The PANICLED CORNEL (Cornus paniculata, L'Heritier) grows at Hockley, Stoddard's Neck, and. oil Lincoln Street. Its leaves, finer and darker that) in. ally other of our Species, and its more delicate growth, plainly distinguish it. The white flowers are somewhat panicled, and the fruit white.
The leaves of the preceding species are all opposite. Those of the ALTERNATE-LEAVED CORNEL (Cornas alternifolia, L.f.) are mostly alternate, and crowded at the ends of the branches, which are also alternate, that is, not opposite each other on the trunk or limbs. This is a shrub or small tree, of a very elegant appearance, growing in all parts of' Hingham. The white flowers are in broad cymes, the fruit deep blue.
The TUPELO (Nyssa sylvatica, Marsh.) is very common. It is in every Way beautiful, its brilliant polished foliage, dark-green in summer and of a rich red in autumn, rendering it conspicuous. Either growing singly or in chimps, it is Very noticeable, especially after the fall of the leaves, for its peculiarity in having the numerous branches start from the main trunk or limbs at a right angle, and tend more or less downward.
The TRUMPET HONEYSUCKLE (Lonicera sempervirens, Ait.), so much cultivated for its beauty, grows Wild in tile woods on the easterly slope of Old Colony Hill, and elsewhere, although it has probably been introduced from more southern localities.
COMMON ELDER (Sambucus Canadensis, L.). This plant grows everywhere in low grounds. Its large cymes of white fragrant flowers are conspicuous in curl), summer, and later in the season the blackish- purple fruit is no less showy in its way.
The RED-BERRIED ELDER (Sambucus ravemosa, L.), a beautiful plant, is very rare in Hingham. Tile White flowers, of this species are in panicles, and are replaced by bright red berries.
SWEET VIBURNUM ( Viburnum lentago, L.). This plant has been found everywhere in damp situations and swampy woodlands. It is, like all the viburnums', a beautiful shrub, Willi its bright green finely serrate leaves, fragrant white flowers, and sweet edible fruit. A specimen growing cast of Old Colony Hill has attained a diameter of trunk of five to six inches.
ARROW-WOOD ( Viburnum dentatum, L.). The Arrow-wood is common in low grounds everywhere. Its very deeply toothed leaves and long straight stalks distinguish it. The Indians were said to use its twigs for arrows ; hence the name.
MAPLE-LEAVED ARROW-WOOD ( Viburnum acerifolium, L.). This pretty little shrub is tile smallest of our viburnums, although it occasionally grows to a height of six feet and upwards. I no white blossom is very delicate. Its leaves, excepting those at the apex of the stalks, are so like those of the red maple that close examination is often necessary to distinguish them no, maple leaves, however, are smooth, while these are somewhat woolly on the under side.
All the viburnums turn in the fall to a very brilliant crimson color.
BUTTON-BUSH (Cephalan thus occidentalis, L.). This shrub grows along water-courses and oil the banks of ponds in all parts of the town. Its peculiar spherical heads of white flowers, very thickly set, render it conspicuous at time of blooming
The little trailing PARTRIDGE BERRY (Mitchella repens, L.), with its fragrant white flowers, single or in pairs, and bright scarlet berries and evergreen leaves, grows in the Rockland Street and Cedar Street woods, as well as in a few other places Although but a little vine, running Upon rocks or the ground, it belongs to the woody plants.
DANGLEBERRY (Gaylussacia frondosa, T. & G.). This shrub is not very common, although observed in several localities, notably in the woods between Old Colony Hill -in(] Weir River. It is two to five feet high with us, having long ON-111 leaves, greenish flowers, and dark-blue sweet berries in loose racemes.
The HUCKLEBERRY (Gaylussacia resinosa, T, & 0.) r(ws everywhere, preferring rough pasture-lands and rocky hillsides. It may be distinguished by the resinous deposit on the under surface of the leaves, which is much greater in this specia than in any other; and by its jet-black, shining fruit Very rarely the fruit is found white. The flower is reddish.
DWARF BLUEBERRY ( Vaccinium Pennsylcanicum, Lamarck). This pretty little blueberry grows in South Hingham in the woods east of Old Colony Hill, and doubtless elsewhere. It is a very low shrub, with small, finely serrate leaves, and furnishes the earliest blueberries found in the city markets.
COMMON or SWAMP BLUEBERRY (Vaccinium corymbosum, L.). This, a high-bush whortleberry, has a number of varieties formerly consedered as separate species, it varies greatly- in our woods and swamps, where it grows freely. Its bell-like white blossom is, in some varieties and in certain favorable locations, quite large, mid in other cases very small. The foliage also differs according to locality.
LARGE or AMERICAN CRANBERRY ( Vaccinium macrocarpon, Aifor)). The Cranberry grows quite commonly in our swamps and bogs, its delicate sprays being quite easily found when loaded with its white flowers or crimson fruit.
MOUNTAIN PARTRIDGE BERRY ( Chiogenes serpyllifolia, Salis.). A pretty, evergreen, creeping plant, very rare, but existing in swamps in the extreme southerly- part of the town. The bellshaped white flowers are like those of the checkerberry, and a resemblance to this shrub is also found in the flavor of its white berries.
BEARBERRY (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Sprengel). This pretty and rare little shrub which grows ill beds in the woods, has been found by file writer between Old Colony Hill and Weir River, at Alai-tin's Lane, and at Liberty Plain. its stern trails under the dead leaves and leaf mould, sending up shoots some six inches high, clothed with bright, polished, thick evergreen leaves. The flowers are white, at the ends of the branches. The fruit is a red berry.
TRAILING ARBUTUS, MAYFLOWER (Epigaea repens, L.). The wellknown Mayflower grows in the woods near the Weymouth line and in the extreme south part of the town. Efforts made to domesticate it Dearer the seashore have been unsuccessful, as it is a very wild plant and does not take well to cultivation.
CREEPING WINTERGREEN, CHECKERBERRY (Gaultheria procumbees, L.). The Checkerberry is very common in our woods. Its bright evergreen leaves, sweet white flowers, and scarlet aromatic berries are well known to all.
