodder,

    'isha Ila' ' P


    1o n a an 138ates,


    Zealous Bates,

    tphrajor Battles,

    Jared Battles,

    Joshua Beal

    Saint Beal,

company were in General Heath's regiment as before stated, but it is also probable that Colonel Greaten was air earlier commander. Most of the company re-cnfiBted for a year's service from Jannary 1, 1776, and after the evacuation of Boston, it marched to New York, where it embarked for Albany, arriving there April 25. May 21 it reached Montreal. ~Geireral Montgomery lead already been killed in the unsuccessful attack on Quebec, and soon after the American army was driven out of Canada. Mr. Lincoln's list of the men engaged in this unforturate'expeditioll is as follows: -

284 History of Hingham.

          Charles Cushing, Capt.,

          Benjamin Beal, Lieut.,

          John Lincoln, Ensign,

    Moses Sprague, Thomas Marsh,

    Abijah Whiton, Joseph Sprague,

    Christopher Kilby, Israel Stowell,

    Jonathan HearBoy, Luke Hunt,

    Jacob Gardner, Daniel Sprague,

    Hosea Stodder, Joseph Whiten,

    Joshua Ripley, Abel Whiton,

    Lnther Gardner, Thomas Bangs,

    Elijah Gardner, Thomas Chubbuck, Jr.,

    Noah Hobart, OtImicl Stodder,

    Jesse Dunbar, Joshua Stowell,

    Lot MarBli, Peter Whiton,

    Joshua Dunbar, Joseph Lincoln,

    Reuben Stodder, Jr., Nathaniel Stodder,

    David Hersey, Joseph Hill,

    Israel Whiten, James Hayward, Jr.,

    William Spooner, Daniel Gain,

    Levi Gardner, Seth Stowell,

    Obadifth Stowell, lBsachar Stowell,

and five others who received a bounty from the town, but whose names 11,9Ve Dot been ascertained. Mr. George Lincoln Bays that Samuel Whiten was in the Canada expedition in Capt. Charles Cushing's company, and it is probable that his is one of the missing names. Another may have been Hosea Whiten, who is known to have died in the attempt on Canada. After the retreat of the army from Canada, Captain Cushing's company was probably stationed for a time at Ticonderoga, and here on the 1st of August Joseph Whiten, one of his privates, died.

Capt. Charles Cushing was a descendant of one of the first settlers of Hingham. Besides efficient military service in the Revolution, he held many civil offices, and represented the town in both the House and the Senate. He was known later in life as Colonel Cushing. His home was at Hingham Centre.

Capt. Job Cushing was a distant connection of Captain Charles, and commanded it company largely recruited in the second precinct, now Cohasset, where lie resided.

I Mr. George Lincoln is authority for the statement that Perez Gardner was with Arnold in the march through the forests of Maine in 1775, which had its termination in the disastrous attack and defeat of the American forces at Quebec on the 31st of December.

During the siege of Boston both Hingham and Hull were garrisoned posts of the American army. The troops at the former place during at least a portion of the time, consisted of Capt.

              Military History. 285

James Lincoln's company, which was, it is said, posted at Crow Point for some eight months on its first enlistment. It was prouakuy e1111NLUU U11UU1 ble; ltia~

gress, and served froin about May, 1775), until 1776. The position was a commanding one and well Suited to protect the town from any small force which the enciny might ,end either to (tostroy it, or to forage for hay or provisions. It should be stated, however, in this connection, that while tradition has located this command at Crow Point, a situation so advantageous in a military view as almost to carry conviction of its correctness, there is nearly indisputable evidence that for a time at least, the exact post was nearer the town, upon Broad Cove, and probably upon the South side where is now the Cadet Camp ground. The coreparly was subsequently posted at (lie Cove.

In the Commonwealth's archives are, the following papers

    To the Hopi" Council 4 17ouse of Representatp~res of the State of d1las sachusetts Aq assembled at lVatertoptop

Your petitioners humbly show that whereas Requisition was made of the selectmen of llin,Aam to provide Barracks sufficient for the Reception of a Company of Soldiers employed for the Defence of this our State, commanded part of the time by Capt. James Lincoln & part of the time by Capt. Seth Stowers, your petitioners having complyed with the afors" Requisition and engaged Barracks for said company the cost of which we have here annexed to"ther with the cost of Building a Guardhouse, pray your Donors to consider of the matter and order that we may have the money for which we stand engaged.

        From your ever Dutiful petitioners,

                      BENJ. CUSHING Selectmen

11INGE[Aps, 2701 August, 1776. 11ingham.

The State of the Massachusetts Bay to the town of flinglemn Dr.
To Barracks for Capt Lincoln Company at Broad Cove 81
months 7-13-4
To Do for said Company at the town Cove six months 8-0-0
To 138 feet timber 350 feet Board I in Board e, I in Shingle nails 1-11-1
114 in shingles carting the Same 3J miles for a g,
To 300 feet Board & 300 Board Dails for making Cobbins in
the Barracks 0-17-9
Xis 3 0

                    BENJ. CUSHING Se Omen


                    Josv,pn ANDREWS 1ji,,ghaeu.

This account was examined, idlowed, and paid, and was received by Enoch Lincoln on an order from the town.

The roll of this compativ is as follows: -
286 History of Hingham.

A Atuster Roll of the Independent Company Stationed at Hinghain Commanded by James Lincoln to the 1 January 1776:

    James Lincoln, Capt., Samuel Lincoln, Jr., Private,

    Seth Stowers, Lieut., Laban Thaxter,

    Knight Sprage ' 2d " Joseph Blake, Jr.,

    Elijah Lewis, Sergeant, Jeremiah I fearsey, Jr.,

    Noah Ilearsey, Laban Stodder,

    Elijah Beal, Jan., Joseph Jones,

    Jonathan Lincoln, Jun. Human Lincoln,

    Caleb Leavitt, Corporal, Daniel Cain,

    John Souther , John flearsey,

    Joseph Wilder, William Lewis,

    Thomas Stodder, Nath" Tower,

    ,Stephen Stowel, Jr., Drum, Isaac Gardner,

    James Lincoln, Jr,, Fifer, Obediab Stowel,

    Barriabas Lincoln, Private, Lqb- Hunt,

    David Beal, Jun., Ephraim Marsh,

    Samuel Godfrev Luke Bates, Koliasset,

    John Marsh, Jini., Josiah Godfrey, Abbing

    Nath" Stodder, Jun., town,

    Jothain Lincoln, James Hobart,

    Jonathan Gain, Peter Whiting,

    Joseph Andrews, Jun., Levi Burr,

    Royal Lincoln, Joshua Leavitt,,

    Athanasius Lewis, Levi Gardner,

    Noah Hobart, Stephen Whiting,

    Stephen Lincoln,Jun., Israel WliitiDg,

    John Hobart, Jun., James Tower,

    Peter Hearsey, William Spooner,

    Bela Stowel, Thoinas Wilder,

    Jesse Humphrey, John Sprage,

    Timothy Stephen Tower,

    Daniel Hobart, Samuel Stodder, Scituate,"

    Joseph Basset, Robert Gardner. 4

Captain Lincoln's company, with additions and changes in its

membership, also served, perhaps on a new enlistment, from January 1 ' 1776, to probably some part of July and very possibly for a much longer period. 'the rolls give only partial information. The Journal of the House of Representatives speaks of it as one of four independent companies in the service. Caleb Leavitt became 2d lieutenant in Januar) and was promoted to be 1st lieu

tenant during the inontb, when Noah Heiirsey became 2d lieutenant; at the same time Thomas Stodder, Ephraim Marsh, John Sprague, -and Japheth Hobart were made sergeants, and Nathaniel Tower, Abner Bates of Weymouth, and Jeremiah HearBey, corporals. The following names are those of men who served under the later enlistment, to.getber with many of the earlier members :

              Military History. 28T

    Japlietli Hobart, Sergeant, Isaac Gross, Private,

    Abner Bates, Corporal, John Ilearsey, Jr.,

    Jeremiah Hearsey, " Nehemiah Sprague,

    Thonnis Marsh, Pri% ate, Elisha Lane,

    Josliua Beal, Jeremiah llealsey,

    Ezekiel Lincoln, Rufus Tu~,u,,

    Samuel Lazel,

    Welcome Lincoln,

    Isaiah Lincoln, Joint Hunt,

    Samuel Todd, John Barin's,

    James Beal, Samuel Low,

    John Stodder, 16 Joseph Hobart,

    Bonjqmin Barns, 11 Samuel Loring,

    Daniel Barker, 11 Caleb Leavitt, Jr.,

    Stephen Mansfield, Edmund Ilobart,

    Samuel Leavitt, Benjamin Stowel, Jr.,

    Moses Whiting, David Loring,

    Elijah Whiting, David Gardner,

    Jacob Whiting, James Haward,

    Jonathan Thaxter, Ezra Gardner,

    John Marsh, Jun., Jonathan Froraks,

    Thomas Gill, James Chubbuck,

    Frederick Lincoln, Laban Tower,

    Atbanasius Lewis, James Bates,

    Elisha Bates, Timothy Shave,

    Peter Wilder, Peter Hobart,

    Joshua Gardner, Zerubbable Hearsey,

    Elijah Stowers,

also Elijah Levit and Jesse Humphrey " fifteen days after going to Roxbury," where they probably served in some oilier command.

Capt. James Lincoln, it may be remembered, was not only a soldier in the last war with France, but was one of the captains who marched at the first call to arms at the Lexington alai-in. He resided on South Street. Lieut. Seth Stowers, who succeeded to the charge of this company and commanded the post it Hingharn for a while, was also a veteran, and narrowly escaped the massacre at Fort William Henrv. Later in the Revolution Captain Stowers was stationed witl; his company for many moutlis at Hull, and also commanded it in one of the Rhode Jsland cxpeditions. Lieut. Knight Sprague was likewise one of the Fort William Henry soldiers.

Among the few royalists or tories living in fling unit at I lie opening of the Revolution, were Capt. Joshua Barker, then an elderly and respected citizen who had hold a commission in the king's army, and served many years in the wans of his sovereign, and who could Inirdly have been expected to abandon the colors to which the allegiance of the best part of his life had been dovoted, and Elislia Leavitt who occupied the stately old-fashioned mansion which, one of the then attractions of the town, with its

288 History of Hingham

tapestries and grand tiled fireplaces, stood some twenty years since anon the present site of the Catholic Church,

III tl;is house-there was a bilad passage to wilich a secret do(Ir
gave eatranee, and here it was that Nathaniel Ray Thomas and
other fories from Marshfield were concealed during a search made
for thein by tile Committee of Safety, and front which they were
subsequently successfully smuggled, by water, to Boston. It is
said that a inob gathered about Leavitt's house at one time for the
purpose of doing violence to his person, and that be diverted them
by rolling out a barrel of runi and dispensing its contents liber
ally. lie this is it may, there seems to be no doubt that Leavitt
was more than passively opposed to tile cause of his countrymen,
and that lie supplied ilie English with hay and vegetables, and
probably cattle. lie owned or controlled Grape Island lying a
little tl;rtli of the town, about opposite, to fluit`B Cove and the
point upon which Bradley's phosphate works now stand at the
mouth of Weymouth Back River. Upon the island was a large
quantity of hay and it number of cattle belonging undoubtedly to
Leavitt; and here on the morning of Sunday, May 21, 1775, came a
body of troops I rom Boston, accompanied and com eved by two
sloops and an armed schooner. The expedition laid f(;r its object
the bay and other supplies stored there ; but its approach created
considerable alarin in the towns in the neighborhood, where the
fear of a descent caused the hasty loading upon wagons and carts
of the furniture and household eftects of numbers of the hiliabi
tants preparatory to removal to places of safety. In the mean
time the bells rang and guns were fired and a general alarm
given. The militia rapidly gathered, and General Tbomas, who
commanded at Roxbury, ordered three companies of the troops in
his division to the lussistanee of the inhabitants. The old people
of fifty )-cars I ' go, used to tell of the March of the military down
Broad Cove Lane, now Lincoln Street, on the way to oppose the
British landing, then momentarily expected. The troops thus
referred to were undoubtedly militia from this and adjoining
towns. It is probable, however, that Capt. James Lincoln's coal
puny which was enlisted us early as tile fifth of the month and
whose camp was ,it or near Crow Point, was the principal organ
ized force on the spot. Companies immediately marclied, however,
f roni Weymouth, Abington, and Scituate, in addition to those from
Hingham. From the diary of Paul Litchfield, of Scituate, we get
the iollowing: 11 May 21. Just before meeting began in morning,
hearing the King's troops were landing near Hingliam the people
in pneral dispersed, so no meethig. About 100 Regulars landed
at Grape Ist to get hay." From tile point nearest tile i8land a
fire, which was returned from the schooner, was directed against
the English. The distance however was too great for small arms
to be effective, and it was not until tile flood tide had covered tile
flats that the Americans were enabled to float a lighter and a
sloon and drivo off the, enemy. Having done this, they landed on

              Military History. 289

the island, burned tile barn and about eighty tons of ha , and brought off the cattle. Mrs. John Adams, writing to ber bulsband, then in the Continental Congrc~s, of the affair saVs You inquire of 'no who were at the eugageinent at G'Yqpe Island. I may

;stit)lYowtiotill)etalilltairlinasi,I W1i11o)b1V1~i1t1biil 11t,wenely.e

thirty, forty miles (if Weymouth." She adds high praiso of several of her hushand's family w-bo were participants. This skir~ nish may perhaps fairly qiI4 to 11highain the coveted distinction of being one I the battlo-.1rounds of the Revolution - for although

0 l, I
the island itself lies within the jurisdiction of We-yinouth a part
of the shores opposite, from which much of the firing u;ldoubt
edly came, are in 11iii.,doini. There can be no difficulty, in I-(-co,,
ilizinIQ the beautiful point at Huit's Cove just at tile mouth of
Weymouth Back River, as the place of assembly an(( seat of oper
ations for our forefathers oil that Sabbath nior~ing in tile spring
of 1775, almost exactly a, month after thu fight at Lexington
toward which the sanic company under the same coininander had
so promptly marched. It is more than like] ' v that the main
attack upon the English was by Hingham and Weymouth coni
panics operathu, in Hingham. It is said that the Weymouth and
Abington companies compelled Leavitt to provide entertainment
for thean during the day ; bad Ills connection with the eneiny beeni
fully known at the time, it is quite certain that be wledd have
fared far wor4o.

If our small bit of tile war was insignificant compared to the greater everibi, it still furnished one of tile invidents of no little importance at the time in the valuable experience of meetinl- tile enemy and of gaining It victorY, tile Size of which was not suffered to diminish in the current reports; and it i's of value to us 11mv for its service in bringhlIg our town and our people into clo~er

touch with their felt o w-citizens of the Revolution. There a-cre, however, comparatively few of the striking events of Ille Rovolo-

tion, without participants frolu ffinglialla
It has already been said that when 6olonel Prescott and his

brave men beat back, until their p6wder was gone, tile red ranks on Banker Hill that inernorablo l7th of June, the chaplain of his regiment was our fighting parson of tile engnp-ement, at Concord Bridge, Joseph Thlixter. But lie was not, the- town's sole repre-

scritative at the battle, for Jairus Lincoln and Joseph Bates also bore a part and shared in the glory of the thly, tile latter bqvin~ down his life upon the field, in the honored company- of Genera')

Warren and manv another licro of the great fight.
Besides the names of men alreadv oiven -is serving,, in 1775,

there are tile following: William Owe))S, --a Illember of Capt.
Freedom Chamberlin's Perabroke compan I- in Get), John Thomas's
reginient, and who was transferred to Capt, Ezra Badham's coni
pany in Col. Richard Gridle ' v's re,~illloilt, of "Train ' - Jn le, 111 -
Benjamin Lincoln, also of Captain Chamberlin's conipally, and
Vol, 1. -10
290 Ristory ff Hingham.

Nalumi Davis, of Capt. Jonathan Bardwell's company in Col. David Brewer'sregiment. Davis also entered the artillery in June.

M-~h ~nmv. antionrs on the. rolls of hoth Cant. Dunipi
Lothrop's company and Capt. Elenzar Hamlin's company in
Thonias's rul,,iment. Josiah Oakes appears as a lieutenant in
Capt. Jot) Cushing',% company of Death's regiment ; lie must have
held his commission a short time only.

on the l5th of June, 1775, the Continental Congress voted to adopt, under the name of the Continental Army, the troops of the several provinces then constituting the provincial army operating about Boston ; and oil the 16th Washington was chosen its commander-in-chief. This organization, to which reinforcements and new regiments were added from little to time, was quite different it) its constitution from the force raised under a resolve of Set)toniber 16, 1776, known as the Continental Line. This latter body constituted during the remainder of the struggle the main reliiinco and hope of the Americans ; it was indeed the backbone of the army, and corresponded to the regulars of subsequent times.

Under tfie resolve, cighty-eilght battalions were to be raised for service dittring the war; of this number Massachusetts furnirhed and placed in the field no less than sixteen of infantry and one of artillery, - exceeding her quota, which required but fifteen. We sleall hereafter see manY Hingham names on the rolls of these never-to-be-forgotten regiments.

The summer of 1775 and the succeeding winter wore away and still the siege of the New England town went oil. The expiration of short enlistments, and the habit which seems to have prevailed among the militia belonging to at least certain of the provinces, of leaving the camp for home almost at will, caused sudden depletions in the American ranks, which were both alarming and exasperating to Washington and to the authorities generally. The Provincial Congress of Massachusetts during its willter session reorganized the militia of the province. Three majorgenerals were appointed, and thirteen regiments formed, of which ten arrived in camp early in February ; besides these there were several thousand minute men held in reserve and ready to mat-ell when called UPOD. By fin order in council passed in February, the companies in Weymouth, Hingham, Cohasset, and Hall were organized as the Second Suffolk regiment; thus the old regiment dating from the days of Winthrop and Dudley and which had been commanded by them, by Col. Win. Stoughton, by Josiah Quincy, by out- own John Thaxier, and both Benjamin Lincoln and Benjamin Lincoln, Jr., ceased to exist. The new command was, however, practically the same as the old, whose designation, it may be recalled, had already been changed from the Third Suffolk to the Second Suffolk, although Braintree, so long united with ns, no longer composed a part of the regiment. Solomon Lovell was the new colonel, and Benjamin Lincoln, who lead recently commanded the regiment, ,in(] who hid been untiring in his

            Military ffistory. 291

services to the country from the commencement of the war, was chosen brigadier-general on February 8, and major-generil last one month later. The other regimental officers were David Cushing, lieut.-coloriel ; Thomas Lothrop, Ist major ; Isaiah Cushing, 2d major.
March 4th General Thomas with two thOUsand men took possession of Dorchester Heights, and immediately constructed strong works as laid out by Colonel Gridley. At thi; time the anny wa's reinforced by a portion of the militia. From Ifingliani there marched three companies; they were all from Colonel Lovell's command, and were placed in the works at Dorchester. The rolls are as follows: -

    The' Hearsey, Capt.,

    Levi Lincoln, lst Lieut.,

    Joseph Beal, 2 11

    Seth Lincoln, Sergt., Caleb Hobart,

    Jesse Bates, Daniel Hobart,

    Joshua Lincoln, Nath' Stodder,

    Ezra French, Belij. Ward,

    Sam' Norton, Clerk, Tho' Waterman, jun.,

    ThW Marsh, Jr., Corp., Elisliq Remington, jun.,

    John Gill,_ Nadi' Lincoln,

    Jacob Beal, Bradford Hearsey,

    Stephen Stodder, Nath, Gill,

    Isaac Sprague, Drum, James Leavitt,

    David Andrews, Fifer, John Beal, jun.,

    Joseph Hammond, Gilbert Ilearsev,

    Elijah Waters, jum., Joseph Stockb~idge,

    Mitabel Lincoln, Sam' Hobart,

    Ezra Lincoln, Barnabas Lincoln,

    Isaac Gardner, Welcome Lincoln,

    Nath' Fearing, Theodore French,

    John Hobart, Jun., Jon, French, Jun.,

    James Hobart, Joseph Blake.

            Peter Cushing, Capt.,

            Thomas Burr, Lieut.,

            Thomas Fearing, "

    HawkeR Fearing, Clerk, Shubact Fearing, Private,

    Samuel Gill, Jr., Sergt., John Jones,

    Elijah Whiten, Jr., Abel Fearing,

    Thomas Jones, Jr., Bei)j-itniti,'41)i,agiie,.Juii.,'I

    Amos Sprague, Corp., Jacob Cushing, Jun.,

    David Burr, Allen Simmons,

    John Burr, Jun., Thomas King,

    John Blossom, Neheiniali Ripley,

    Zadoc Hearsey, Drummer, Isaac Sprague, Jun.,

    Sol' Cushing, Fifer, David Sprague,

292 History of Hingham.

    David Sprague, Private, William Cushing, Private,

    Moses Whiton, Benjamin Cush ing,Jun.,"

    Jerom Hipley,

    Seth B, riggs, David Lane,

    Benj. Joy, 41 Rufus Lane,

    Israel Hearsey, 11 Martin Tower,

    Reuben HearRoy, 11 Daniel Souther,

    Samuel Leavitt, 11 Jacob Tbaxter,

    Joshua Leavitt, Jun., Jacob Thaxter,

    Joshua Loring, Matthew Cushing,

    Ebed Cushing, Silas Joy, Jun., It

    Cushing Burr, Enoch Stodder,

    Nath: Gilbert, Isaach Cushin5,

    Cornelius Barns, -fun., Jonathan Loring.

    Ensign Barns,

            Pyam Cushing, Capt.,

            Elias Whiten, Lieut.,

            Joshua Tower' "

            Theophilus Cushing, Clerk,

    David Cushing, Sergeant, Jacob Sprqgue, Jun., Private,

    Samuel Caidner, Daniel Whiton,

    Zac' Whiton, Hawkes Hobart,

    Edward Wilder, David Gardner, Jun.,

    Tho' Cushing, Corporal, Seth Sprague,

    Abraham Whiten, 11 Zenas Wbiton, 19

    Abisha Lewis, Drummer, Stephen Tower, 11

    BelaTower, Fifer, Benjamin Whiten, 91

    Job Loring, Private, Isaiah Stodder, 14

    Ebenezer Cushing, Amasa Whiten. 61

    Samuel Whiten, Jun., Benjamin Ward, 46

    Zenas Wilder, Edward Bailey, It

    Robert Gardner, Jeremiah Gardner, 49

    Ezekiel Cushing, Jacob Dunbar, 11

    Thomas Wilder, Laban Stodder, 11

    Daniel Wilder, David Farrow,Jun.,

    Joshua Hearsey, Salomon Whiten,

    Isaialk Tower, Benjamin Dunbar,

    Jonathan Whiten, Elijall Whiton, 41

    James Tower, Peter Hobert, 11

    Stunnel Wilder, Jim., Josiah Lane, 11

    Stephen Gardner, 3, Elisha Whiten. 11

The first of these companies, that commanded by Capt. Thomas Hearsey came from the vicinitv of Broad Bridge, and was what would now be called, if still exi4ing, tile 11 down town " company.

The company commanded by Capt. Peter Cushing, and known as the 1, Third Foot Company " was made up principally of men frotut the Lower Plain, now commonly known as Centre Hingham,

              Milifivry History. 293

        while Capt. P am Cushhe, tied his men came from Glad Tidings y

Plain and vicinity, coinprisinz the relpion known o~ Soulli flingham. (_ipt. ryani Unsanin, who was a brother-ill-Jaw of General Lincoln, died durin.- the ensuing, stinuner.

During the early days of the Revolution, it will be reniendbered, there was great difficulty in obtainirnr a SafliCiellf supply of powder for tile army, and its manufacture was stimulated and encourged in every possible way. Hingham performed her part in this as in other things, and a certificate of the purih, of the saltpetre produced is here given: -

These may certify that the salt petre now presented for sale by NIT. Joseph Beal (about 80 or 90 weight) was manufactured at Hinghattl by David & Israel Beal, Israel Lincoln, Jacob Beal, and lbentan Lincoln.

                  Bnt;~t. CusniNG Selectwen

                  Josrpu ANDREWS QJ'Hinghaal.

HINGHAM, March 11, 1776.

March 15, 1776, Capt. Peter Cushing a company was on duty at Hingham for sea-coast defence ; it was engaged four days at this time. With the exception of John Jones, David Sprague, Benj. Joy, Ebed Cushing, Cornelius Barns, Ensign Barns, an(] David Lane who did not serve on this occasion, the roll contains the same names as did that of the company when in the defences at Dorchester, as well as tile following in addition: -

    Jacob Leavitt, Abnor Lorim,

    Thomas Loring, 3d, Isaiah Wilder,

    Joseph Alansilield, Josse Spramle,

    Noali Stodder, Robert Goold,

    John Beal, Steliben Cushing,

    Joseph Leavitt, John Burr,

    Jonathan Staith, Noah [hunphre%

    Samuel Burr, Jacob Loring,

    John Fearing, JoSeph Levis,

    David Lincoln, Moses Bass,

    Thomas Burr, Jr., Belij. Binno ' V,

    Isaac Hearsey, Benj. Jones '

    Thomas Berry, Jonathan 13111'r,

    Joseph Lorinlg, James Fearin1g,

    Thomas Cushing, Saillnel Loring,

    Silas Joy, Thomas Jones,

    Caleb Beal, Jeremiah Sprague,

    Loring Bailey, Caleb Goold.

    Mark Clark, Joseph Dorsoll,

    Gridley Thaxter, Isaac 1:(!ql, Jr,

    Solomon Blake, Own Lincoln, Jr.,

    Thomas Leach, Thomas Lincoln.

    Daniel Souther,

294 History of Hingham.

It was a large company, and more than ninety men performed
dutv oil this occasion.
Not only was Hingham a military post during tile siege of Bos-
tell with ti regular garrison at Broad Cove, but it was also one of
the Rea-coaBt towns called upon, its in the instance just noted, for
her own defence, and very frequently too for assistance in pro
tecting ber neighbors from threatened British descents. This

service became so onerima that the Council appointed General Lincoln its agent to appeal to Washington for relief on 6balf of a numbQr of tile towns, as appears by tile following from Revolutionary Council Papers, vol. i. : -

"In Council, March 20th, 1776.

"On motion ordered, That Benj. Lincoln Esq, wait on his ExT Gen. Washington to request of him that as the militia of the several towns of Ilinglaim, Weymouth, Braintree, have for a number of days past been stationed on tile sea coast of those towns in order to watch the motions of the fleet & army now in the harbor of Boston and to prevent their ravaging and plundering the country, lie would send a sufficient detachment from the army under his command to their relief."

The General seems to have had better use for his troops, however, both then and later ; and as we shall Bee, until nearly the close of the war, Hingham continued to defend the sea-coast with large numbers of her men, and especially by manning the important works at Halt.

Sunday, March 17th, General Howe evacuated Boston, and General Putnam and General Ward entered the town. The next day General Reath with five regiments was ordered to New York, and with them went our townsmen under the two Captain Cushings. General Washington entered Boston at the head of the army on the 20th, and oil April 4th, be left Cambridge for New York, General Ward with five regiments remaining for the protection of Boston.

But although tile British army bad departed, the sea-coast towns continued under tile menace of the fleet commanded by Commodore Banks which lingered in the barber, and which was reinforced by seven transports loaded with Highlanders. The people feared the return of Howe, and fortifications were thrown up at East Boston, Point Allerton,and elsewhere. Finally a plan proposed by Ocnoral Lincoln, to drive the enemy from the harbor, received the sanction of tile Council of Massachmetts, and oil ,June l3th and 14th it was pill in execution. General Ward sent a part of the Continental troops under his command to assist the militia who were ordered out for the attempt. To the old Commonwealth belongs the sole credit for the success of the last act in the military operations around Boston.

Like a brilliant panoramic view the scene passes again before our eyes, and the sound of martial music and the thunder of artillery comes once more to our ears. It is almost a year to a day

              Military 11istory. 295

since through tile streets of tile queer little New England capital,
with its stately mansions, its gable-roofed shops,and crooked,
streets, inarelled out tile bright rod col
mans which under Howe and Clinton and Pigot moved up the
sides of Banker Hill, oil whose green slopes the gerried ranks
melted away before the blaze of Prescott'~ muskets, and whose
Boil drank up with eager thirst the flowing life-blood of Wavrpn
and Pitcairn, and many another brave and gallant hero-Pro
vincial and British alike. And now in these same strect~ the druni
is again calling men to arms, and along Cornhill, - now Washho,
1 '~trcct, - Ov tile Old South, so lat I
~011 ely a ridiug school for llie-

lish troopers, roll tile guns of Craft's artillery. Here too coule detachments from Colonel Alarshall's and Colonel Whitney's regiMonts and the ContineirtalB whom General Ward has detailed, -undoubtedly with a thrill of satisfaction as lie recalls tile anxions June day when he commanded at Cambridge a twelveniontli since. By the bookstore of Daniel Ifenchnian whole General Knox bad been all apprentice, the troops turn into King Street and passing the Town House match over the spot where Captain Preston and the men of the 99th regiment shot down the people on the night of March 5, 1770, and thence to Lung Wharf where they are to embark.

What a flood of inemorie% the place awakens! It was here
that Governor Shirley I returning in 1745 from the reduction of
Louisburg, landed amid tile acchimations of the people and the
saluteR of the shipping, and was received by the Cadets under
Colonel Pollard, the Troops of Horse, the Chelsea company, :tied
Colonel Wendell's regiment; here too in Mav, 1774, the Cadets re
ceived General Gage, then (lovernor of tile Province, and here oil
tile 17th of June of the following year General Cage embarked
the regiments which at Charlestown lost for England an empire,
and in America wroto in blood one of the em-liest and most mom
orable pages in the history of a new nation. And now like a heart,
tiful pict~ire, on this calla summer morning lie the blue waters of
Boston harbor and of our own, both dotted with islands fresh in
the bright green of early summer, and both reflecting the while
saila which ham, like the snoivy witills of great galls over them.
Beneath some of these frolvil tile guns, and over them floats tile
cross of St. George, while in the distance a pine tree on it white
ground marks the anchorage of a Yankee cruiser. Meinwhile
too, front all the towns and villages around, comes the same tap
tap of tile drum and tile cheery Dote of the fife, and down to the
water side match the niilitia,-the militia NvAdch tile frequent
alarim; of tile past year, the occasional skirmish with the enplil ' V, tile
work in the trenches at Dorchester, and the manning of the lilies
at Roxbury, have made into veteran soldiers. Now they, respond
with unusual alacrity. Tile hilltops are covered with eager and
anxious spectators for miles around. With them we watch the
embarkation, and then the long hours of the bright summer day
296 11istory of Hingham.

pmss wearily ; the garrison flag at, the Castle and the ensign oil Commodoro Banks' ship bang alike lifeless in the all-pervading calin ; the transports drift rather than sad towards 'Uncle desthiations. The still sets for the last time upon the British fleet in Boston harbor. Bv the morning of the 14th all is in readiness. Capt. Peter Cusbin~ with his Hingham men are in the works at Hull,while with the fit are other coin panies from, the sea-coast, and a part of tile militia from Boston ; the whole forming a considerable force, including it portion of Colonel Craft'B famous train of artillery, - another detachment of which, with some militia, lifts been posted ,it Pettick'a Island, adjoining. There are about six hundred inen at each place. About the same number of militia from tile. towns near, together with a, detachment of artillery, are distributed at Moon Island, Hof's Neck, and Point Allerton, while Colonel Whitcomb, with the regulars and two eighteen-pounders, has taken post at Long Island. The various companies from the vicinity are at their posts. SuddeDly there is a flash followed by a puff of smoke, and a few seconds hiter, a bang from one of Col. onel Whitcomb's guns at Long Island; the engagement has commenced. And now the flashes and puffs and bangs come from all around, and the great guns of his Majesty's ships make a spirited reply. There goes a shot from Hull; we may be sure that was from Ifingliam's cannon, which, as we sliall see a little later, the selectmen paid Hawkes Fearing for carrying over to the neighboring town. The smoke drifts lazily away, and at times almost obscures the vision. It is a grand ~ud exciting scene that is being enacted. The, Continentals, the Minute-men, the Englisb,-these are the performers in the closing act of the siege of Boston. A shot from the Americans pierces the tipper works of the Commodore's ship; the contest is over. A signal, and up go the sails, out by Nantasket into the open sea pass the enemy's squadron, while with a great explosion and a dult roar the lighthouse sinks beneath the waves. As the evening sun neared the horizon and lighted the fleecy clouds, turning them into great masses of crimson and gold, and the unrunled waterg became magnificent in their pink and gilded glow, the land breeze blew out no enemy's colors, and upon the harbor rested only the peaceful Yankee merchantman, or the American cruiser, over which idly floated the pine-ti-ce ensign, while a feeling of quiet and thanksgiving settled over a freed Corn moriwealth.