ANDROMEDA (Apdromeda ligustrina, Muhl.). This shrub is common everywhere in low grounds. Its very full panicles of small, globular, white flowers In July are replaced later by corresponding clusters of the seed-vessels, Which hang on for a year or more,. This plant call be distinguished at all seasons by its thin outer layer of light, cinnamon -colored bark, which seems always list ready to peel off.
LEUCOTHOE (Leucothoe racemosa, Gray). This beautiful shrub is rare in Hingham and but little known. It is found in the woods east of Old Colony Hill, in Cushing Street, in Leavitt Street woods, and probably grows elsewhere in the south part of the town. It is from six to ton feet in height, has rather straggling branches, and elliptical leaves, and long one-sided racemes of white, bell-like flowers, exquisite in beauty and fragrance. This raceme is generally branched once, and the flowers all hang
LEATHER-LEAF (Cassandra calyciulata, Don). The Cassandra or Leather-leaf grows in the swamps near Weir River west of Union Street and at South Hingham. It is a bright, pretty shrub, two to five feet high, and has racemes of white sweet flowers much like those of the Leucothoe, but smaller. The fruit, as in many plants of the Health family, is very persistent.
MOUNTAIN LAUREL (Kalmia latifolia, L,). The Mountain Laurel, exquisite in its beauty, is found in great quantities just over the borders of Hingham but, within the limits of the township it is rare. It grows in one locality at least in the woods near Gardner Street, in Cushing Street woods, and perhaps may be found elsewhere
SHEEP LAUREL (Kabmia augustifolia, L.). This plant, the blossom of which is not less beautiful, if less conspicuous, than the preceding species, is common all through Hingham
The CLAMMY AZALEA or WHITE SWAMP HONEYSUCKLE (Rhododendron viscosum, Torr.) grows in the wet woods of Summer Street, Martin's Lane, Lasell Street, and Turkey Hill, and is found also in other localities. Its pretty, white, very fragrant, and somewhat stick), flowers appear in conspicuous chusters and are of that trumpet-like shape common to the azalea tribe.
RHODORA Rhododendron Rhodora, Dow). This beautiful plant is very care in this region, being found only in a peaty lag at the west end, and possibly occurring in the swamps of the south part of Hingham. Its delicate, rose-colored blossoms, appearing very early, are among the most exquisite of our wild flowers.
WHITE ALDER ( Clethra alnifolia, L.). The Clethra inhabits all our swampy Woods, and is well known from its upright racemes of White fragrant flowers, which are conspicuous from the latter part of July even into October.
PRIVET or PRIM (Ligustrum vulgare, L.). This shrub, much used for hedges, grows wild at Martin;s Lane, Lincoln Street woods, Huit's Cove Turkey Hill, and Stoddard's Neck. Its fine, fresh-looking foliage. white flowers, and black berries are familiar to -ill observers.
WHITE Asti (Fraxinus Americana, L.). This Roble tree is common in the swampy woods, and as all ornamental tree all over town. One of the noblest specimens in this State was standing until 1869 in the field on the corner of Summer and East streets ' opposite the residence of the late Deacon Gorham Lincoln. This tree Was mentioned by Emerson in the " Report on the Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts." It measured when lie described it, in 1839, four feet two inches in diameter at four and a half feet from the ground. A tornado, ill September, 1869, destroyed it. 150 History of Hingham.
BLACK ASH (Fraxinus sambucifolia, Lain.). This tree, rare in Hingham occurs in swamps in Cushing Street and south of the Old Colony Hill. It grows very tall and slender, and the buds are conspicuously black,
SASSAFRAS (Sassafras officinale, Nees.). The pleasant aromatic Sassafras is very common. It is a fine tree, with peculiar leaves, some being regularly lobed, others formed like a mitten with a sort of extra lobe on one Bide. Its green blossoms are Hot showy. The leaves, bark, and especially the root, are highly spicy.
SPICE-BUSH (Lindera benzoin, Meisner). This plant grows near watercourses and in low lands in various parts of the town. It is a beautiful shrub, with a handsome bark, and brilliant shining leaves which exhale a pungent, spicy odor on being crushed. The small yellow blossom is followed by the bright scarlet fruit, something like a small cranberry in shape
The WHITE ]ELM ( Ulmus Americana, L.) is one of our noblest trees, and grows in all kinds of soil, everywhere, but prefers swamps. Among the finest specimens in town are the elm at Rocky Nook, a magnificent and very symmetrical tree, the noble Cushing elm on Main Street a few rods south of Broad Bridge, and the tree in front of the Gay estate at West Hingham. The variety of growth in trees standing alone on wet meadows, leading to their being called "wine-glass elms," is extremely beautiful and graceful. Some of these may be seen on the river banks at Rockv Nook.
I The NETTLE TREE (Celtis occidentalis, L.) grows on the turnpike on the westerly slope of Baker's Hill and at Stoddard's Neck; also near New Bridge and Cross streets. It is rare. The very singular twisted and gnarled habit of growth which some specimens exhibit is peculiar to the species. Its flower is very inconspicuous; the fruit a small olive-green berry on a long stein.
BUTTONWOOD or SYCAMORE (Platanus accidentalis, L.). This tree grows sparingly in all parts of the town. Its ragged, flaky bark, its large leaves, and the rigid character of its growth strongly mark it. Some very imposing specimens of this species
-stand in various localities, although the injury sustained by the Buttonwoods some forty years ago, generally ascribed to the severitv of a winter- has caused an apparent feebleness in these, trees. For many years they bore no fruit, but of late they have matured the curious spherical balls of seed vessels, which, some inch and a half in diameter, hang from the twigs on Bleats three to six inches long. One of the finest trees in town stands at the junction of Main and Leavitt streets oil the Lower Plain.
The SHAGBARK (Carya alba, Nutt.) is quite common, being met with in nearly all our woods. Its ragged, shaggy bark gives the species its name, while its rich, meaty tints have been sought by the schoolboy from time immemorial. The MOCKERNUT (Carya tomentosa, Nutt.) is a line tree, found everywhere in the woods, as is also the PIGNUT (Carya porcina, Nutt.), the outline of the husk of the nut of which has a not inapt resemblance to a pig's head. The BITTrRNUT (Carya amara, Nutt) is more rare. It grows at Crow Point, Planter's Hill, and Union Street, possibly elsewhere. Its yellow buds and finer foliage, as well as the thinness of the husk of the nut, distinguish it from the other hickories.