In the useful, honorable, and distinguished life of Benjamin Lincoln, there may have been greater triumphs than that which the successful achievement of this June day brought, but for its there is a homelike and personal character about the event that endears it especially; and it would be difficult not to believe that the sturdy heart of our Hingham general beat the quicker and with a warmer glow as he watched the eneray's topmasts sink beneath the distant horizon, and felt that the freeing of the capital and of the homes of his neighborii and of his own home from the fear and

              Aliti(ary 11istory. 207

menace of the precedine, months was the, attainment, at least in Part, of the tile%, of his own to""', and tile companies of his own regiment.

Among the companies in service oil this day was that of Capt. Peter CUshil", of Hingham. The roll differs S~irtcwhat from that

already give" and is as follows: -
Peter Cushing, Capt.,
Thomas Burr, Lieut.,
Thomas Fearing, 11
Daniel Cushing, Jr., SergI., Martin Tower, Private,
Thomas Jones, Isaac Ilearsey,
Flijah Whiten Joseph Mansfield,
An, ne' Corp. Daniel Souther,
"ra~ 11 Jonathan Smith,
Da 1 08 ~ur

John Burr' J" Jesse Sprague,
Zadock Hcarsev, Drum, Samuel Lazell,
Solonioll Cushing Fife, Isaiah Hearsey, Jr.,
William Cush
ing, Private, David Lane,
Joshua Loring, Rufus Lane,
Thomns Cushing, Abel Fearing,
Reuben Hearsey, Levi Burr,
Belli. Cushing, Jr., Matthew Cushing,
Ebed Cushing, Isaiah Wilder,
Almost Whitoll, Laban Hunt,
Nehemiah Ripley Thomas Loring, Jr.,
Isaac Sprague, Jr., Joshua Leavitt,
Belli. Barns, It Squire (a negro).
John Built, 11

The same company was again called into the service on June
28d, and responded with the additional names of -

    Abner Loring, Nathaniel Gilbert,

    Jacob Thaxter, Welcome Beal,

    Elisha Castling, Jr., Enoch Istodder,

    Thomas Kill,,,, Rellber) Simmons,

    John Barns, Jr., Isaac Cushing,

    Thomas Berry, Silas Joy, Jr.,

    Beal Joy, Noah Stodder,

    Davi~ Sprague, Israel Stodder,

    Benj. Cushing,Jr., Sliubael Fearing

On the same date, and also at Hull, we find another Him, bana company in the service. Although th(rc appears to he no record of the occasion, the alarm must have been pregsing to require the presence of such a number of men. The roll i I here given:

298 11istory of Hingham.

    Heman Lincoln, 1st Lieut., Abijah Stoddard,

    Josenh Beal, 2 Jaines Leavitt,

    Sami Norton, Clerk, William Tidmarsh,

    Ezra French, Sergt-, Caleb Hobart,

    Seth Lincoln, Barnibas Lincoln,

    Jesse Waters, David Beal, Jr.,

    Joshua Lincoln, John Hobart,

    Nath' Stoddard, Caleb Marsh,

    Japeth Hobart, David Andrews,

    flershmn Lincoln, Joseph Stockbridge,

    James Hobart, John Hobart, Jr.,

    Nathl Lincoln, Jr., Daniel Hobart,

    Gilbert Hearsey, Thomas Marsh, Jr.,

    Isaiah Lincoln, Jacob Beal,

    Tho' Stoddard, Jacob Whiten.

Captain Cushing was again at Hull for a number of days in the following December, but the roll of the 14th of that month is quite diff erent from those preceding it, and is here given: -

            Peter Cushing, Capt., Levi Bates, Lieut., Jerom Stephenson, Lieut.,

    Isaac Cushing, Sergt., Noah Stodder,

    Elisba Stephenson, Tho' Cushing,

    Isaiah Hearsey, Jr., Neheiniali Ripley,

    John Burbanks, Thomas King,

    Timoth ' v Cushing, Corp., Cushing Burr,

    Jesse Sprague, Abel Beal,

    David Burr, Lu7sanui-sStcphenson,

    Nath Bates, Abner Bates,

    Levi Tower, Drum, John Wilant, Jr.,

    Matthew Cushing, Daniel Nichols, Jr.,

    Daniel Souther, Gershom Wheelwright,

    Isaiah Wilder, Ambross Bates,

    Abet Fearing, Zenin; Lincoln,

    Benj: Sprague, Jr., Joni(han Cushing, Jr.,

    David Burr, Thus Pratt,

    David Lane, Ell Lane,

    Silas Jov, Jr., Zebulon Wilcut,

    Shii1bael'Fearing, Ur- Lincoln,

    Mattliew Hunt, Lqzarug Lincoln,

    Saintiel Burr, Job Wilcut,

    Tho' Berry, Ephraim Lincoln,

    Samuel Thaxter, Samuel Bates, Jr.,

    Benj. Joy, Jonathan Bates,

    Ebed Cushing, John Pritchet,

    Joshua Loring, t1mer Bates.

              fflilitary History. 299

Capt. Peter Cushing resided on East Street ; lie was a brother of Capt. Stephen Cushing, also a soldier of the Revolution. Enoch Drinbar was in the Canada expedition in Captain Stephens' company of artillery. Capt. Seth Stowers commanded a company in Col. Josiah Whitney's regiment, and was on duty at Hull in detoher, 1776. His roll was as follows : -

    Seth Stowers, Capt.,

    Peter Nichols, Ist Lieut.,

    Elijah Beals, 2 11

    Elijah Lewis, Sergt., Edmund Hobart,

    Joseph Wilder, Ezekiel Hersey,

    John Gill, Flisha House,

    Benjamin Jacobs, Joseph Hudson,

    David Lincoln, Corp., Gideon Howard,

    Stephen Stodder, Abner Joi '

    Joshua Beal, Jedediall Joy,

    Abisha Lewis, Drum, Lot Lincoln, Jr.,

    Nath'l Dills, Pifer, Caleb Leavitt,

    Gershom Beals, Ephraim Lincoln,

    Isaac Beals, Joseph Marble,

    John Bray, Thos Marble,

    Elisba Bates, James Marble,

    Cushing Burr, Jonathan Allen,

    Joshua Beals, Jr., James Tower,

    Elisha Beals, Elisba Merritt,

    Berij. Barnes, Bela Tower,

    Elislia Bates, Jr., Stephen Mansfield,

    Joseph Beals, Jesse Tower,

    Welcome Beals, Enoch Stoddar,

    Jaraus Beals, Noah Stoddar,

    Timothy Clark, Daniel Stoddar,

    Shcrediqli Corthell, Joseph Souther,

    Jas Cushing, Timothy Thayer,

    Rob't Gardnerj Isaac Whitten,

    Joshua Gardner, Stephen Whitten,

    John Hearsey, Joseph Wiletitt,

    Jesse Humphreys, Thos. Wilcutt.

This company was on duty eight months at Nantasket. Captain Penniman, of Braintree, commanded a company in Colonel Francis' regiment. It was composed of men drafted from Hirl~ghain, Dorchester, Brqintree, Stoughtenham, and Milton.
The followim,are thenames of Ifingletin men whoson-ed with it:

Theophilus Wilder, Ist Lieut., Laban Tower, Private,
~Iol,,,n "o son c rgt., J011,1011a Cardelier,
" iel Vilde,: 'Corp., David ProutY,
Bela Tower, Filer, Jonathan Firer,
W- Gardenner, Private, Ezekiel Cnshin~.
300 History of Hingham.

"A Pay Roll of Cap'Joscpli Trufard's Company Raised for the Defense of ye Sea Coastwithin State of ye AlassivAusetts from the first of December down too the first ot January, 1777," contains the following names of Ilingliarn men:

    Thos Bicknell, Sergt., Thos Gill, Private, Sam' Lazell.

In still arulther company we find Hingham men serving in the year 1776; Capt. Abisha Brown, of Concord, commanded a company in Col. Josiah Whitiley's regiment, which served at Hall; and froin a roll of the men in camp there in November we get the following names: -

    Nellemiall Sprague, Japoth Hobart,

    Samuel Lazell, Jacob Whiton,

    Thomas Wilder, James Bates.

September 12, a resolve passed the General Court which provided for reinforcing the army at New York, fly sending a part of the militia; and oil the 14& the House of Representatives by a resolve concurred in by the Council on the 16th, chose General Lincoln to command the men raised for the purpose.

The town had already sent Lieut. John Burr with fifteen men to Ticonderoga, where they joined a company commanded by Captain Endicott, and now more were to be raised under the resolve of the legislature. During the month, September, Capt. Peter Cushing obtained twenty-three, who were sent to New York, and in December Capt. Job Cushing marelied for the game state with tbirty-seven men credited to Hingham. It ham not been possible to obtain the names of all of the above, but the roll of Capt. Job Cushing's company, augmented to over fifty, is here given. Considerable information about its service is obtainable from a diary kept by Thomas Burr, a lieutenant in the company, who bad already served not only in the army of the Revolution, but still earlier in file last French war, in which he had also kept a journal, and recorded many incidents of the service of a Ilingham company. The roll, which included some Cohasset names, was:

            Job Cushing, Capt.,

            Tho' Burr, I Lieut, Joseph Beal, 2 19

    Isaac Sprague, Sergt., Nathan Gilbert, Corp.,

    Jabes Wilder, Zadock Hersey, Drum.,

    Thomas Marsh, Levi Teakes, Fifer,

    Jerom Lincoln, Jairus Beal, Private,

    Caleb Pratt, Corp., Gershom. Real,

    Caleb Joy, James Bates,

    David B~al, Lazarus A. Beal,

              Military History. 301

    Adna Bates, Private, Jared Lane, Private,

    Daniel Cushing, Henry Lambert,

    James Chubbuck, Afleali Niehoiql

    Theodore French, Ambrose Nichols, 11

    Thomas Gill, Lt ll~c Orcutt 11

    Sainuel Gill, Ephrailil Orcutt, 11

    John Gill, flezelciah Ripley, 1~

    Gideon Howard, Jaines Stodder,

    Dalliel Stodder,

    Jacob s.todder

    Isaiali Stodder

    Ben.i. Stetson,

                    Stephen Tower, Peter Tower,

    Tiniotliv Thayru., 11

    Benjamin Wa'rd,

    Benjandil White,

    Beza Lincoln, Levi Tower.

These men were in the army at this time from about December 19, 1776, to April 2, 1777, and perhaps longer. Captain Cashin',,1 like Lieutenant Burr, was an expericric'ed officer; his coulparly marched froin Hilicham oil the former of the above dates, throuA Abington,lind afterwards by way of Pawtucket and Provi~ ilence, through Rhode Isl rid and Connecticut, their long journey cadin~ them to Hartford and Waterbury amoug, other places. Filially they entered New York, arriving at Westchester Jannary 7th. Brief as are the records in Lieutenant Burr's diary, they interest us not a little, for the personal glimpses which are afforded by them of the marclies and skirmishes and experiences of our own townsmen.

Thus lie says under date of Jan. 19: " One of our men killed
by a cannon ball front the eiieniv." Oil the 21st, " Alarmed by
the Hessians-they driven back." 23d, "Skirinisli-one Lt.
and 4 men killed." 27th' " La.y in ambush - our cannon pla) ed
on Fort Independence." He tells of marches to Tarrytown, where
Andr4 was subsequently captured, and other places ill the vicillit, ' V;
and at last, in February, of the entry into Alorristown in New Jer-

    Williarn Hobart, Caleb Hobart,

    Jeremiah Ifersey Hawkes Hobart, Edmund Hobart, Japheth Hobart, John Huat,

    Benj. Joy,

    Israel Lincoln

soy. Here were the headquarters of Washirnton diii-iro, the win. ter succeeding his brilliant achievements at Trenton and Princetoll ' Here too our ol I fighting chaplain appears again, and Lieutenant Burr says, Lder date of February 12: " Sunday- Air. Tliaiterpreacliedfi-oml'salii)sll8-18&19v.'I llarch0d,hebeld forth to his friends and fellow soldiers from home. Alarch 9tb, the diary tells us that there was a 11 Skirmish between 2000 of the enemy & 1000 of our men - our men beat them back ; " and so oil. in July Colonel Alarshall'sand Colonel Whitney's regiments were ordered to Canada. In both there were It inghain men, al

302 11istory of Hingham.

though there is such confusion in the rolls as to make it practically impossible to give names and time of service.

The town continued as earnest .it home in the support of the patriot cause as it wall active in the field. March 18, 1776, Theophilus Cushing, John Fearing, Thomas Loring, Israel Beat, and Peter Hobart were chosen a Committee of Correspondence, Inspection and Safety ; and May 23d, Benjamin Lincoln, Hezekildi Cushiiny, and Don. Joshua Ifersey were appointed a committee to prepare instructions for the representatives, Enoch Lincoln, Theophilus Cushing, and John Fearing, just chosen. This they did in tile following terms: -

To Enoch Lincoln, Theophilas Cashing, and John Fearing:

GENTLE-NIEN, -You are delegated to represent the Town of Hingham in the next General Court to be held in this colony; and although we entertain the highest sense of your integrity, patriotism, and ability, of which we have given full evidence in appointing you to this weighty trust, yet as matters of the greatest imporLance relative to the freedom and happiness not only of this but of all of the United Colonies, on which you may wish to have the advice of your constituents, will come before you for your determination -you are instructed and directed at all times to give your vote and interest in support of the present struggle with Great Britain. We ask nothing of her but 64 Peace, Liberty, and Safety." You will never recede from that claim ; and agreeably to a resolve of the late House of Representatives, in case the haniourable Continental Congress declare themselves ill(lepeDdelit Of the, Kingdom of Great Britain, soleanaly to engage in behalf of your constituenta, that they will with their lives and fortunes support them in the measure. You will also, as soon as may be, endeqvor to procure a more equal representation of this colony in General Assembly; and that it be by fewer members than at present tile several towns have a right to return ; and when this is affected you will give your vote for calling a new house. BENJAMN LiNCOLN, Town Clerk.

It is impossible not to notice tile signature, or to avoid giving a thought to the mail who wrote the words, 11 Benjamin Lincoln, Town Clerk," at the foot of this document. Within a period of a little more than a year lie had as colonel of his regiment been hurrying his men to Lexington and to the investiture of Boston ; been chosen by the Council the first of the Committee, upon which were also Major Fuller, of Newton, Mr. Singleton, Mr. Darter, and Mr. Dexter, to consider the very important matter of providing each of the soldiers composing the army then rapidly gathering around Boston with the coats which had been promised as a bounty to each mail upon enlistment, -from which comes the term 11 Coat Rolls," as applied to the lists of the Massactiametts troops raised to besiege Lord Howe; been sent to Washington by the Council upon the matter of sea-coast defence ; been promoted to be brigadier-gencral in the colonial establishment; in May, IT75, served as a member of the Provincial Congress, of which

              21filitary mstory. 303

tbody he was also secretary, and in July represented the town in
lie General Court at Watirtown, besides bcing a member of the
Committee of Correspondence,- one of the most active patriots
of the day, yet findiiq, time to attend faithfully to the humble
duties of clerk of his native tow". Hilighain has ample justifica.
tion for ]let- pride ill Atajor-General Benjamin Lincoln, of the
Army of the Revolution. Only tile briefest sketch of bin lift, call
be here given. Born in lliughain, Jan, 24, 17331 lie was the sun
of Colonel Benjamin Lincoln, commander of the third Suffolk
regiment and a member of his Majesty's council. At ta,enty-one
years of age young Benjamin was one of the six constables of the
town, which office lie la~ld two years. fit 1755 lie became adju
tant of his father's regiment, and ill 1157 was chosen town cleik
succeeding his father in that office, who in his turn had, in 1127:
succeeded his father, also Benjamin Lincoln. In 1763 Mr. Lincoln
became second major of tile regiment. In 1766 lie was elected
one of the selectmen, and held this office during the next five
years. Ife became Liout.-Colonel ill 1772, and was ill c(mullild
of the regiment at the opening of tile Revolution. In 1772 lie
represented the town in the General Court, and was re-elected
in IT73 and 1774. L# s already seen, General Lincoln was one of
the earliest and most prominent in opposin,g the encroachments
of the Crown upon the liberties of the people, serving upon the
town's Committees of Correspondence, Safety, and Militia. Ilis
services in the Provincial Congress and his activity and useful
ness in the opening months of the Revolution have been referred
to previously. February 8, 1776, he was commissioned brigadier
general by Massachusetts, and it) the May following major-gencral.
D? ring the first year of tile war General Lincoln reudered most
vaitiable service to the army as a member of the committee on
supplies ; and the miscellaneous papers at tile State House afford
many instances of most important orders signed by him in that
capacity. He planned and commanded the successfully executed
movements which finally drove tile enemy froln Boston harbor

in 1776. During the same year lie commanded tile reinforceWords of militia sent by tile province to 'Washington. So urgent were the requests of the latter for assistance that every fifth man was ordered to respond, the sea-coast towns being excuipted ,it this time. While in New York, General Lincoln commanded one of the four divisions of the army. Toward the close of the year be was appointed to the command of the militia raised in Massatchusetts and Connecticut for the defence of Rhode island. On

tile 19th February, 1777, Stirling, St. Clair, Lincoln, Aliffin, and Stephen were commissioned major-generals in the Continental service. In the following July General Lincoln was selected fly, Washington to command the New England militia, raised to aid the Northern army operating against Burgoyne. Gaining the rear of the British, Li~icadn despatched Colonel Brown to attempt the recapture of Ticonderoga and the posts in the vicinity. Tile

801 ffistory (of Magham.

expedition accomplished important results. Onthe2ftliSeptemher
General Lincoln with two thousand men joined the main army
under Gates, and October 8 lie was severelly wounded 'In fbe log
durin,,, a skirmish. Before returniii.g to Hingham, it became
necessary to remove a considerable portion of the main ])one, and
under the painful operation it is said that lie exhibited most UD
common patience and fortitude. It was years before recovery
froin the wound was complete, and it occasioned lameness during
the remainder of his life. General Lincoln reported for duty at
the headquarters of the army in the following August, to the great
gratification of Washington. At the request of the delegates
from South Carolina and Georgia be was designated by Congress
to take command of the southern department. He arrived in
Charleston in December, 1T78, and was compelled to form an
army and raise supplies. In this lie showed unconquerable energy
and perse%crance. For nearly a year lie kept the English under
Pre%ost below the Savannah, and being joined by D'Eslaing with
the French fleet, lie invested Savannah on Seliember 23, 1779.
October 9th, the combined forces in three cohimns and led by
D'Estaing and Lincoln in person, made an assault on the enemy's
works. The allies were defeated with great loss ; it was here
that Count Pulaski was killed, with many other gallant officers.
The siege was iminediately raised and the French sailed away,
leaving Lincoln to contend alone against the % icturious army. A
111(i e unfortunate ending to what promised to be a brilliant cam
paign can hardly be conceived. The fault lay with the impatience
of ific French commander, at the necessarily deliberate approaches
which the siege required, and his determination to abandon the
attempt unless an immediate assault was undertaken. After the
disastrous failure to capture the place, General Lincoln Yetreated
to Charleston, where he passed the winter in vain (ndeavois to
hold an army together and inspire the population with the spirit
of patriotism inid resistance. By March he had only fourteen
hundred men left, while the, town and the surrounding country
were full of Loyalists. In April Sir Henry Clinton invested
Chirleston with live thousand men, iind on Alay 11th after it re
sistance of forty da ' vs, General Lincoln surrendered with his whole
army. His conduct of the campaign lins received severe criti
cisin ; but whatever its merits or demerits, he lost the confidence
of neither the army nor tbe country, and when in the following
spring he al"ain reported for duty, it was to receive from Washing
ton in important command. In July lie threatened New York,
but fluding it impracticable to attack ilic English there, withdrew
under Washington's orders, and with his division marched acroS8
New Jersey tuid into Virginia, where be took part in the siege of
Yorktown. On the 6th of October the first parallel wag com
inenced by troops commanded by General Lincoln, niol on the
19th the garrison surrendered,- ~ornwallis' mi ord being received
by Lincoln, who as a special honor from Washington was in charge
            fffilitary History. 305

of the ceremonies. A few days after Congress appointed General Lincoln Secretary of War, allowing, him to retain his rank in the nriny Thig riffive lip, rpqimind two ~eari; later and retired to his home at Hingham, recoivin',, most complimentary resolutions from Congress. In 1784 lie was chosen one of the commissioners to make a treaty with the Penobscot Indians. lie commanded the militia raised to suppress Shays' rebellion in 1786-1787, and by the exercise of great energy and tact restored order in a very short time. In 1787 he was elected Lieut.-Governor of !Nlissachu~etts, was commander of the Ancient and Honorable Artillerv Company in 1788, and was a member of the corivenlinn which ratified the Constitution of the United States. In 1789 Washington appointed him the first collector of the port of Boston, which ollice he held nearly twenty years. He was also a commissioner to treat with the Creek Indians in 1789, and to effect a treaty of peace with the Western hidians in 1793. Ceneral Lincoln was one of the first members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a member of the Massachusetts Historical Society, contributing" papers to each. lie was also President of the Society of the Cin. cinnati f rom its organization until his decease. He received the degree of Master of Arts froin Harvard University, in 1780.

This is the outline of a life which for honorable, untiring usefulness has few equals. We long to fill in the details; to pictui (,the young general of forty-three in command of one of Washinoton's divisious,-tho great commander himself but a little older ; to tell of his sending the blankets from his own home to cover hiii suffering men in the field; to recall the spirit and fire with which lie inspired the militia, and led it to the victory at Saratoga ; to follow him while lie toils in the swamps of the Carolinas with hi% handful of nien ; and finally, to witness his triumph at Yorktown. We would like, too, to see this pure, brave man in the quiet and sweetness of his home-life, among the I i iends with whom lie had served in the field, and among whom lie loved to mingle in the happy peace that followed. For the details of all this and much more, there is not room. Verieral Lincoln was of middle bright, erect, broad-cliested, and muscular, with the air of a soldier. Ile was conspicuous for his frankness, integrity, prudence, inflexibility, and stronIg common-sense. He was cool in deliberation, and prompt in execution. His private life was wilhOut a stain, and no profane word passed his lips. Ile was one of the organizers of the Third Congregational (Unitarian) SocietA ' and until his death among its most active members. There was no room in General Lincoln's character for that sinallness of mind which sneers at religious belief in others, or boasts its obsence in one's self. In this as in all else lie was as sincere as modesL Never cowardly in disavowal of the great faith lie had, and unwilling to perinit his convictions to appear in doubt, lie. was also considerate and liberal regarding the opinions and beliefs of others. Benjamin Lincoln died May 9, 1810, and lie lacked

~,o,. i. - 20

neither honor nor love in his own town and among his own neighbors. Not far from the first settlers' monument in the old fort, in the quiet part of the cellictel'Y overlooking the town, where great pines sing it lullaby, and where all around are the bones and the tombs of those he knew ind loved, lie the mortal remains of this soldier of the Revolution. A stone, plain and massive, of white marble, and worthy of the man, marks the spot. On one side are the words:




DIED MAY 9, 1810

And oil the other:



Here oil each Memorial Day the beautiful colors of the nation which he did so much to found, litend with the sweet flowers strewri in honor and memory by the brave men of a later time ; and they who bring the laurel and the myrtle for the young lives given to their country in 1861 do not forget nor pass by the hero who made possible the later sacrifice.

With the war the town's expenditures increased at a rate that must have seemed appalling to the conservative citizens, habitut-

              Hilitary History. ')07

ally economical, and critical of every outhi ' v ; yet thol Were
bravely met, and gehel'0118 SURIS Were Noted lor the care, of ill("
.11 .111ILLAIIII III IJLII; IoIIUI lalge amounts required.
Here are some of the items lot this year: -

At the several meetings (of the town) in July Sept. Nov' It Dec, [1776] the Town Voted to Itike D;N5 14s 8d fol- the Soldiers wleo were employed ill thoContinental Service & raised by the Town of Hingliall).

To Hawks Transportin., Cannot, to ibill 0 8
To Do- for Tratisportill", Baggage for Capt. Peter Cuslihigs 3-2
Capt Pyarn CuslliwIs S. Capt. Tto' Hears"s Collil;~tav
To la Soldiers diat were bired to go with Lieut. Jo ill Burr to
Ticonderoga 1-9-15
To 23 nien that were Iiir'd to go to New York fit Sept. Lat
with Capt. Peter CusldiU, 98-2-8
To 37 men that were hir'd to go to York ill Dec. Last with
Capt. Job Cushing 316-1-4

By order of the selectmen Caleb Loring furnished supplies to a company or companies from Scituate and Pembroke while tit Hingham, and his bill, accompanied by a cerlifloate froill Bellitimin Cushing and Joseph Andrews, we rind to have beca allowed by the State.

The Committee of Correspondence, Inspection, :in(] Safet chosen in Alarch, 1777, were Israel Beal, Sainuel Norton, Jobli Fearing, Peter Cashing, Thornas Lorim, Peter Ilobart" and Theophilus Cushing. Ili June Israel Beal was appointed "to procare evidence against such persons its are suspectcd of being inimical to this and the United States of America, in this town.'

Among Clio large number of vessels of all sizes and descriptions
in the naval service durinIg the Revolution, was the brig 11 Ilaz
Red," built by John peck, of Boston, and carrying sixteen vans.
She made three successful cruises, the first from October, 1777, to
May, 1778, under command of Capt. Simeon Sallilwoll ; the qec
end in 1778-1779. and the third in 1779, in bell] of which she Was
commanded by Capt. John Foster Williams. During, this peii(d
-from 1777 to 1779 - she inade man)- prizes, anioni, them the
British brig "Active," eighteen guns, after nu ell ga g0luent, of
thirty-five minutes. She belonged tothe Commonwealth of Massa
chusetts, and was engaged in the unfortunate Vcnobw-ot C.Npedi
tion in 1779, and in August of that year was burned 1) ' i, her crew
to save lier from follino~ into the hands of the. cueniv. Hel. offi
cers and crew were transferred to the 11 Prof(Ttor," a fine, vessel.
Among the crew of the 'I Hazard," were a, number of llinl-liam
men. Those known are as follows:-

Walter Hatch, 2d Licut,, Joseph Lincoln, Corporal of
Stephen Lincoln, Armorer, Marines,
Samuel Lincoln, Jairns Lincoln,
808 11istory of Ifilighaiii.

    Royal Lincoln, Zerms Whiton,

    Ezekiel Lincoln, Peter Wilder,

    Jonathan Cushing, AbLl Banies,

    Lablan Thaxter, Elias Real.

There is some authority for the statement that the 11 Hazard was in commission in 1776, and that most, if not all, of the above were in service withlicrin that year. Air. Lincoln,in that, History of Hingham," speaks of the four cruises of tile "Hazard."

These men also were undoubtedly oil board, in 1778. In addition, William Tidmarsh was capt~in'8 clerk in this latter year.

Joseph Lincoln and Jonathan Cushing were captured on board a prize of the 11 Ilazard*s" and carried prisoners to Halifax, in 1778; ill 1780 Cushing was a prisoner on the Jersey prisou-sbip. In 1779 Asabel Stodder was in service on the 11 Hazard."

Capt. Thomas Melville commanded a company in Col. Craft's battalion in 1776 and upon his rolls was borne the name of William Lewis.

August, 1777, Isaac Wilder, then only 17 years of uge, died in captivity at Halifax.

Hillgliani had a further part in the naval service of the Revolution ; for under date of December 16, 1776, a charter of tile schooner " Edward," of about 70 tons, was made 6), Caleb Loring to the Board of War, and a little later, oil the 8th of January, 17 77, lie executed a like paper for the schooner 11 Hazard," of 60 tons. lie also owned the armed brig " Risin~g States," which was captured by a British frigate.

The chai-ters of these vessels were very elastic in their provisions, and no limitations were really placed upon the uses to which they were to be put.

It is extremely difficult to give anything approaching a complete history of the militia organizations belonging in Hingham from the close of 1776. It is Probable that the large numberof men in the regular service and the frequent drafts for particular expeditions. and exigencies may have so far depleted the companies belonging distinctly to the town as toatlast result in their complete disorgamzillion, or at least, to work such a suspension of their activity as make them no longer the subject of particufar mention. The last record of this kind that has come to notice is the following: -

                      Hingham, June 10th, 1777.

Theqe may Certify that a legall meeting of the Training blind anti alarm list of tile first Company in said Town Benjamin Lapbam was Chosen Capt of Said Company.

                      ISAIAII CUSHING, Mal.

In Council, Augast 7, 1777, Read and Ordered that Said Officer be Commissioned agreeable to his Rank.

                      JAs. AvFmr, 4. Secy.

              Atililary Ifistory. 309,

    Indeed it inay be added that mind, here,

sity be I 1.1fter --iven must of noces-
    - I'Vaginentart, and ;uld ~;ll

hilits of tba~lxart tb~ t(in, colithl-u-- " .- --11 s"Ve as
ed to take in thb battle for frec-
dom than a full IlistorY of events it is 11(t possilde to fix tile
tillie or places of s0rl'iee of a lar,,o pr
("'listed for llill,,I;aln 11(11 t I 1~ 01)Ortioll 01' the mail 11.110
Parties, I ( ,, l Val'S state ;wemUtel their c(Ul_
    regiments, or date of enttilia. tile at

    Among the ullivise plaus 'my-

whi P1.1t into ~
    ch was Particularly alln eXec lition abol It, ill is ti ilia find

to the nan, it, the (v]ug to N~rasblllgtoii and di8concli'llill"
re"'dur sCiTicv was the call
serve i I Stilielit of a f(re'n t-0
11 the Now EnOnvid States only.
ing in this connection Tho, fullowin, is' t-

To the HoDrable Bord of J`f,~a,:
    GENTfIP-AleN, _1111oS nlay eertify that I have Inli,ted

Servis of the four N~w En,lalld 1,4jates, that have P~lst Itlell men into the
not furnish tilemselves - la~ter ill, it ( aa_
      - Calvin Curtis will, nelits.Gentl(Allen, ple4ts to

furnish Lt with arms and aelunri
above Number of me,,, and you i 8 slid acuternients, SalfieiCht fUr tile
where of John Roberson, r 11 oblige y,me, to Serve fit a Re,
,sq., is Col. - linlent
Ilingloon, JulY Y' 22", 1777. 'Sl~rll SrOlVER1, Capt.

There were Several expedi
Island tion's against tile ellonly ill Inode
      planned and attetripted in the

were successful, lint in year 1777, none of which
been represented. all Of which fli;lullaln appears to 11-11-0
The first MRS ill FebZ
of a lucetilig in May is as follows : - 'try, and a town record
" At the annual meeting in May, tile Town voted to raise X 1172 for proCuriDg the men for tile continental Army & Paying the men that we,, employed in the Rhode Island Elp,dition for til'e said towml,

The text attempt was in SePtember. Three t),(inand luell were raised from PlYlli(tith, Bristol and Barnstable Counties, and tile Southern parts of Suffolk '

Those, with colonel Craft, . , Middlesex, and Worcester.
militia tinder General 11 8 regiment of State artillery and tile
General Spencer of the C alicock, were Placed linder colluiland Of
was the regiment coninian Ontinental Army. Aniong thego tro(Ps
tied by C(h)"(31'Robintani, one of rrhose
companies was that of which Seth Stowers was c~apta,a
included tile following from this town : - and which

    Seth St(Wers ' Capt., Isaiah Stoddl.