BAYBERRY, WAX MYRTLE: (Myrica cerifera, L.). This beautiful shrub, from two to tell feet high, is very common. The delicious aromatic odor of its crushed leaves, and in the fall the crowded mosses of round, small, waxy fruit, clinging to the twigs, are its peculiarities.
SWEET FERN (Myrica asplenifolia, End].). This pretty, low shrub is very common on dry hillsides and in oak woods. It has long, narrow, regularly and deeply out leaves, resembling the fronds of a fern. These are very aromatic when crushed.
The BLACK or SWEET BIRCH (Betula lenta, L.) grows in all our Hingham woods, being rarely met with it) open fields. The bark of its twigs is very aromatic. The leaves are thin and ovate, and sharply serrate. The bark is dark and ragged.
The YELLow BIRCH (Betula lutea, Michx. f.) is rare in Hingham. It grows oil the border near Cohasset and in Third Division woods. Its leaves are hardly to be distinguished from those of the black birch. The bark of the young shoots is slightly aromatic. The outer bark of the trunk is greenish-yellow, shining, and always peeling off in thin lavers. The catkins, or male blossoms of all the bitches are extremely showy and grace
ful, loaded a-, they are when ripe with golden pollen. Those of this species are especially conspicuous.
-A AMERICAN WHITE BIRCH (Betula populifolia, Ait.). This, the coalition White or Little Gray bit-ell of our woods and fields, is a slender, sometimes rather tall tree, with thin, white, peeling, outer bark and very small branches, merely twigs Ili fact, covering the tree, with their growth. It, generally grows Ili clumps from old roots, and the trunk is short lived for this reason ; but upon its being cut or blown down new shoots at once succeed it. The leaves are small, shilling, and triangular.
CANOE BIRCH (Betula papyrifera Marsh.). This tree is rare now, growing only along the shores of the bay near Crow Point, at Huit's Cove, and at Broad Cove Its leaves are thicker and coarser than those of the other species. The outer bark peels off in large sheets Is chalky white oil the outside layers, the inner ones pinkish. It, was used by the Indians for their canoes This is a large out] strongly branched tree..
The COMMON ALDER (Alnus serrulata, Ait.) is present everywhere onwetlands. It is a high shrub, growing in clumps. The leaves are shing roundish, and finely serrate. The male flowers of the Alders ate graceful catkins, generally several together, and appear very early in spring. The settles open and show at maturity beautiful golden flowers.
AMERICAN HORNBEAM (Carpinus Caroliniana, Walt.) This tree, the leaves of which are almost exactly like those of the pre. ceding species, is coalition Ili town ' preferring, low wet ground,-,. It is found at Rocky Nook, Turkey Bill, Lasell Street, and elsewhere.
The HOP HORMBEAM (Ostrya Virginica, Willd.) grows at Old Colony Hill, Cushing Street, Huit's Cove, and at many other points. Its fruit resembles that of the flop Vine. The wood is very hard and the frank Often twisted Ili appearance.
COMMON HAZEL ( Corylus Americana, Wait.). This plant, generally growing in shrubby bunches is found evervywhere. It is one Of the, first or our shrubs to blossom, putting forth its delicate catkins Ili earlv spring, together with Ili(! very small and beautiful female flowers, scattered along the twigs like scarlet stars. Its nuts are much like those of the Filbert imported for the market.
The BEAKED HAZEL (Corylus rostrata, Ait.) is occasionally met with ill Hingham, growing in Third Division woods, on Kilby Street, and elsewhere. The leaves and manner Of growth are hardly distinguishable from those of the Common Hazel. It derives its name from the curved beak or long point which projects front the husk which encloses the nut.
The OAK tribe is very fully represented Ili all the woods and fields of the township.
The WRITE OAK (Quercus alba, L.) is it noble tree, very com M(li, some Of the finest specimens being, found oil the easterly slopes of Old Colony Hill and thereabouts. Its light bark, tile bluish-green of its round- lobed leaves, and the purplish Crimson of their fall colors easily distinguish it,
The SWAMP WHITS OAK (Quercus bicolor-, Willd.), scraggy branched, and with it deep rich green leaf with rounded lobes, grows everywhere in swamps and low lands.
The CHESTNUT OAK (Quercus prinus, L.). This tree, with its variety the Rock Chestnut Oak (,it separate, species with some botanists), is very rare, growing only in Third Division woods. It is -it fine tree, although not so large (11 imposing ill apearance as others of the family, Its leaves resemble those of the Chestnut, hence its name.
CHINQUAPIN OAK (QuerCiat prinoides,Willd.). This little shrub, the smallest of the family, rarely reaches live feet Ill height. It grows oil the bank at Broad Cove, and oil the border of the salt meadow oil Otis Street south of Broad Cove, and is also found oil the sandy bank on the northerly border of that portion of the inillpond which lies Cast Of Witter Street. Its leaves are round-lobed, very irregular, and its small acorns are beautifully striped with black.
The BEAR OAK (Quercus illicifolia, Wang.), a shrub usually five to tell feet high, rarely becomes a small tree of fifteen feet Ili height. It grows cast of the Old Colony [fill, oil Lasell Street in the woods near Weymouth in tile south part of Hingham and in some other localities. It has leaves with not very prominent sharply pointed lobes terminated with bristles. The acorns are quite small and symmetrical.
The SCARLET OAK ( Quercus coccinea, Wang.) grows in all parts of the town. This species probably crosses with tile Black Oak, in many cases, the typical Black Oak leaf being often found upon the Scarlet, and that, of the Scarlet (which is much more deeply cut and more highly polished) very often appears upon Black Oak trees. The only Certain way of determining file species in many cases is to cat into the bark. The inner bark of the Scarlet Oak is pinkish. That of the Black is bright orange yellow. The ls pin is not one of our largest oaks, but is all elegant tree Its delicate, shining, sharply lobed leaves, often cutt almost down to the midrib, turning brilliant red or scarlet Ili autumn.