    Be h lVilder, Elislut Dunbar'

    Jaosea Dunbar,

    David Lin Jonathan Cardlier

    coln, Caleb Leavitt,

and perhaps others.
A company in the same expedition, commanded by Capt Moses
French, of Weyinouth, and in Col. Jonathan Titcolub's regiment
810 History of Hingham.

of militia, on duty from Alay 15 to July 15, bore the following Hingham men upon its rolls: -

Joshua Tower, Licut., Israel Lincoln, Private,
Jonathan Hearsey, Sergt., Seth Steel,
David Hearsey , Drummer, David Cain,
Jonathan Lewis, Private, Mclzar Dunbar,
David Loring, Amos Dunbar,
Thomas Wilder, Ezekiel Lincoln,
Peleg Whiten, Caleb Levet,
Daniel Dunbar, Nathaniel Bates,
&Loch Dunbar,

Tit the early part of this year there was a company in service commanded by Captain Penniman, of Braintree. The only Ilingliant name then on the roll appears to have been that of Theophilus Wilder, who was let Licut.

There is another roll, however, of a company serving under cominaint of Capt. Theophilus Wilder, and composed of men from Hingham, Stoughton, and Braintree. The names from Hingham were

Theophilus Wilder, Capt., Thomas Howard, Private,
Elisba Lewis, Sergt., - Humphreys
Labatt Tower, Corp-, Thomas Howard, Jr.,
Bela Tower, Fifer, - Whiston,
Ezekiel Cushing, Private, Enoch Dunbar,
Jona. Gardiver, Laban Hunt,
Sam'l Low, - Whiten,
David Prouty, Elijah Cardner,
- Fazzen, Thos. Colbart,
Joshua Hobartt, Ruf us Tower.

This company, like Captain Penniman's, was undoubtedly in
Colonel Dike's militia regiment, and probably was in the service
in the ead ' y part of 1777.

Mr. Lincoln states in his history that there were thirty-three men with Capt. Job Cushhq, in New York, in 1777, but he gives no information as to the tim~ of year or location of their service. It is much to be regretted that the numbers and names of our fellow townsmen who served in the great Northern Campaign of tbi% eventful year, cannot be fully given. We know, however, that when General Lincoln received his wound at Stillwater, on the morning of October 8, he had with him his friends and neighbors who bad marched at his call,as they had so many times before, both for his father and himself. It was at the taking of Burgoyne, too, that Joshua Ripley, of Colonel Wigglesworth's regiment, of the Continental Line, and Nehemiah Ripley, of Capt. Theophilus Wilder's company, of Col. Gill's regiment, were killed. Capt. Wilder had twentv-eight Hingham mm~with him at first, and the company

              Military History. 811

was afterwards increased to fifty-two. The following names appear upon a roll in August, together with many others not f rom this town: -

Theophilus Wilder, Capt., .10'rehliah Gardner, Private,
Abijah Whitton, Sergt., Neliciniah Hubburt,
Nehemiah Ripley, Corp., Benjamin Joy,
Thaddeus Bates, Able Lincoln,
David Harsay, Israel Lincoln,
Poter Harsay, Druni-Major, Seth Stowell,
Benjamin Barns, Private, Stephen Stowell,
Canterbury Barns, J0811UR Stowell,
Anibross Bates, Israel Stowell,
Thomas Chubbuck, Seth Wilder,
Sherebialt Corthwill, Peter Whitton,
Stephen Gardner, Abel Whitton,

Two items of money voted by the town in 1778, for expenses incurred in the previous year, are certainly suggestive, although there is no further evidence of the presence of Hilighaiii men tit General Stark's victory on August 16th.

They are an allowance of Y 1,33 to Captain Wilder for travellialg fees for one hundred and ninety nille8 to Bennin.,ton, and X 7-4-6 paid " to Thom Chubbuck for so much due for Trnnsporting the Soldiers Baggage to Bennington."

While the town was earnestly performing its allotted part towards the general conduct of the war, it was not unmindful of its own defence, as we see by the following requisition: -

                      flinghain, Angust 1~t, 1777,

SIR. - Please to deliver to Mr. Israel Beal, the hearer hereof, 250 Reight of powder, 50 weight Alusquet Ball, and 500 flints for the use of the Town of 11in.aharn, & you 'It obli,&c yours,

To the Commissary General BaNj. UusaiNo, SelectInen of
at Watertown. 30SHUA Lr,tviFT
                  Josepa Asoactvs

There is great difficulty in determining with certainly the names of men who enlisted into the Continental regular service during particular veats; the very multiplicity of rolls and lists with differim, headings adds to the confusion. When, as is frequently the case, town and private records a re really or seemingly at variance with these, entire accuracy becomes out of the question. From these and other causes it may happen that naines deserving of honorable mention are emitted entirely, tied that others got misplaced. The following appear to lime scried in Hingliani's quota for three years, enlisting it) 1777. Non-residents are indicated, when it is known, by the name of the town to which they belonged immediately following their own names; the captains and colonels under whom these soldiers served are also indicated.

312 11istory of flinghani.

                C.J&ml Colonel

Nathaniel Coit Allen, Marshall, Marshall.
EiiAha Bate3 Aiden, Bayley.
James Cook, Pilsburv Wigglcswortb.
John Nlyis' Laijgd(;n`, Jackson.
George Douty, Falmouth, Blaisdell, Wigglesworth.
Willi'llin Ellety, Boston, Langdon, Jackson.
Robert Ford, 11 11 (deserted).
Joseph Falinoutb, Falmouth, Lunt, Alden.
Adaut Fentaudo Boston, Lamrdon, Jackson.
Elisha Ghtrdner~ Briant, Crane.
Castle Gardner, Light Ilie-se.
jacol) Gardner ' Williams, Greaten.
Thomas Guslitig, Boston, Allen, Alden.
Samuel Green E'llis, Bigelow.
Jacob Gurney, angd(n, Jackson.
Daniel (Iolden (also called
Gould), Falmouth. Ellis' Bigelow.
John Grav, Jr., Boston, Lao:gdoii, Jackson.
John Gri~gs,
Charles Ilio'dwan, Allen, Alden.
Adain Henry, Langdon, Jackson.
Joseph Hobart, Pilsbuvy, Wiggleswortb.
If items,% flasmil, Tuckernian, Patterson.
Dalliel, llealsey, Light Horse.
Jesse HU11111111-ey, Williams, Greaten.
James fliskct~ Boston, Langdon, Jackson.
Peter 1411stil,
Thomas Kilby, Cr
Bela Leavitt, Brialit, ane.
Caleb Lincoln, 1,
Urbqiie Lewis, KlIen, Bayley,
Marsh Lewis,
Lot Lincoln, Jr., Pilsbury, Wigglesworth.
Daniel Low, Marshall, Marshall.
James Love, Boston, Langdon, Jackson.
John Lewis,
Emmanuel Lorel,
Isaac Lane, Buxton
William Murphy,, Boston, Allen, Alden.
lchabod Atenkum, Langdon, Jackson.
Plato McLean Ellis Bigelow.
Win. McCand;, Faluirmth, Lunt, Alden~
P,Iato McLellan Fllis, Bigelow.
(a negro),
Joseph McConner,
Clem Penuel, Ellis, Bigelow.
William Palding, Hingham or
Boston, Langdon, Jackson.

              Hililary Ilistory. 313

Nathan Patridge, Falmouth, Smith, Patterson.
Thomas Runirill, Boston,
Josinia Ripley, Wigglesworth.
Hezekiah Ripley, Alden, Ba , vley.
Nathaniel Stodder, Briant, Crane.
William Spooner, 11 11
Abel Sprague, Seward, 11
Hosea Stoddar, Williams, Greaten.
Joseph Stockbridge, Alden, Baylej.
Jonathan Sayer, Boston, Allen, Alden.
John Scott, Langdon, Jackson.
John Simmonds, 11
Ilene , I, Thomson, Briant, Crane.
Henry Tibbits, Boston, Allen, Alden.
Israel Whiten, Brown, Jackson.
John Woodman, Paxton (said
also to be Hingham), Lane, Alden.
Thomas Wilton, Boston, Allen, Alden.
Mark Wilson, Falmouth, 131asdel, Patterson,

Among the most faithful soldiers of the Revolution was Daniel Hearsey. We found him first in Capt. Charles Cashing's company besieging Boston; afterwards lie enlisted in Clio Continental

ice in Knox's Artificers, and subsequentlY his name appears upon the rolls of Col. William Washington's celebrated regiment of L'jcrht Horse, where he was a trooper for three years, having for a comrade his townsman Castle Gardner. Finally, lie closes his military career as a member of 11 His Excellency den'l Washington's Guards, commanded by Henry Collfax," accorditu, to the State House records. Colonel Colifax'8 name was, however, William, not Henry as stated.

Joseph Cook also served in the Second Regiment, Colonel
Greaten, and the Sixteenth, Col. Henry Jackson; Marsh Lewis
was subsequently in the regiment of invalids, commanded bv Col
one] McFarland. Mark Wilson served at one time in Cnptain
Smart's company of Wigglesworth's regiment. Perez Gardner,
according to Mr. Lincoln, not onlY served in Colonel Vose's regi
ment, but was also in Captain Flint's company of Colonel John
son's militia regiment at the taking of Burgoyne ; was six months
on guard in Captain Foster's company at Cambridge, took part
in the Rhode Island campaign middr the same officer, 9nd in
McIntosh's re0ment in 1778, and subsequently in the campaigni
in that State in 1780, under Captain Wilder of Gill's regiment;
was eighteen or twenty months in Captain Warner's compan ' Y in
Colonel Craft's Artillery. He was three years in the Continental
service in Captain Hitchcock's and Capiain Mills's companies.
Though not given in the above list, Mr. Lincoln says that serving
with Mr. Gardner in the Continental service. were Joshua Tower,
314 Ki8tory of Hingham.

killed ,it Morrisania; Jack -, a negro, killed also in New York; James Bates, tend James Hayward, who both died at West Point; Solornon Loring; and.john Daniels.
During this year (1777) the disastrous battle at the Brandywine was fought. It was the 11th September, a hot, windy day, the air filled with dust to which clouds of smoke were soon added, when tire American Army under Wnshington milde its stand
a, a
l~, inst Howe, with tile hope of a victory which might sure the
capital. The mistakes of General Sullivan, the losses of Wayne,
the skill of Green in checking the enemy, the beavy losses of the
patriots and tire final retreat to Germantown, are matters of his
ory. Among the troops engaged in this unfortunate affair was
Colonel Crane's famous regiment of artillery from Massachu
sells, one of whose companies was commanded by David Briand, a
brave officer, who received a mortal wound and died the next day.
Upon tire fall of Captain Briant the, cmuniand devolved upon
Licut. Joseph Andrews, of Hingham, Nilm, although wounded,
continued to serve his guns with great com age for air hour longer,
when lie, too, was roortally wounded by a caurion-laill, and died on
November 22d following, after great silffering, aged twenty years.
More than forty years afterwards Lafayette, who was himself
wounded at the same time, spoke of Lielitonant Andrews's per
sistent braverv. Besides Lieutenant Andrevvs there were from
Hingham in 6is conipan ' v, Caleb Bates, a sergeant, also killed in
the battle; Levi Bicknell, wounded; Nathaniel Stoddard, Samuel
Bicknell, Elijah Gardner, Thomas Cushing, and William Sprague,
vilm were in the crigigerneut, and Bola Leavitt, Luther Lincoln,
and Caleb Lincoln, then with the Northern Army.
Followim, Brandywine and tile later repulse at Cerniantown
cattle the terrible winter at Valley Forgo, with its sufferings and
privations. ]it the bitter experiences of that encampment many
of the Continental soldiers from Hingham participated. The his
tory of the Massachusetts regiments is their hirtor ' v, and wher
ever the names of the Jacksons, Greaten, Wiggleswortli, Rufus
Putnam, Crime, Alden, Bayley, Marshall, Bigelow, and Patterson
appear leading their commands in victory, caring for them in
privation, cheering them in defeat, there will be found filling
their ranks, carrvin, out their (rders, and standhu~ with them in
the heat of batile,`ibe sturdy citizens of Hingham who enlisted
"for the war." A number of the Continental soldiers in tire lists
given were subsequently promoted and held commissions in tile
servic~ ; their names and rank will appear hereaf ter.

In 1778 the Committee of Safety were Thomas Burr, Jacob Leavitt, Abel Hersey, Enoch Whiten, and Peter Hobart.

The constant fear of a return of the English to Boston, and file necessity of proNiding against pillaging and foraging incursions into tile country along tire coast,required the exercise of unceasing vigilance oil the part of the tate and local authorities. How

              Jfililary Histrinj. 315

cheerfully and faithfully- 'Massachusetts performed her duty it, his as in her every relation to the Revolutionary struggle is Known to art immliar with American history, 3et it may riot be amiss to recall that when Cojim,ess Noted to raise eighty-eight regiments, of which this State's quota was fifteen, sixteen were enlisted besides Crane's fine regiment of artillery,-a number soon after augmented by two additional regiments and Armand's artillery legion Congress havino defermined to raise sixteen additionat battalions,-and that one half the whole burden of the war, as measured by the numbers of nien furnished the Continental ranks, was borne by her. Based upon annual ter-ins of service, Massachusetts had 67,907 men in the army, besides many thousands in her own pay for New England air(] purely local defence. Her militia was frequently in active service, and she was obliged to maintain constantly a force sufficient to garrison the posts within ]let- territory. Among these, as previously remarked, were the defences at Nantasket, and upon Hingham a large part of this duty devolved througleout the war. Major Thomas Lotbrop was in command in 1778, and under date of February 27 we have a roll of Capt. Peter Cushing's Company then on duty there. It is as follows: -

    Peter Cushing, Capt. Natlia Fearing, Private,

    Noah HearseY, Sergt. Joshua Lincoln,

      in , " John Cill,

    "I'm 11 '19 Jo' let Will~ Hobart,

    Sam of Hoba c

    D, Abel Fearing,

    '111 le "'sit ne_


    In e I ff oba 't , Corp. Caleb Hobart,

    David Burr, John Jones,

    David Beal, Jim aa lar"nor,

    Zadock Hearsey Drum,

    David Andrews, Private,



    Ali all Hearlev,

    Lot Lincoln, Je remiall Heasey,

    Enoch Stodder, Shubacl Fearing,

    Thoo Waterman, Brij. Jacob,

    Benjn Stowel, Jeremiah Sprague,

    Bradford ficarsey, 'enjn oVa


    Wellcom Lincoln, oph 1, ustudd,

    Jesse Bate, Lublin Ifunt,

    Jot) Lincoln, North Studder,

    Nath Gill, Reuben Stephenson,

    Jacob Beal, Peter Loring,

    Jon' Lincoln, Thos Cashing, 11

    Seth Lincoln, Ilawkes Fearing,

    Joseph Hamen,

Early in this year also we find Licut. Jabez Wilder with a mir". her of men forening a part of the garrison. Tile date is the same
316 History of Hingham.

as the last, February 27, and the roll terms the command a " half company." The names given are -

    Lt. Jabez Wilder, Theoph. Wilder, James Tower, Edward Wilder, Tbeoph. Cushing, Solomon Whiten,

    Thomas Cushing, Abet Whiten, Beiij. Ward,

    David Gaidner, Labin Tower' Pavid Chubbuck,

    Robert G

    Zerias lVilder ardnier, Jonathan Farron,

    John llearsev, Zach. Whiten, Benj, Whiten.

    Seth Stowar;, Bela Tower,

Jabez Wilder, who was a brother of Capt. Theophihis Wilder, subsequently hot(] the rank of captain, being commander of the third company of the Second Suffolk Regiment. He resided on Free Street, near Main, and after the war moved to Chesterfield.
Captain Wilder's company was ordered to Hull soon after, and his roll in April contains the following names: -

    Theophilas Wilder, Capt. Berij. Whiten, Private,

    Theophiltis Cashing, Sergt. Jona, Loring,

    Thomas Jones, Joseph Mansfield,

    Elisha Marsh, Beni. Joy,

    Belit Tower, Fifer, Jona. Loring, Jr.

    Thos. Cashing, Corp. Benj. Cushing,

    Joseph Beal, 1, Joseph Souther,

    David Lincoln, Private, John Wilcutt,

    Martin Tower, Mordecai Lincoln,

    Enoch Stoddar, " John Hunt,

    Shubael Fearing, " Zachariah If tint,

    Abel Fearing, Ephraim Burrell,

    John Jones, Eben'r Joy,

    Elijah Lewis, Laban Cushing,

    Solomon Whiten, John Wild.