The BLACK Or YELLOW-BARKED OAK (Quereus tinctoria, Bartram) is a noble, sturdy tree, growing everywhere Ili Hingham The Crevices in its bill-]< are black, which gives it the names The leaves, sharp-lobed and more or less deeply cut, turn red ill crimson in the fall.
The RED OAK (Quercus rubra, L.) is quit(! common with its. Some of the noblest trees of this species growing in New England 154 History of Hingham
stand on East Street opposite Kilby Street, They are monuments to the owners of the estate upon which they stand, who have shown themselves capable of appreciating the magnificence Of these superb monarchs of the forest. It is to be devoutly hoped that the vandalism which has destroyed so many line trees in Hingham may never appear near tire locality where these trees stand in their sturdy grandeur.
The Red Oak leaves are more regular and less deeply cut than those of the black or Seat-let. They are sharp-lobed and turn dullred in autimin. The acorn is very large. The inner bark is reddish.
CHESTNUT (Castanea sativa, Mill. var. Americana). This beautitiful tree is rare in Hingham growing in but two or three localities, at Beechwoods and elsewhere. A noble specimen formerly standing oil Hersey Street was ruthlessly destroyed a few years since.
AMERICAN BEECH (Fagus ferruginea, Ait.). This fine tree grows in many localities in Hingham Its light-colored bark, sharp-pointed, rigid leaves, dense habit of growth, and delicately beautiful pendulous blossoms easily mark it.
The DWARF CRAY WILLOW (Salix tristis, Ail.) may be found in Third Division woods, on the roadside. It is a small shrub, hardly two feet in height.
The PRAIRIE WILLOW (Salix humilis, Marsh.) is a shrub about ten feet high, often much less. It grows in Hingham on Derby Street and Cushing Street, very likely elsewhere.
GLAUCOUS WILLOW (Salix discolor, Muld.). This shrub or small tree grows everywhere in low grounds. It is our most common willow. Its blossoms expand from the bud in early spring, first into what the children call 11 pussy willows," little gray furry bunches; then as the season advances, they become long, graceful catkins, covered with fragrant flowers golden with pollen. There often are cones at tire end of the twigs, composed of leaves abortively developed, and crowded closely one upon -,mother.
SILKY WILLOW (Salix, sericea, Marsh.). This is a beautiful shrub, growing on Lincoln Street and at many other localities. The leaves Old young branches are covered with a silky down, which gives this species its distinctive name.
PETIOLED WILLOW (Salix petiolaris, Smith). This shrub, strongly resembling the previous species, grows oil Lincoln Street, and has been found elsewhere. It is somewhat silky but its specific name is derived front its long petioles, or leaf-stalks.
LIVID WILLOW (Salix rostrata, Richardson). A shrub or small tree growing on Old Colony Hill, Lincoln Street, on the bank of the pond" at West Hingham, Lasell Street, and perhaps elsewhere. It has a rough, dark, thick leaf, whitish underneath.
SHINING WILLOW (Salix lucida, Muhl.). The beautiful shrub grows oil Lincoln Street and elsewhere ill town. The leaf is large, pointed, bright. and shining
BLACK WILLOW (Salix Marsh.) This graceful tree , with its very narrow ;Old delicate, leaves, grows oil Gardner Street. it is very rare it) Hingham.
The MYRTLE WILLOW (Salix myrtilloides, L.) grows in Hingham although very rare. It Is a shrub from 0110 to three feet in height.
The AMERICAN ASPEN (Populus trmuloides, Michx.) grows in all the woods of Hingham. It is not a large tree. The small , bright-green leaves, light underneath, keep up a continual tremulous motion in the wind . Tito trunk is light-ash colored, and smooth in young trees.
The LARGE POPLAR (Populus grandidentata, Michx.) is found in low lands in all parts of the town. Its leaves are deeply toothed, and the catkin% ate very largo and coarse
BALM-OF-GILEAD (Populus balsamifera, L. var. candicans, Gray). This tree is quite common !it Hingham. Its large very rigid and sharp buds are covered with a sticky, highly aromatic balsam, which has been used in medicine.
The WHITE CEDAR (Chammaecyparis sphaeroidea, Spach.) is a beautiful and very useful tree, growing thickly in swamps near the Weymouth line and at South Hingham ' in several localities. It is distinguishable from the Red Cedar by the comparative smoothness of its trunk, smaller branches, the flatness of its scaly leaves, and the angular character of its fruit.
growing in a dense mass, with foliage very similar to that of the Savin. It is found it West Hingham, Huit's Cove, and sparingly in a few other localities.
The RED CEDAR or SAVIN (Juniperus Virginiana, L.) occurs everywhere, by roadsides and in hilly pastures. When growing alone, and left to itself, its perfect conical form makes it 'I very beautiful tree, either in its dark-green foliage, or in the fruiting season, having the green intermingled with heavy masses of blue, from the great quantities of berries which it matures.
The PITCH PINE (Pinus rigida, Miller). This rather stiff and ungraceful tree is quite comman growing at Hockley, South Hingham, and in many other places. It is a small species here specimens not averaging thirty feet in height. Its leaves -.ire in threes.
The WHITE PINE (Pinus strobus, L.) is very common, forming heavy forests in localities in Hingham. It is one of our noblest trees, - a specimen on Lasell Street, although now shattered by the storms of perhaps hundreds of winters, showing a majesty even in 156 History of Hingham.
its decay which well befits a. tree which unquestionably was mature in aboriginal days. Would that the axe had spared more such ! The White Pine has its leaves in fives.
Tile BLACK SPRUCE (Picea nigra, Link.) This tree grows in a swamp cast of High Street, and probably nowhere else wild in Hingbain, although cultivated here as an ornamental free.
The GREENBRIER, HORSEBRIER (Smilax rotundefolia, L.). This vine is Act-)common. There is considerable beauty to it, the bright-green leaves always fresh and shining, and the clusters of small ,rcenish flowers ,Old blue-black berries in autumn quite interesting. The limit is however a disagreeable one to meet with in summer rumbles, the thick sharp thorns making it a harrier almost impassable.
The CARRION FLOWER (Smilax herbacca, L.). ']'his is a handsome plant and although a vine, it often stands alone in a leaninbg position without support. The leaves are rounded-oblong,thinner than those of the Greenbrier, and the fruit is a very compact bunch of block berries. The greenish masses of flowers are carrion-scented.
The SMILAX GLAUCA (Walt.) strongly resembles the rotundifolia but is much more rare, being found only lately, and in the South Hingbain woods.
The GAY ELM Oil South Street, opposite the depot it the westend,measured in 1859 18 feet 6 inches, sun passing in circumference of trunk all other trees in town. Torn asunder some years since by it gale, the portion of the trunk remaining uninjured measured it) 1889 a little over 20 feet.
'['he beautiful ROCKY NOOK ELM oil East Street measured in 1887 15 feet 4 1/2 inches, with a spread of foliage of .90 feet. The CUSHING ELM corner of Main and South streets, measured in 1889 15 feet. The SEYMOUR Elm, oil Main Street had a girth, in 1889, of 16 feet 3 inches, The EML on Prospect Street, in front of Mr. Bernard Cooney'.% house, measured in 1889 14 feet 6 inches
Of the noble RED OAKS on East, opposite Kilby, Street, one, measured in 1887 13 feet 10 inches, and another 13 feet 9 1/2 inches. That 13UTTONWOOII oil the cot nor of Main and Leavitt streets had a girth, in 1889, of 13 feet 4 1/2 inches, with a spread of 100 feet.
A large SAVIN on land of Mr. Samuel Barr, at Martin's Lane, vacationed in 1890 9 feet 8 inches.
IN the following description of the ancient landmarks of Hingham and Cohasset, it will Ile understood that the term includes bell[ natural objects which have been adopted its boards from the earliest settlement of tile country, Such 18 hills, rocks, waters, etc., and those artificial creations which come in time to be recognized its landmarks, as roads, bridges, milldam, and certain building
The sources of tile information from which lite facts in this chapter are derived tire largely traditional, although old deeds have furnished notch material,
It would be improper and ungracious for the writer to unit the expression of his acknowledgements to those who have aided in his researches ; and lie takes great pleasure in owning his indebtedness to that interesting and valuable work, the " History of Hingham." by the late Hon. Solomon Lincoln, as well as to the 11 Centennial Address" and unpublished historical notes of tile same gentleman.
At Hingbain and Cohasset, oil the South shore of Massachusetts Bay, the most delightful month of the year is October. The heats and drought of summer are past, the blustering rain
autumn, and the ocean stretches in blue length along fit(! shores .,tied up into the little buys, its ripples plashing as lazily as if they would never rise into great green waves that in December will
shatter themselves in foam and spray on the mighty ledges of Cohasset. The very winds seem to sleep in their hammock of
I invite you to spend a few Of these bright October days in seeking out tile ancient landmarks of this old puritan town of 158 History of Hingham.
Hingham (including Cohasset, which Until 1770 formed a part of it) ; and to do this most thoroughly and enjoyably a tramp will be necessary, although at times it will Do agreeable to Lake to the saddle; and a boat will twice or thrice be indispensable, especially at the outset. For we will start, if you please, at the extreme easterly point, and take some of the ledges which lie off shore. Many of these are Dearer ' to Scituate Beach, but the rest, including the most noted of all, Minot's, are opposite Cohasset harbor and beaches.
'MINOT'S LEDGE is the outermost of those awful rocks, upon which many a ship has met her doom ; and unnumbered men, ay, and women and children too, have vanished in the foam of those breakers which lash the ledges unceasingly when the east wind vexes the sea.
But on this hazy morning the ocean is calm enough. Only a ground swell, smooth as glass, rolls languidly in, and we can lie off the grim Minot's Ledge and examine the proportions of the great granite tower at our ease. This tower was built by the government to take the place of the wooden lighthouse, elevated oil iron posts ' that was washed away, together with its keepers, in the terrible storm of April, 1851.
Leaving, Minot's outer and inner ledges, we come to ail archipelago of rocks, many of which are submerged at high water. The principal ones between Minot's and the Cohasset shore are, the FAST and WEST HOGSHEAD ROCKS, the EAST and WEST SHAG, the GRAMPUSES, ENOS LEDGE, BRUSH LEDGE, BARREL ROCK, SHEPPARD's LEDGE, GULL LEDGE, SUTTON ROCKS and QUAMINO ROCK.
BARSON'S BEACH, northeast of Doane's Island, extends to Scituate Beach In the palmy days of the fisheries on this shore there were several acres of flakes there, and fishing-vessels were fitted out at this spot. Several Cohasset vessels, loaded with fish here, were captured in the Mediterranean during the Bonapartist wars, and many Cohasset people are to this day among those interested in the French spoliation claims.
Let us land at the head of the harbor, and take the road, skirting the shore, Border Street. A little stream called JAMES'S
RIVER, which flows through the town, Crossing South Main Street not far from the depot, empties into the cove.
CONOHASSET RIVER, or BOUND BROOK (CONOHASSET RIVULET Of Hutchinson's History), flows into the harbor oil the south side, emptying through the Gulf. Anciently it formed the boundary line between Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay Colonies.
Retracing our way, we will take Elm Street (the SHIP-COVE LANE Of early days), pass around the head of COHASSET HARBOR, which narrows into a pretty little landlocked bit of water at this point, and take the road which follows the shore as nearly as possible over the isthmus between the harbor and Little Harbor, the narrowest portion of which is known is GREAT NECK. After going a few score rods in a direction generally northeasterly, the road turns sharply to the north. At this point, extending down the harbor, and in fact forming, its northerly shore for Some distance, is DEACON BOURNE'S ISLAND, now the site of a fine private estate, the property, of a distinguished actor. These 11 islands," in the nomenclature of our ancestors, were frequently pieces of land divided from the mainland only by a narrow creek or waterway but a foot or two in width, or even high lands in swamps or oil beaches.