Althou,,h a ITinglown company, a few of the above may have been re4elits of Weyniouth or coliasset.
The; following return of the Selectmen tells the story of the manner in which quotas were sometimes filled in those days, as well as a good many years later.
,1 A return of the men procured by the town of Hingham to make up their quota of the seventh part of the rattle inhabitants of said town: - John Murphy, May, 1778, Greaton'B Reg', Patrick Duna, June, 1778, Col. Crane's, Liency Gesbuct, 11 11 11 11 ISRAFII THzoa CTESILMG Selectmen of Hingham. CHAO CUSHING ~

                      DAVID CUSHING, COIO-"

              Military History. 0017

The same officers make another return, showing that Nathan

Thisining enlisted in Col. Henley's regiment in May, while in June,
    Jaspar Mason, Esri0olm Millery,

    Christian Rouschorn, Jonas FougheJ,

    Conrad Workman, Peter Dushen,

    Frederick Gateman, Ainada Bourdon,

    John Dager, Frederick Bower,

    Joseph Toot or Scot, John Bodsfell,

    John Wiclele, Christophei Creig0r,

as Hingham men swore to uphold the Republic in Col. Crane's Artillery. It is difficult to avoid it Bli,dit suspiciou that these


men may have been a part of the desertim, Ilessiaris from Burgovite's army, whose enlistment by 31assachmsetts called forth vigorous remonstrance from Washington,and soon ceased. The town fathers appear to have been at least not deficient in shrewd~ ness, however, for these recruits were eiiVged for three ),cars and credited to Hinghain for the Iong term although the period required under the call of Congress at that time was only nine months. Let its hope that these swiftly made citizens and eager patriots upheld the better of the town while servin.- under their new colors.

In July of this year, the French fleet under D'Esfiiing appeared off Newport, and the Admiral and Gen. Sullivan, who commanded in Rhode Island, prepared to drive the enemy from the State, Two Continental brigades from the main army was sent under Lafayette, and the Massachusetts militia inakhed under John Hancock as Major-Gencral, at the saine time. The whole force numbered ten thousand men, and great hopes were entertained of its success. They were doorned to be disappointed, however, and after nearly a month of fruitless delays, the Americans evacuated the island after having fou.Ait one unsatisfactory battle. The following Hingliain men took part in the attempt

    Benj. Jacob, Thos. Joy,

    Elijah Lewis, Japath Hobart,

    Benj. Joy, Moses Whiten,

    Kent Sinimonds, Jonathan Gardner.

They were probably members of a company of which John
Lincoln was a lieutenant, and were paid b ' v the town X 122.

Ilon. Solomon Lincoln says there were nineteen other Ilingloini men ettgaged six weeks in Rhode hiland, and also twetitv-two in a Capt. Baxter's company for the %,tine length of time. The names of the hitter are here given : -

    zacharigh Whitoo, 2 Licut., Able Whiton.

    Robert Gardner, Serg't, Jonathan Farrar,

    Ainbross Bates, Levit Imile,

    Jacob Joy, Thomas Willder,

318 History of Bingham.
Robart Willder, Stephen Stodder,
Isaiah Hearicy, Isaac (?) Whit(n,
"Urr, V"li-he w1l;*on,
Rubeil Ilcarscy, James Stodder,
Cliarls Beir, Cornelus Bates,
    CanturburY, Barns, Zebuloll Willcutt,

    Daniel Wilder, Jacob Lincorn.

    Thomas Stodder,

Captain Baxter was from Braintree, from which Cowl) also came a largo part of his col"ParY ' Licat-Whitoll subsequently appears
to ll~vc bec(ow % captain ith distinction in
    a I and'is spoken of w

Thacher's " Military Journal., Colonel mcintosh commanded tile regiment.

The Dorcheste" Heil"llts works were also garrisoned by 'it com
psay consistite, of thirty-foll" mcn, order Capt. Elias Whiten for
iad also served
throcnioliths. Captain Whiton, who early in the war I
lis, lieutenant ill C )t. P) am Cuslimg's u0nipany when stationed at
Dorchester, was t 0,11 Witll tile sulall-pox and died in the service,
ay rs. Almost at the same time Captain Whiten's
led thirty-five Ye
elder brother, C t. Enoch Whiten, who also bad commanded
a company in the evollition died, aged forty-five years. A third
brother, ~lijali, %v~ 8 a soldier in the same war. They were till
residents of Scott Hingham, near Liberty Plain. The town re
cords allow tillittliethirtY-focir menivere paid out of the town trea~
. The company belonged to Colonel
sury 44('-)2 for their services
Lymall's regiment of Guards ; its roll was -
    Elias Whiten, Capt. Jona Hobart,

    zachariall Whiten, Lieut., Josbunt Beals,

    Samuel Hobart, lu Will- Hobart,

    Joint Cushing, Thomas Sprague,

    Thomas King, Samuel Leavitt,

    James Tower, Theonis Joy,

    Joshua Stowel, Abet White",

    David Gardner, Jacob Dunbar,'

    Ezekiel Hearsey, Peter Tower,

    Jobn Hearsey, Jonathan Farrow,

    Thomas Chubbuck, Jeremiah Gardner,

    Jonathan Gardner, David Chubbuck,

    Caleb Leavitt, David Loring,




    David Lamimm, Laban Tower,

    John Hobart, Seth Wilder,

    Beni- Stowel, Elainir Hook.

    Nehemiah Hobart,

After the surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga, Oct. 17, 1777, his army was conducted to Boston, and quartered at Cambridge, where it remained until November, 17 79. During the intervening , d the duty of furnishing guards devolved largely upon tile

Militia of Alassachusetts, and of this, Hingham bad a full share.

              Military 11istory. 31j

It is not possible to give accurate lists of the men eugaged in this and the sintilar seri ice of carinIg for and protecting the Coalition Ual stores at Boston and Watertown, so imperfect are tile rolls. Tile town records contain items of payinents to men recruited for these purposes. One, in 1778, would sevin to indicate that thele were seven of our towasinen with Capt. Benjamin Beal, but " a pa - v abstractof Capt. 13ciij. Beal companyof militia and Col. Jacob Garish (rogt) Drafted ill July 1778, to Guard the Troops of Convolition and the Stores In and About Bostou " contains the following names of undoubted citizens. Tile regiment was Colonel Gerrish's.

    Beiij. Beal, Capt., Nloses Gaidner,

    Peter Dunbar, Lieut., Joshua Stowell,

    Joshua Beal, Sergt., Jedediah Joy',

    Caleb Alarsh, Corp., Seth Wilder,

    David flearsey, Drum, Daniel Dunbar,

    Joseph Hubbard, Hosea Dunbar,

    Stephen Niansfield, Molzer Dunbar.

Also 11 Capt Bonj. Laphain Compy in Col. John Reeds Regt., in set-vice of the United States, at, taken from 2 April, 1778, to July 3, 1778," has upon its roll: -

    Jos. Tower, Sergt. James Lewes,

    Daniel Stodard, Corp., MOO Tower.

The town disbursements for the year contain items for the payment of three men employed in guarding Continental stores, nearly three months, twenty men 11 for guarding Con' Burgoynes unity, at, 4 months & 26 days," 11 to 11 men for Guarding, the Continental Stores in Boston 2 months 11 days."

At the town meeting hold in February, there was .1 tax laid of
X2370 of which Y495-7-2 was for the procaring of Continental
soldiers, for three years ; X1274-12-to for paying the men (,in
ployed in the expedition against General Burloyne ; X300 rov
guarding General Burgoyne's army at Cambridge, and X300 for
defraying tile usual expenses of the town. Subsequent] ' y we, find
Joshua Leavitt paid for a gun lent thetown,and Jacob Leavittfor
paintin.g the carrial" and wheels of the cannon ; also David Beal for
assisting in transporting powder from Watertown to f1hodmin.
There are, besides these, payments to Capts. Beiij. Laphani, Hiwq
Wbiton, and Peter Cushing, for serving as committees to hile
There is a roll of Captain Stowers' company allowing service f roin
August to November of this year; the location of its cloplo ' l ]])put
is not indicated, but, itN roll contains, in addition to tho 1111olus.
given as members of the same command, in August, 1776, the
following: -
      Slun't Stodder, Daniel Beal,

      Reuben Studder, Thos. Lincoln,

320 History of Hirighom.

      Job Alansfield, Jacob Whiten,

      Stephen Whiten, Caleb Leavitt,

      Bonj. Barnes, Jr., Finoch L eav;`-L

      Luke Orcatt,

October 1, 1778, General Lafayette was in Ilingham and lodged, with his servant, at the Anchor Tavern, then standing upon the present location of Mr. William 0. Lincolu'g honse, on South Street, and u favorito resort of the French officersat Nantusket. It was a faivions hostelry in its day,and was occupied as a private divelling by Governor Andrew in the early, part of the Civil War. Lafayette was on his wav to Hull, where lie was going to inspect the fortifications at thai place. Ile was dressed in a blue coat with buff trimmings, tile regular uniform of an American officer, and attrlicted mueb attention. Upon the news of his death many years after, all the hells it] town were rtlllg~

Among other earious documents in the State House are certain Smentories showing the amount of clothing received from the several towns far tile public service. One, dated Dec. 17th, 1778, shows that flinghnin furnished 128 sbirts, 69 pairs of shoes, and 102 pairs of stockings ; being much more than by any other town ill the county with tile exception of Boston.

The great difficulty of ascertaining precisely the date of onJi8twent of many of those who entered the Continental service has been intimated. In addition to the names previously given, the following would seem to have entered the army in 1778

                  Captain Colonel

Alexmider Atkins, Boston, Langdon, Jack8on,
Gorshom Betil, Winship, plitilam,
Cwsar Make, Alden, Bayley,
Mixitivide BaraRobel, Boston, Allen, Alden,
Thomas Burke, Langdon, Jackson,
Caleb Bates (killed), Burbeck, Crane's Artil.,
Sim(~oli Butler, Langdon, Jackson,
Will. Beetling, 11 11
Ezekiel Bragdon, Braxton, Lane, Nixon,
Abet Cnsbing, Shepard,
Isaac Crosby, Waltham, Lane, Alden,
Joint Carter, Boston, Langdon, Jackson,
Ronald Cameron, 11 41 1,
Will Clarke, Pownalboro, Bayley, It
Joint Clalk,
James Dishet,
Perez Gardner, Tose,
Isaac Gardner, 11
Jesse Humphrey, Williams, Greaten,
Joseph Hobart, Pilsbury, Wigglesworth,
Daniel Hearsey, Light Horse,
Peter Hagen, Boston, Langdon, Jackson,

            Afilitery History. 321

                  Captain Colonel

Briant, Crane,
Luther Lincoln, Bayley,
Jobn Mansfield (dead),
Ebenezer Wipley, Alden,
Ca,,sar Scott,
~foscm Stoddar,
Joseph Avileott. Burbeck, cralle.

In Sellteratlqr of 17TS General Lincoln was Placed in '0111"la"d of tbe department of tile Seeth. A, brief account has already 1)"ll

-illy, alit, of tile long
given of ills pprsistent efiorts to raise a it at

struggle for %nprevna-y whicli finally terminated at Charleston, in ~ 1-480 by tile surrender of tile town, with tile garrison, to

may, I
Sir floury Clinton.
The Committee of Safety in 1779 were Samuel Norton, Dr.

Thomas Tliaxter, Theophillit; Wilder, Capt. charle-, and Joseph Thaxter.

Tile military service performed by, Hingnato men deril)g this veall wn~ Vert- cou~idevable, beside,% that rendered by tile soldiers of the Colltilo,;All regiloeutg with Washington and ciscwheve, but the records are so inromp~eto that, but little detilil can be givell. The

wiv Wi evacottied Rhode Island in tile notanin of 47 1 li), bill thev
loil~ no illtptvt~on of pernoillently aiaill(loning tile nild tile,

ft,av of tbeir return lioerssitated thi, ('111ployllient of it coil side rable Ainerican force for its defence until the~ close of Ole way,

A pay roll for December 1779, of Capt. Lake Ilowell's compally in ('01. Nathan TvIer's regi'llient, on duty in Rhode Tgiql)d, portaill's tile names of the followhig, Ifin"01ala men

Jobu Lincoln, Limit., Jo"atlitito Farrow, Jr., Private,

Ezekiel flersev, Druln, J~,wtlte wilittoll,
Elijah Lewis,* P6vAtt, WiMato Gardner,
Flisha Wale, Nathaniel Bates,
Jonathan Farrow, 11

In tile %aute State there were six men in Capt. Job Cushing's cormotiod, and severt men for five niontlis in the company in which Jacobs was I licitte"llit.

Tbore were also foar men engaged upou guard duty at Boston, Who were probabiv 1,01arc Gardner Jonallitin Gardner, Elijah W) 111toll, Jr. , and Jitta" Hayward, They eertainl)l received pay from the tiovu for service in Boston this year.

Welit. EUJah Beal, who resuled at WeNt Ilinghtim and who at the tittle was about twellil-nillo yeal.8 of age, Avas stationed at Cliverack, New ivith fifteen of his townsmen. Efforts to ascertain their nalneg JolvO not tact witb ~JJCCCS.4.

This year I too' saiv Capt. Theophihis Wilder adding active military duty to the service lie was giving his country in the support of ~lul war its a civilian, au~l agaill we luld llim with vor,. r.-21

322 History n Hingham.

his company, this time containing eighteen Hill gliam patriots, in the fort at Hull. This roll, like several others of 1779, has not been iomul. Hull. Summon Lincoln, states that LietilL John Lincoln commanded a company at Rhode Island in Webb's regiment froni Sept. 1, 1779, to Jan. 1, 1780, in which were several soldiers from flitudiam.

The records preserve the names of only the following its eniiHting in the Continental service during i779 ; they appear to be re-onlistments : -

James Cook, Capt. Bradford, Col. Bayley,
Joseph Stockbridge, 11 11
Jacob Gardner, Col. Greaten.

The town appropriations for war purposes had by this time become very large, although it must not be forgotten that they were in it verv much depreciated currency.

In 04ober it was Toted to 11 raise Y6000 for the purpose of paving the soldiers that went to do dut.v in the State of New York." The following indicate services not otherwise recorded

To Zq
    ~ C11h Whiton for his service to Rhode Island in 1778 X41-17

To Jotioun Lorbi,,, for his service !it Canada oinitted X18.

There were also payments for large amounts of beef and salt purchased for the soldiers, and as in every other year of the war, generous sums were voted for soldiers' families. We have theso records also: -

To Jon' Rearsey towards his service it Rhode Island X22- 0-0
To David Hearsev for DO 39- 2-6
To Elislut Beal fi~r D' 35-17-0
To Ezell' Ilearsey for D' 44-18-8.

The names of four more of Hingliam's soldiers are thus indicated, although no light is thrown oil the particular expedition in which they served.

Perhaps no better examples can be selected to illustrate the ex-traordinary depreciation of the paper currency than the followhig~

To Capt. Seth Stowers fea 7 Bush' Corn for the Soldiers who
went to Rhode 191and ;f63-0-0
To Bradford Hearsey for a p! shoes to Hosea Stodder X 4-4-9.

In July all expedition against the British post at Penobscot was
fitted out by Massachmsettg. Colonel Lovell, who sometime before
had become a brigadier-general in the militia, was one of the com
manders, and, is already said, the brig 11 Hazard " which took part
in the expedition, had a number of Hingham men in her crew.
Upon the promotion of Colonel Lovell, which took place in 1777,
David Cushing of Hingham becquie colonel ; Thotims Lothrop of

              Military History. 323

Cohasset, lieu ten ant-colonel ; Isaiah Cushing of -, major - Samuel Ward of Hinglutin, second major and the inembers anti Officers of the Hinglialu colupa-hie- ... 0 - , "

6 kv ou ~u, ~cujauiiu Lapham,
Capt., Herman Lincoln, 1st Lieut., Joseph Bcal, 2d Lieut.

3d, Jabez Wilder, Capt.,Zach. Whiting, 1st Lieut.,Robf, Gardner Jr., 2d Lieut. ; 6th, Peter Cushing, Capt., Thos. Ban, lat I,ield.' Thos. Fearing, 2d Lieut.

The following served seven months in Gazee'.4 Rhode Island company of artillery ; the year is n6t certainly known, bill it is probable that at least a pohion of this time N% as included it) the year 1779: Enoch Dunbar, Amos Dunbar, Daniel Dunbar, Melzar Dunbar, Luther Gardner, and Peleg Whitim.

In 1780 the Committee of Correspondence, Inspection, and Safety consisted of Israel Beal, Capt. Charles Cushing, Ebenezer Cushing, Joshua Leavitt, and Isaac Wilder, Jr.

Ill July- Of this year General Heath asked for rehifurecinents for his army in Rhode Island, all attack on Newport being thrent-

ened by Sir Henry Clinton. Under this call Capt. Theophilug Wilder marched with his eompany, belonging to Ebenezer Thaver's regiment, and served three months. The roll of Hinghani'inen is given below : -

    Theophihiq Wilder, Capt., Jerein~ Cardner,

    Thomas Venson, Lieut., Perez Carditer,

    Walter Hatch, 2d Lieut., Elishn Whitten,

    Peter Wilder, Scrgt.-Major, Coil' Barns,

    Elijah Lewis, Sergt., Isra Whitten,

    Iiaiali floarsoy, 11 Amos Dunbar -

    Uriah Beals, 14 Shot- Corthweill,

    Ezra Gardner, Corp., Abel Cuslillull

    Israel Stowell, " Cushell Burr,

    Peter Heat-soy, Drum, John Cu9bing,

    Bela Tower, Fife, 3fol,

    as lilo,ver,

    Jacob Canterbury, Labatt Cushing,

    Be -' Cushing Jerem" Horsey,

    Fliph. Ripley, Ezekel Harsey,

    Stephen Stowell, Israel Ilearsey,

    John Hearsey, John Dill,

    Zodeok Harsey, Nathaniel Dill,

    Dan' Harsey, Joseph Jones,

    Jon Gardner, Caleb Cushell.

    Stephen Gardner,

The ur~rent need of soldiers frequently induced the States to

authorize enlistments for short terms, much against the judgment of Washington, and greatly to the injury of the set-vice and tile country. The town of Hingham supplied few men by nuthority of these.act.s. and,as already stated,under a nine months call, iti'mio

324 History qj' Hingham.

.instance at least, enlisted her quota for three years. Indeed, most of the men joining the Continental service and credited to Hingbrut vverc for the !oil-- term, all(! naijav have. ti-~ainst their naines the large letters 1). W.," which mean 11 During the War." The following, however, joined the ariny for six months, "agreeable to a resolve of the General Court of the fifth Of Jane 17 80 : Lot Lincoln, Jesse Humphrey, James Bates, Daniel Woodward, Levi Gardner, Ezekiel Gushing, Leavitt Lane. They were sent to Springfield, slid therice to the army trader Captain Soapcr, Captaill Burbank, and Lieutenant Cary, in July, August, and October. Mr. Lincoln says that there were also five men on duty as guards at Boston.

At a town meeting held oil the l3th of June it was voted to raise thirty thousand pounds toward paying the soldiers, and four thousand pounds to purchase clotbing for the Continental army.

'File town records also show large sunis of money paid for beef, blankets, wood, corn, etc., supplied the army upon requisition from the State. III one instance, however, the General Court threatened a fine of twenty per cent if a requisition was not promptly responded to; and the town voted " to comply, provided it be not brought as a precedent in future time;" this was in the year 1781.

This latter year Samuel Norton,Capt. Charles Cashing, Heman Lincoln, Capt. Peter CLIMIling, and Misba Cushing, Jr., were chosen as the Committee of Correspondence.

Under a resolve of the Crucial Court passed December 2, the following culisted into the Continental service for three years, or the war; the bounties paid are also given : -

Hear ' y ShoppOrd X57 Thomas Lightfoot Y60
John Daniels 108 Reuben Wright 55-10
Lowell; Freeman 60 Amol; Adams 51-12
Pirinattel Busson 60 Francis Coiner 63
Jam" Cook 61-4

The following furnishes rin illustration of the means by which some of these men were secured : -

                        HIsURAM, Dec. 24, 1781,

These may certifie that I the Subscriber Eired Fmmael Bussen for the class whereof I am Chairmin & that He passed moster the 8"' day of Novemb' past, and that He enlpq.geol to Serve three years in the Continental Armv ; also that I gave Sixty pounds for his so enga,ging in Hard money. JonN THAXTER.

Otbera enlisting this year and receiving a bounty were

      Isaac Gardner, Jack Freeman,

      Julia or Tuba Freeman, Benjo Jacobs,

      Absolum Davis, Caesar Blake,

            Jfilitrtr~y History. 325

    Thomas Newell, Daniel Dill,

    Jesse Humphrey, Ab(l C, ishing,

    -10t Lincoln, 3-un"s ;!aycard,

    Fortune Freeman, James But es,

    Nath' Stoddard, Perez Gardner,

    John Pill, Uellj" li"ard.

Perez Gardner was three years in Colonel Voisf-,K re"ohnelit, it])(] with him were John Toover, killed lit Alin lis'lulia, oil :1 scolit"JaIlIC4 Bates, and James Hayward, both of about dic(l ill the gorkico tic West Point, and John Daniels, Abel Ctishing, and Solonion Loring,-the latter not giien in the 9bove list,-aial Jack -1 a colored nian, doubtless Jack Fieeman, killed at New Yolk.

Mr. Lincoln says there were also eloven men in Rhode Island four months ii~idcr Capt. John Lincoln.

The onlv to I digeovered,however,gives in Colonel Webb's regiinerit in khodo island, Ali,,,. 2, 17`111, John Lincoln, captain - Robert Corthell, set-gotInt ; Sherchiah Corthelf, private, as Ino-


longing to Hinglitun. The names of the others have not been

It, was towards the close of the stiouner when the American and
French armies, after remainin, soinie six weeks near Dobbs' Forry
to New York, crossed the ITudson, aint under tbo~ gencral coin
inand of General Linooln counlienced the jourch across the jer
se , vs, Mavyland, and Virginia, which terminated in the great
victory at Yorktown oil tile 19th Of October following.
The distinguished part performed by General Lincoln in the
last great campaign of the Revolution luls been all-ead , v alluded
to. The personal history of other llinghtun soldiers has, with a
few exceptions, been lost or obscured with the passing years.
Of this we may be cortaill, that wherever tile commands to which
they belonged were, there thev Were, too, sel-Vill" faithfullY to
the call. Aniong those at Yorktown was Daniel Shute, a 'I ollnl~,
surgeon who had graduatc(l at Uarvald Colte ce in the opelling
year of the contest, and inincediately placed his talvilts -It his
country's act-% ice. UC is said to lolo-ol Commanded a collelp, Coal
paily during the sioge of Bostoll,alld sooll after Wits colilloissiolicil
a surgeon's ninte and attached to the Ilospifid At
Yorktown lie was the Ill-it suivelul to I)('[ total :],it aniplualion ou
a womaled soldier. At the close of tho %%tu- be Nvas sar,,Oon If
the 4th Massachusetts Contitionhil Iti,rillu'llt, conlinaild(A 11v
Colonel Shepperd. Dr. shlit e I-I'Silled a Alort, tinio, in \Vv~ inollIll
after the close If Ilk lililifilIN sel-Nico, but Soon relleoNe(I to Mo.
learn, where be died April 18. 1829.
Upon tile st;lfy of General Lincoln was llfa~or frodilitill BaYlies,
aide-de-camp, who subsequently married a daumliterof fit(, -en 1 01-:11.
He became collector at. I)igljl(;ti, and held other oflices. Sev"ral
of his children were been during his residence in Iling-hain.
326 History of Hingham.

The capitulation of Cornwallis was the last great military event of the Revolution. Nc%ertheless, much of the country was still
      h, the 11rifiA m-iov_ an(] bogidos flip. upomsitv of ffain.

      _j ---- --------- ------- - ---- - __ - , __ - ___ - --- -1 - I----

ing and holding possession of those portions, there remained the possibility of renewed hostilities, requiring the retention of a considerable force. Oil the second of November the army under General Lincoln embarked at Yorktown an(] proceeded to the head of the lqk, from whence it went into winter quarters in Pennsylvania, Now Jersey, and upon the Hudson, in New York.

The Committee of Correspondence and Safety elected in 1782 were Israel Real, John Fearing, and Theophilus Cushing; they were re-elected in 1783.

The probabilities of peace made the enlistment of soldiers exceedingly difficult, and there were very few recruited after the ,Close of the Virginia campaign. The only names of recruits known to have joined the Continental army in 1782 are Solomon Lavingin and rlijah Beals.

Bon. Solomon Lincoln says that in 1783 there were twelve men in the, service at Hull. Neither the date nor the organization to which they belonged have been preserved,mid no list of these last soldiers in the Revolution from old Hingham has been found.

There remain to be added a few names not hitherto placed, known to have served in the army in some capacity, but whose Company or regiment, place, or time, have not been ascertained. Th"c are-

Jedediali Beal, Bela Lineoln,served oil the 11 Pro
Daniel Dill, tooter,"
Leinuel Bill, Benjamin Lincoln,
Daniel Egrey, Noah Nichols,
Francis Gardner, died 1780 on Moses Sprague,
Jersey prison-i3hip, Jacob Spriop,
,,no, carried to Halifax
Jared Jo ' N and died on guard-ship, 1778,
                  Benjamin Leavitt, Flied Stodder, Sclh Thaxter.

Serving upon the staff of General Lincoln during the earlier )art of the war as all aid-do-camp, and probably with the rank if colonel, was Nathan Rice. Colonel Rice came early to IlingInim, where he resided many years, At the close of the war lie was major in Colonel Bailo~'s Continental re0ment, and subsoquelltl.v eoramanded a body of troops at Oxford during the threatened difficulties with France,

From the lists of names given, if appears that Hingliani fill-nished over one hundred and rift different persons to the regular Continental service, of whom, however, it is probable that only about eighty were actual residents of the town. The commissioned officers, so far as known, were, -

            31ilitary History. 327

Major-Gen. Benjamin Lincoln.
Col. Nathan Rice, aide-de-camp to General Lincoln.
T : out "-I t1111.__ T _:_1- I'll is--- cl-1--i I -------- I

Major Hodijah Baylies, aide-do-camp to General Lincoln.
Daniel Shute, surgeon 4th Mass., Colonel Shepperd.

Capt.-Lieut. Nath'I Coit Allen, paymaster 10th Mass., Colonel Tupper.

Lient. Hezekiah Ripley, Jr., 2d Mass., Colonel Bailey; Brigade Qr. in 1783.

Lieut. Joseph Andrews, Crane's artillery ; mortally wounded at Brandywine.

Lieut. John Lincoln, 2d Mass., Colonel Bailey.

To these should perhaps be added -

Capt. Amos Lincoln, formerly of Him,liam ; moved to Weymouth. Dr. Gridley Thaxter who is stated to have been a surgeon in the army, but in what branch of the service is unknown.

Dr. Peter Hobart, also a sur.,con, the particular record of whose service is lost.

John Woodman, a private in the 7th Mass., Colonel Brooks, and marked 11 promoted."

Possibly, also, Chaplain Joseph Thaxter, formerly of Colonel Prescott's militia regiment,should have his name placed upon the Continental rolls; lie certainly was in the army later, but the

command is not, stated.

Another brilliant officer, who was a citizen of Hingimin preceding the division, but who by that event became all inhabitant of the new town of Coliasset, was Capt. -James Hall.

It is possible to make an approximation only to the number of men who served their country from Hirighani in other than the regular Continental regiments during, the war of the Revolution. Many of the rolls are entirely lost, others are incomplete, and some are partially worn and illegiblo ; the selectillell's records furnish valuable lnit very racagro 'inforimiflon, while from private sources almost nothing, has been obtained. From available information,- mainly the rolls heretofore ~iveri, in(] which are literal copies of originals in the State llouse'-ft would -1ppear to be certain that some six hundred different individuals performed military duty in the several branches of the service. There were doubtless many more whose names were. recorded upon the lost rolls, or whose identify cannot be determined, ovvin, to the fact that oftentimes lists still exist which ar( neuriv value' L,sil from a failure to make any mention of the town tu which the soldier belonged. There is reason to think that a number of men doing garrison duty at the Castle, - now Fort Indeperidonee,-ill Calif. file flon. Thomas Cughing'i; company, were

froin Hinglimia; butthere th"home
328 History of Kinglaw.

or place of enlistment of the fliell composing it beim, if, u, case
s I t lee

stated ; and the doubt in this instance is of sufficient i ill, wtai to inake it uiisafe to credit the town with nny of lhe... If quite probable, too, that numbers of oil)- citizel;s served ill some of the Nariousarnied ships authorized by Congress or the Commonwealth, but of other than those given as upon the 11 Ilazaid " ined 11 Protector," if such there were, I fo satisfactory records ave known. Very mauy, if not most, of the soldiers from Ilin0aiin served oil several different occasions during the war; and not a few enlisted or were called out four, live, and six times, while the indisputable evidence furnished by existing rolls proves that several responded to lio less than eight calls to duty in gartisoil and camp. Ili a few instances the periods of service were short, being comprehended in a few (lays, but for the most part they extended over many months, embracing the year consumed in the siege of Boston, the time occupied in the campaigns in Canada, in the northern department against Burgoyne, in the operations Dear West Point, t1fosse around New York, the several Rhode Island expeditions, that to the Penobscot, a part of Washingtorl's first campaign in New Jersey, oil(] the many months, aggregating several Years, of garrison duty at Hull, besides that performed ill Ifingliain itself while the town was a military post. It is impossible to reduce the whole to a standard of number of men Ser1ring for it stated time, but if m ery different service had been performed by different individuals, the aggregate outside of those in the i egular threc-i cars re-iments would probably exceed one thousand.

As observed previously, it seems reqsonable to estimate the
different indkiduals as al;out six hundred in number ; indeed,tbe
preserved rolls name some live handled and seventy. Of these,
approximately, the Lincolus furnished forty-eiglit ; file Cushinlgs'
thirf ' v-seveii ; the Beals ' thirty ; the Whitons, including all the
variations of spellilag the name, thirty ; the Stoddars, Stodders,
Stoddards. Stodars, bNem~-fixc ; the Hearseys, Harseys, Iferseys,
twenty-four; the Gardruns, twenty-one; the flobaits, ninctucii;
the Towers, sixteen ; the, fifteen ; the Buteses, fifteen ; the
Burrs, thirteen ; the Spragues, thirteen ; the Wilders, thii teen ;

--the Dunbars, eleven ; the Leavitts, clei en ; the Loki ises, eleven ; the Stoii ells, ten ; the Joys, tell ; the Fearings, eight ; the Laries, eight ; the Thaxters,seven ; the Barneses, seven ; and the Marshes, seven. That is two dozen names of the soldiers from flinglilin included four hundred and nine individuals. The Hingham offieci s of Continental reg,inients have already been named ; those in other branches of the service, as far as known, were -

Major-Gen. Benjamin Lincoln (before Ili,.; Continental commission),
    Capt. Benjamin Beal, Capt. Peter Cushing,

      Charles Cushing, 11 Pyarn Cushing,

      Job Cushing, 14 Isaiah Cushing,

              Military History. 329

Capt. Thomas fleallsev 2d Lieta. Thointis
Benjamin Lapbutil, Watter llatch,
dailies Lincoln, 2d Josiah Lnue,
John Lincoln, Jacob Lva0t,
Seth Stowers, ITC-111:111 LilIL-0111
11 Job Tower, Le~i Lincolit,
Theophilus Wilder, Isaac Lincoln.
Elias Whiton, 2d Nathan Linvo~il,
8tephen Whiton, Peter Nichols,
Lnoch Whiten, Jejoill Stephenson,
Lieut. Levi Bates, ~Kuiglit Spraplic.
2d " Elijalt Beal, Joshila Tower,
2d " Joseph Beal Thoinioi Vinson,
Lieut. Thomas Burr, Jabez Wilder,
M Isaac Cushing, 2d 11 Zach Whitiwz, proil-
4th David Cushing,, abl
      P y subsequenill a

      eter Dunbar, captain.