Beyond the little inlet and marshes north of this island, is HomINY POINT, a beautifully wooded locality extending out along the water. There were formerly wharves at Hominy Point. The road strikes across through thick woods and a very picturesque country, coming near the water again at SANDY COVE, a slight indentation north of the promontory previously mentioned, and finally turning west, ursues its winding way through thickets gorgeous with the red and yellow of sumacs and the scarlet of maples and woodbine, by rocky precipices dark with lichens, coming upon delightful vistas of wood-bordered meadows and lovely bits of water-views which break in here and there Unexpectedly, until it suddenly enters Cohasset villago it THE PLAIN.
THE PUNCH BOWL, a singular depression about one hundred feet in diameter and twenty-five feet in depth, with tipple trees now growing in it, is on the north side of Tower's Lane, a short distance from the corner. Tim DEVIL'S, ARMCHAIR, composed of slight depressions in the granite, probably of glacial origin, is a 160 History of Hingham
few rods east of tile highest point of the rocks on the south Bide of Ibis lane near fit() Plain.
Scattered here and there, in the thick natural shrubbery- on the water side, are tile pretty, quaint cottages of those who Spend their summers by tile sea. All along this Shore formerly, from Whitehead to Pleasant Beach, were SALTWORKS, - strong them PARSON FLINT'S SALTWORKS.
Beach Street, which we have been following, is the old TOWER'S LANE. We will retrace our course over it, to the private way which leads to CUBA DAM, Where *now is tile bridge flung across the waterwav which divides the territory over which we have been passing from BEACH ISLAND. Here one might well linger for hours to watch the rushin g waters which foam and swirl through this narrow, rocky inlet, which lots the sea into the otherwise completely landlocked, most picturesque, and exquisitely beautiful Shoot of water called in early days LITTEL IIAR13OUR (Liitle Harbor) or OLD HARBOUR.
WHALE'S VALLEY is near Cuba Dam, fit Old Harbor. A whale is said to have once gone oil the inlet into this harbor.
Oil Cooper's Island are THE INDIAN POT and THE INDIAN WELL. The foriner is a curious excavation, round, smooth, and regular, having a capacioty of about a dozen pails. The Indian Well is another excavation near tile first one described. From the bottom it is elliptical to the height of about four feet. The remainder is semicircular, opening to the cast.
These excavations are glacial pot-holes, but may have been used by the Indians for various purposes ; and from the fact of hatchets and other aboriginal implements having been found in the ground near by, the early settlers supposed them to have been the work of the Indians.
CUBA derived its name from there having been a dam built Ili, a company of Hingbain and Cohasset people about the beginning of the century across the inlet to shut out tile sea, and enable them to reclaim the LITTLE HARBOR, Which it was thought would eventually become very profitable as ]lay fields. This was all very well Until the great Storm of April, 1851, which left nothing intact upon the shores which the sea could possibly destroy, tore this data to pieces ; and it has never, happily for the scenery been rebuilt. In the old days vessels were built at Little Harbor.
The bridge across the inlet at Cuba Dam lends to BEACH ISLAND, a partly wooded eminence rising from the beach surrounding it, find as romantic a spot for the fine seaside resides ..........
Next beyond this is "ANDY BEACH aptly so called, while off shore are BLACK LEDGE, -- ominous name, - and BRUSH ISLAND. At tile end of this beach are higher lands, very rockY, and with great ledges extending out into the sea. Here is KIMBALL'S, a pleasantly situated tavern, celebrated for its fish and game fare, somewhat its Taft's upon the north shore has been, for many years. from here extend the stony beaches picturesqUely varied wit sea-worn ledges, known collectively as PLEASANT BEACII, which terminates -it WALNUT ANGLE as the northwest Cornell of the Second Division was denominated, at the east end of Cohasset Rocks.
South Main Street leads southeast to the Scituate line, at ROUND BROOK, which was tile CONOHASSET RIVULET of Hutchinson's History. Here, over the brook, was the old (him, a wide roadway now, whereon stood tile OLD MILL. About half-way over the dam, and presumably at the middle of the stream as it Was at tile tittle, tile PATENT LINE Was established BOUND ROCK was at this; point. It is now represented by it hewn granite stone set up to mark the spot, by Captain Martin Lincoln, of Cohasset, more than half a conturv tom.
When the Indian chiefs, Wompatuck and his brothers, PlIve it deed of the territory of Hingbain to the English fit 1665, tficre was also cinbraced in this instrument a tract of 11 thre"core acreS of salt marsh" which lay oil the further side of the, ConohassLt Rivulet, in Scituate, in the Plymouth Colony. These lowlands were known as TRP CON011ASSET Ali mow.,;.
The Patent Line at Bound Rock was the base line north of which the First, Second, Third, and Second Part of the Third Divisions were directly or remotely laid out.it will be necessary to explain Clio significance of flie term
division," which often recurs in any, descriptiull of the topolp, raphy of Hingbain and Cohasset.
When the Rev. Peter Hobart first cattle with his little hand of colonists to 11 Bare Cove," in 1635, he found several of his friends who had settled there as early as 1633. " ]lure Cove " was asBossed in 1634. The " plantation " was erected in July, 1635, and oil September 2nd, followin1g, the name of the town was clianged to Hingham by authority of the General Court, There are but eleven towns in the State, and only one Ili the county of Pivmonth, which are older than Hingbain.
Oil the 18th of September, 1635, Air. Hobart and twenty-nine others drew for houselots, and received grants of posture and tillage lands. This year specific grants of land ivere made to upwqrds of fifty persons, and this method was followed for nially years ; but as the colony increased in size, and the people SpreadVOL. I.-II
It may he of interest to state here that the houselots drawn for oil the 18th of September, 1635, were Open Town, now North street. This year, also tile settlements extended to Broad Cove, now Lincoln Street. 111 1636 houselots were granted upon the other part of Town Street, since re-named South Street, and on the northerly part of "Bachelor's Rowe," now -Main Street.