From official records still existing and other reliable sources if information, it may be safely stated that the town of, Ilill'Hialil contributed to the military service of the Revolution, illetudilo, those in the Continental regiments and oil armed vessels, iuuarj'N~

seven handred and fifty men, of whom over fifty were connuis
sioned officers. The number probably was really largely in excess
of that here, stated. 0

It cannot but be re,,retted that these records of the old town's part in the Revolutionary contest are so laf 1-clY composed of mere lists of names, and that there is so little of incident to brk,liten the too statistical narrative. Ili this connection, however. one little event may not be without interest. It will perhaps he recalled that during the last war between France and the Colonies, oin! of the chaplains wns Rev. John Blown of Ilijodimn. The years which had rolled by since 1759 had doubtless incapacitnted the minister for further service in the field, ])lit under the minificent elin standing opposite to the old Cushiri'g- houso at lzoek~T Nook, he preached to a company of otir townsinen oil their niarelt to the post of danger, '.fail Split then) Oil the Nvav with 1111, hh'sqilo's' and approval of the Church rifilghilg in their cals, :fall, let us If list, consoling their hearts.

Almost from the surrender of Yorktown fill! ai mics of the new republic had been meltin.g away, and when, oil the 311 of Sol,tember, 1783, dw treaty was signed qt Paris Nihich acknmf led-,e(l the independence of the United States, there rem:dned

Washington at Newburg scarcelY more than a skeletoll of Illo I W
torious force which had taken it part in the gnind drifun emo-ted
Oil Virginia's Soil nearl ' y two years before. NoNenilwr 25th tho,
commander-in-chief entered New York Nvilli Cenend Kno\ ~uid
the officers of the arnly eight abreast, and, lit Fr;mnei,'s t:i~(,; ii (ill
830 History of Hingham.

the 4tb of December following, Washington bid farewell to the comrades who for eight years lead with him patiently and bravely
endured 'Elie dangers and privatit ~E_ 1:_1A -.:-I 11_

ous ot the held and the canip. At about the same time General Lincoln resigned his office of Secretary of War and retired to private life, From the opening hour of the Revolution to its closing moment, file roll of IJiiigham'R drums and the inspiringg music of her fifes had echoed through her streets and been heard on many a weary march, while the rattle of musketry and tile dull real- of artillery served by her children bad testified to her unflinching and unwearying patriotism oil land and sea. Beneath the kindly enshrouding soit in secluded shady and forgotten places, from Canada to the Potomac, rest those who laid their young lives down in the beat of the conflict, while many an old moBs-grown stone in the town conieteriell marks the burial spot of sonle soldier who in the early da~ s of the nation 11 shouldered his crutch and told ]low fields were won," to his children and grandchildren long after the close of the War for Independence.

While with the advent of peace there doubtless came that
reaction from interest in military matters which is common to
all human affairs where the undivided attention has been too hing
fixed in a single direction, there was still, fortunatel , v, enough
patriotisto left in the wearied people to listen to the Urgent sng
gestions of Washington, and in a small regular army and file
West Point establishment, provide a nucleus at least, around
which might be gathered the forces for the defenee of the Young,
nation. Many of the statutes under which the arinics were irath
cued and the militia governed still remained in force, slid these
detived powerful support from the dangerous and threateninlg con
dition of a number of the Indian tribes, from the menace which the
continued occupancy in the West and North of posts and forts b ' N
the British constantly offered, and from the ill-concenled contempt
felt b ' v the empires of the world for the small, weak, and exhausted
State in the Western flemisphere. More than ill, there was the
internal discontent and distrust experienced by a weary and
debt-laden people entering upon the experiment of new foyins of
government towards which inany were antagonistic, and ill which a
large number had little faith. To oil this must be added the bitter
disappointment of the disclotrlged and lialf-paid soldiery, who,after
~ivillg, eight of their best years to file service of the country,
found themselves adrift, poverti -stricken, and for a time, at least,
neglected. Fortunately, for the most part these men were Fed
Pralists, and believers in and supporters of their (Id officers,
more particularly of Washington, an,d were generally friends of a
,Stroll,r government and a national 'spirit. Fortunately, too, the
inilit !,
in organization for the most part remained intact, and many a fine regiment which had seen active service during the wnr Nvag still under file command of its old officers, and in the ratiLs were

              Nilitary History, 331

numbers of disciplined veterans. The coi tinned efficielicy of thes(I
troops enabled General Lincoln, who ;,;,(I heoll columissioned
maj or-gencral April 3, 1786, to crush the arnied ulobs under Shays
with acclerityand absence of inniccessam violence which reflected
credit alike upon the men am] the ollicers, and furnished an
added illustration of the tact and ability of Lincoln. ( , 'olonot Rice
was also engaged in the service at the time, with other citizens of
Ilitighain. The old town might well feel satislied with her part
in the termination of this small rebellion.

In 1781 Charles Cushing was colonel of the Second RvIginient of militia; Theophilus Cushing, captain, David Cushing, Ist, lieutenant, and Rdward Wilder, 2d lieutenant of the second company; and Thomas Fearing, captain, Thomas Cashing, ]at lieutenant, and Elijah Whiting, 2d lieutenant of the 1lihd coniparty. Theophilus Cushing became colonel June 9, 1787, Thomas Vinson, licutealant-colone.1, and James Stodder, major, while Quincy Thaxter had already been commissioned adjutant oil the 8th of January previously. Colonel Cushing became brigadiergeneral Sept. 12, 1793.

If there are any records extant of the Ilingliain militia companics from the close of the Revolution until the commencement of the War of 1812, it is to be hoped that the meagre historical notes here given-for they amount to 110 111(re-lilay alcite production. In musty old volumes in a sniall, dark room in file basement of the State ffouse, may he found the names of' :in ellor moos number of persons commissioned in the militia, which was for many years an organized aiiiij, of no small dimensions -011 paper. Beyond the dates which these commissions bear and the regiments to which then- holders belonged ' very little inforniation is given. From the list have been selected file name-, of citizens of this town, but no attempt has been made to state the companies of which they were officcrs. As will be seen liereoffer, there were two companies forined later of wbicli some details appear:-

Daniel Wilder : Captain . . . Afaich 2S, 1807.
Ensign . . . March 3 ' 1788. Majoi . . . . Mav 3, 1813
Lieutenant . , Alay 3, 1796, Licutenant-Col. Ju~ie 20, 18m.
Tboinas Thaxter: Colnel . . . Alaich 28, 1818.
Qaarterinaster . June 10, 1703, John liallwi:
Benjatnin Andtews; Captain . . . Oct. 2:1, 1788
Ensign . . . Afaich 3, 1788. Major . ~ , ~ Alai 18, 1797
Lieutenant Afay23, 1792. Lientenaut-Col. Alav 25, 1801.
Jedediab Lincoln: Robert Thaxter:
Ensign . . . May 2, 1797. Surgeon's-Mate. Sept 1, 1800.
Captain . . . Sept. :3, 1800. 1 John cushilug, 3,1:
                    ~aptaij, . , Maich :3, 1788,

"a March 26, 1806. Davill C I J..:
Job. Pjar%g:-
EnRign . . . Sept :3, ls0(,, Captain Afaicli 3, 1788.
Lieutenant . . April 10, 180G, S010111011 Jones:
Captain . . . April 1, 18119. Lientenlat Sept. :3, 1800
Washington Cushing: Captain . . . April 10, 1806
Ensign . , April 12, 180t.
332 History of llb?ghani.
Levi Sprague: I ieutenant Sept. 26, 1811.
Ensign Afail 10, 1806 ~aptala' April 15, 1812.
Lieutenant May 13, 1809. Maj,n- . June 13, 1814
Seth Hersey: Edivard Wilder:
Lieutenant Afail 13, 1807. Lieutenant Malch 3, 17,88.
Neherniah Cushing Captain . May 3. 1796.
Lieutenant March 28, 1807 'photons Andie~Ns:
Joseph CuAling: Lieutenant Oct. 23, 1788,
Ensign . Sept 26, 1811. Fiancis Thaxtei:
Lieutenant April 15, 1812. Quirtetinaster Sept 16, 171A
Elijih Waters, Jr.: Ephialut Andrev,s:
Ensign . , . March 3, 1788, Quarto inastei June 7, 1802
Lieutenant . , May 2, 1197. Thomas Load:
Captain . . . May 7, 1799. QuartPrenurter Oct. 2, 1801.
Rufus Lane: John Rests,
    Ensign . . . May 23, 1792. Ad'Utant . . . June 7, 1 ~502.

Jonathan Cushing: Laban iletsey:
Ensign Alay 3, 1796, Captain . . . Sept. 28, 180(.
Lieutenant Sept. 3, 1800, ~~carlet l1ndsoll:
David Wbito": Lieutenant April 11, 1803,
    Ensign Sept. 3, 1800. Edward Wilder, Or

Lieutenant April i2, 1804. Ensign . . . Nfitich 28, 1807.
Joseph Hammond: Moses 1111111phicy:
Ensign . . . A lail 11, 1803 Ensign . . . Aptil 03, 1807.
Martin Fearing: Abeer llviseY:
Ensign . . Oct. 26, 1809. Captain . . . Felt 12, 1807.

In 1812 the Hingham Rifle Company received a charter from


the S(ate and for many vears it was one of the famous Inifilm
organizat~ . I
tons in the Commonwealth. Its first captain was Dun
can AlcB. Thaxter, while the other officers were Jairus Sprague,
lieutenant, and Daniel Bassett, ensign, till counruissioned Ahl ' v
21, IS12. It was subsequently attached to the Light Infantry
Battalion its Company D,although a part of the Second Regiment
until that organization was disbanded.

Early in October the company made its first, public parade in a uniform described in the " Boston Patriot " as " perfectlY nent," with 11 rifles lately procured from -,in Ainerictin armory of doinesfie manufacture, with complete accoutrements." On this ocension a standard was presented on behalf of the ladies by Miss Alarv Lincoln,dati-fliter of Mr. Solomon Liticohi,and accelpied by Ensig~ Daniel Bassett in a patriotic if somewhat grandiloquent speech.

Besides this company there were at this finie the three standing inilitia, companies belonging to the same regiment, and ptobabfyofficered respectively asfollows: MosesL. Humphrey, captain, Aprill(i, 1812; Samuel liobart,licutenalit, April 16,1812; Nathanicl Wilder, ensign, April 16, 1816 ; 3lartin Fearing, captain, AprA 15, 1812 ; Joseph Cushing, lieutenant, April 15, 1812 ; Adna, Cushing, ensign, April 15, 1812 ; Washington Cushher, captain, March 28, 1867 ; Joseph Wilder, ensign, May 11, 1812. The regiment was the Second Infantry, of which Nelverniall Ripley became quartermaster March 30 1 1812; Thomas Loring, pa.Nmaster, March 25, 1812; Ned Cushing, adjutant, March 20, 1,812 (he had previously been paymaster), and William Gordon, ~m-

              Hililary History. 333

geon, Feb. 10, 1813, while 11vury Colman had been chaplain since
July 6, 1807. In addition to these the citizens exempted by law
from nul;fary dirtly lonned thernselves into three collipailles of
infantry and one of artillery, Ihe whole constituting it local hat
talion commanded b ' v Capt. Edward Wilder, The North Word
Company had for its officers: captain, Cen. John Barker; Iieu
tenant, Major Jedediah Lincoln ; ensign, Solomon Lincoln. The
Middle Ward : captain, Lublin Ifersey ; lieutenant, Capt. Solonlont
Jones; ensign, Licut.John Fearing. South Waid: captain,Jona
than Cashin1g; lieutenant, Edward Wilder, Jr. ; ensign, Joseph

The Artillery Company was commanded 1)), Captain Thornas Brown, and the licutenuirts were Ezra Lincoln and John Hersey, Jl%

Ned Cushing was adjutant, and Ebenezer City payinaster of the battalion, and Thomas Tbaxter appears also to have been an officer.

The Artillery had but one gon, which was kept in the enginehouse then standiic~ on the land now occupied by Ford's Buildin'g.

Thero is, little to record of local history and military service durim, the three vears in which was fou.,lit the War of 1812. Even the Commonwealth possesses no rolls of the men who served their country during this period, and neither tradition nor private journals have contributed greatly to supply the orilission.

John Todd is known to have been kilied ,it Sacicett's Ifitibor in 1813 ; and Alexander Cardiker, of the saine company, was Wounded at the time. The following also appear to have ~ecn soldiers in this war, and some of them received ponsions : -

    Jesse Churchill, Bela. Tower,

    Enoch Curtis, Walter Whiten,

    Allen Cusbin1g, Cornolins Lincoln,

    David Stoddar, Josiah Gardner,

    Warren Stoddar, Alatthew Stodder,

    Ebed Stoddar, Job S. Whiten,

    Archelaus Whiten, Pelel- Dunbar,

    ,Samuel Stoddar, Constant Gardner,

    Luther Stoddar, Anthony Gaidner,

    Enoch Dunbar, Daniel Wilder.

    David Gardner,

Joshua Make, borri in Ifin-l-barn, Sept. 27, 1778, died in Boston, Dec. 23, 1843, was a lieutenant in the navv, and subsequently served with Decatur during the trouble with Tripoli, Ile was ;I son of Joseph Blake, who lived in flit! house oil tho corner of Main and Elin strects, ,in(] who scrved with Alajor SIlllu(,l Tbaxter in the French Wat.

Charles Make, knotvii as Capt. Charles Make, scriod upoli a privateer during a pai t of tire war. Ile ii as captured and con

334 History of Hingham.

filled in Dartmoor Prison. Moses L. Humphrey commanded it company composed, at least in part,of Hingliam men,and stationed at the Castle, now Port Jndupunuunuu, III JIU~UUIX IL,lIUUL.

Stodder was in his command. Walter Whiten was born Nov. 28, 1783 ; fie was a major in the United States army, and was killed at the battle of Bridgewater ; his home was at Liberty Plain. Archelaus Whiton, or Whiting, enlisted from the frigate 11 Constitution " to go to the Lakes, and probably died in the expedition. Ebed Stoddar was taken prisoner and confined at Dartmoor Pi ison, whence lie escaped, bill was never afterwards heard f rom. Alexander Anderson was also confined at the some place.

During the War of 1812 most of the Hin.0mra vessels were harded ill) in the town dock or at Broad Cove, excepting, how. ever, it few of the packets ; and some of these, it is said, had their nuists and sitars removed, and after being towed up Weymouth River, were boarded over and concealed in order to prevent their being seized by the Britisb. Tito sloop "Washington" was lau nched when she was partly planked up, sufficiently so to float

I, the owners fearing that she would be burnt by excursion

let parties from English ships then lying off Boston Light. At this time numerous depredations were committed by parties of the British; one of them landed on Hog island,in barges,and burned a barn fall of hay ; and other property in the vicinity was destroved.

Tll~re were, several vessels belonging to Hingham captured and
destroyed by the enemy- during the war ; among them was the
,, Emily," commanded by Capt. Barnabas Lincoln, and ill part
owned by him. It was a sad sight for the old sailor, who at
another tinie had his vessel taken by, pirates, to see the fine
ship, in which were the fruits of many years of toil, given to the
flame and the sen. Captain Lincoln was well treated upon the
English man-of-war, and was soon released and allowed to return
)ionic. The schooner 11 Sally," always called thell Old Bull" in
Hingham, was also captured and burned by the English cruisers;
she was commanded by Capt. Samuel Stoddar. The crew were
all married men excepting Martin Beat, and were released. Beal,
bein - ff single, was taken to Dartmoor Prison, but through the
influence of Ill. Gordon's wife, who came from the vicinity, was
soon released.
Ebed Stoddar was in a Hingham vessel that was captured and
burnt. He was taken to Halifax and confined in Dartmoor
Prison, but egoaped with others and took a small vessel to come
]ionic in. It is said that lie was never heard from afterwards,
and that the vessel was supposed to leave foundered. Mr. Leavitt
Sprague, however, is authorit * v for the statement that Ebed Stod
liar afterward shipped (>it a privateer from Now York and was
never heard from.

June 11, 1814, the town was alarmed by messengers with the statement that the, EnOish ships lying off Cohasset were about to

            ,4filitary Hist"ry. 335

land a force and commit depredat ions oil the town. The Ilinghain companies were hurried to the seene with the idea of repelling the intended invasion. Whether because of the pieparations for defence or otherwise, the landing Was not attempted, RoU line enemy soon withdrew. The companies, or at least a portion of them, were detained a number of days at (Wiasset, however. Joseph J. Whiton was commissioned captain 16 August, 1813, and a roll of his company, which marched to Cohasset and was. on duty there the 11th and 12th of June, 1814, is now in possession of Mr. Seth S. Hersey, and is as follows - -