All these specific grants of ]all(] were for many years from territory yet belonging properly to the Indians; but oil the 4th of July, 1665, a deed of all the tract of land now comprising the towns of Hingham and Cohasset, together with 11 three score acres of Salt marsh" oil the Scituate side of the river, which divides Hingham from Scituate, was obtained front the chief.% Wompatuck, Squmick, and Ahahden, sells of the great sachem Chickatabut, who lived oil the banks of Neponset river, and who probably permitted the first settlers to locate at Hingham, which was in his realm. Ile rifled over the principal portion of the territory How comprised ill Plymouth and Norfolk counties.
The FIRST DivisioN, entirely in Cohasset, starts at tile 11 Patent Line," which runs from BOUND ROCK, On the milldam, across 13OUND BROOK ill a straight line southwest by west, five miles eighty roils. The coast line of tile First Division follows the course of Round Brook northward to tile harbor, then strikes into MEETING-HOUSE ROAD (now South -Main Street), crosses Great Neck, extends alonng this road to Deer Hill Lane opposite the southwest side of Little Harbor, then runs alng this lane southwesterly to King Street, thence follows it line through the centre of Scituate Pond southeasterly to the patent line.
The base line of the easterly part, of the SECOND DIVISION is the northwest boundary of the First Division (Deer Hill Lane). Oil the southeast, file line starts at the corner of the First Division oil Little Harbor, and follows the westerly side of the Ridge Road, skirts Peck's Meadow on the, west, returns to the Ridge Road and runs to Walnut Angle (westerly end of Pleasant Beach) on the
Supper Island and Gulf Island in the harbor, the promontory, east of Great Neck, and Beach Island, and file other so-called "islands " and high lands along the beaches east and north of Little Harbor, are also in this portion of the Second Division.
The westerly part of the Second Division lies oil the west side of Lambert's Lane and King Street. The easterly boundary stretches from " Breadencheese Tree " to Scituate Pond, along the west side of the east part of the Second Division, and of the First on King Street. Tilt northwesterly boundary line runs from " Breadencheese Tree " irregularly southwest, passing around and excluding Smith's Island to it cart path running southeasterly, which it follows to a point where it turns and runs easterly to the First Division line, north of Scituate Pond.
The THIRD DIVISION is partly in Cohasset, but mostly ill fling, ham, the northwesterly boundary starting at the northwest angle of the Second Division and running rather irregularly southwest till it strikes the patent line not far from Prospect Hill. The southwesterly boundary starts at the southwest, corner of the Second Division and runs to tile patent line in a direction generally parallel to the northwesterly boundary line.
The SECOND PART OF THE THIRD DIVISION is partly in Hingham mostly in Cohasset, and lies South of the Third Division and the westerly portion of the Second, between them and the patent, line, and west of the First. It includes about half of Scituate Pond.
The FOURTH DIVISION was made of the tract lying along the extreme southwest boundary of Hingbain oil the Weymouth border.
The FIFTH and SIXTH DIVISIONS were of detached portions of lands remaining from the former divisions (excluding, specific grants). Nutty Hill was included in the Fifth, and certain of the westerly and northerly meadow lands in both the Fifth all([ Sixth.
The Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Divisions of lands were made a few years previous to the middle of the eighteenth century.
We will return over South Main Street, passing, just before we reach the road leading to the depot, the long old house, once CHRISTOPHER JAMES's TAVERN. A short distance further north, oil THE PLAIN, stands the OLD CHURCH, erected in 1747, - the first MEETING-HousE having, been built here in 1718.
About an eighth of a mile further on, Winter Street run., southwest over DEER HILL. This street was the old DEER HILL LANE. Just beyond the corner of the lane with North Main Street, there begins, on the right, the renowned JERUSALEM ROAD, also called 164 History of Hingham
the RIDGE ROAD, or THE RIDGES It rates north for Rome distance [lton,, a high bank, or ridge, beneath which lies Little Harber OIL the east side. Tile scenery in this direction
The little inland bay exhibits all its variety of outline front this point, with its picturesque rocks, wooded headlands, and islands.
In -I field west of the road, and quite a distance front it, is a huge bowlder balanced, apparently, so delicately upon a point that it seems as if it could be easily dislodged from its position upon a ledge where it lies. This has long been known as TITTLING ROCK.
The road soon slopes downward on to a lower level and enters woods, but still skirts Little Harbor. Winding along the edge of -I rocky descent, it crosses a salt marsh 1)), a dike. On the left, is a jagged precipice, clothed partly with trees. This is STEEP ROCKS. Around the marsh's edge and skirting the foot of tile rocks is III old road, Bow Street, which was once the principal highway, and was used again -after tile great storm of April, 1851, which washed away the dike, until this latter was rebuilt.
Beyond the marsh the road rises rapidly, Old winds along over abrupt rocky hills, wcll wooded, and having line private estates oil each !land. A pretty meadow on the west VA the feet of a steep descent, his been known from earliest times ;Is PECK'S' MEADOW ; " THE, STEPPEN STONES " used to be, in old days file only thoroughfare across the water Lore. The Load still winds (11, reaching, before long Pleasant Beach, and tile east end of COHASSET ROCKS ; all(] here it bends abruptly westward and rises, turning on to the crest of the cliff above these celebrated rocks, along which it runs for their entire length, front Pleasant Beach to Greenhill Beach.
As wild a stretch of iron-bound shore as could be wished for are these cliffs. Woo to the ship that, escaping the awful ledges to the eastward, drives oil here before -,I northeast, gale. The Jerusalem Road along their upper edge, but a few years since was a rough, picturesque way, bordered by stunted cedars 11 blown into " a peculiar shape of growth away from the slot III winds so to speak, that prevail from the north am] northeast. Within tile past twenty years wealth and fashion have taken possession of the lands on these hills and the elegant villas of summer residents are to be seen oil every hand, while the roadway has been smoothed and 11 improved," little)- fences or elaborate stone- walls built, and the storm-shapen cedars, cut down or trimmed into artificial forms, thus in a measure destroying tile picturesque Character of tile surrounding
The town of Cohasset should never have permitted the sea side of this road to be owned byh private individuals, bill should have kept it as a public ocean park accessible to the people.
Near the point where the road takes at) its coarse to tile west, there is, not far above the level of the breakers and down Onionthe rocks, a little basin of clear, cool water which babbles out from the precipitous, weather-beaten ledges, known as COLD SPRING.
Following the road along, ,I superb view presents itself. To the cast are 'Minot's Light and Tile Ledges. Beyond them -tied losing itself at the horizon, is the broad Atlantic. Here, in front, to the northward, is the blue expanse of Massachusetts, Bay, the north shore in the dim distance hanging upon file ~eq,o of vWOII like a cloud ; to the northwost, the grent stretch of sand, knoc,31 as Nantasket Lou,,, Bcaeli, Point Allerfoll at its extrellic end, and Boston Light beyond oil the Omer Brewster.
After descenifing a hill we come to the BLACK-BOCK I lOVI', oil a slight rise, close beside the sea, whose waNes drench it ~vitll spray in great gales.
The picture spread out before one alme, this iood in Nvintry storms is Magnificent, I)ITSential as it dOOs the Wild "randOur of the conflict between the seas, driven before the gale, and the shibborn granite lines of these milghtY le(I"'0g.Just off GREENHILL ];EACH, Which is tit 111V end Of CollaSset
Rocks, lies BLACK ROCK, a long, jagged, wave-worn mass, a few hundred feet oil shore. At the west end of this beach (a pebbly isthmus joining Cohasset to Greenhill in the precincts of Hall) begins STRAIT'S POND, a beautiful sheet of salt water lying along the westerly part of Jerusalem Road, and between it and the beaches of Hull north of it. After passing through a rocky gorge bordered by misshapen savins we come upon a low, long, ancient, one-story house on the left of the road, which is one of the oldest buildings in Cohasset. It belonged to a branch of the LinCola family, and was built in 1709, having been originally constructed oil Greenhill, in Hall, and moved across the ice of Strait's Pond in winter. Tile roadway formerly lay on the south side Of it.
As the neighborhood is being rapidly overrun by fashion, which cares nothing for old landmarks, tills house will probably disappear very soon, to make way for modern 11 improvements."
In the next hollow RATTLESNAKE RUN, on its way from Great Swamp, crosses under the road to empty into Strait's Pond. In the pretty canal, flowing among trees and shrubs in the private grounds oil the south side of the road, one would fall to recognize the old run as it was before its metamorphosis.
Beyond this point the road heads round a steep, rocky ledge on tile south side. This is JOY'S ROCKS, and the bend was the old JOY'S CORNER, - an angle of the Second Division.
FOLSOM'S ISLAND (Originally JONES ISLAND) is in Strait's Pond, near Nantasket Neck.
Tile Jerusalem Road continues along the border of Stralt's Pond until it ends at Hull Street, on file Hingham line.
Turning to the left, Hull Street (which here divides Hingham from Cohasset; the east side being Cohasset; the west Bingham) leads ill a generally southerly direction, crossing Turkey-Hill Run at the foot of the first slight rise. Nearly half a mile further on, after going up a hill and winding Somewhat to tile left, LAMBERT'S LANE, or BREADENCHEEESE TREE LANE, is found opposite Canterbury Street, in Hingham, and leading in all easterly direction into Cohasset woodlands. It soon crosses Turkey-Hill Run, and at the Spot where it intersects the western boundary line of the Second Division, stood, in 1670, the celebrated BREADENCHEESE TREE. The surveyors, who laid out the First, Second, and Third Divisions at that time, were evidently of a waggish turn of mind, and chose to name certain points or angles from which the "took their bearings" according to the composition of the lunch which they had for the day. Thus the northeasterly angle of the First Division they named I'm CORNER.
When they arrived under a certain large tree, they sat down and ate their bread and cheese; slid BREAD-AND-CHEESE TREE or BREADENCHEESE TREE, became a landmark from that hour oil, through these last two centuries and more.
Of Breadencheese Tree, on the line of the Second Division, SMITH'S ISLAND was on this line further to tile southwest.
A half-mile or so from Turkey Hill Run, the lane crosses RATTLESNAKE RUN, Which, starting ill Purgatory Swamp, we encountered upon Jerusalem Road, where it empties into Strait's Pond. Lambert's Lane, running through thick woods almost all the way, passes over BREADENCHEESE TREE PLAIN; and here was HUMPHREY'S, or, as commonly called in the old (lays, AT HUMPHREY'S.
Lambert's Lane eventually emerges at the modern Forest Avenue, and at this point there was ill the early part of the century a dairy farm belonging to General Lincoln. Nearly all of these tillage and pasture lands of earlier times are now overgrown by thick forest. WALNUT HILL is in this vicinity, PURGATORY SWAMP is northwest of Walnut Bill.
Passing south over Forest Avenue, we come soon to North Main Street, and turning into this, we almost immediately strike off diagonally to the right into Cedar Street, now a deserted way, but a beautifully winding, and wooded one, formerly the OLD COHASSET ROAD, over which, in early times, people journeyed from Hingham to Cohasset. It leads over hill and dale, bisects a Superb fancy farm at rURKEY MEADOWS and passing by a quiet little graveyard at a turn to the northward, comes out oil Hull Street,
In order to reach most expeditiously the next locality which it is desirable to visit, it will be best, to proceed through Hull Street to East Street, Hingham and thence through this town by the way of the old Side- Hill road, over Turkey Hill (a most delightful ride, especially at this season), through Leavitt, Spring, Pleasant, and Union street-,, Until Beechwood Street is reached, ,which leads from Union Street to Cohasset. This street at first winds through beautiful and wild woodlands, largely composed of beeches, with many holly -trees here and there, their exquisite foliage reflecting the sunbeams and the bright scarlet berries forming a brilliant contrast to the rigid leaves plished green
Hard by is BARN HILL made almost oil island 1) this Stony Brook. The locality known as KINGO is Comprised in this neighborhood taking its name from a former inhabitant who lived near, in a stone house ill the woods.
A short distance further oil, Doane Street enters Beechwood Street oil the north side. Doane Street is a continuation in Cohasset of Leavitt Street in Hingham, which leads through Third Division woods. 168 History of Hingham.
SOUTHER'S HILL is a short distance east of Doane Street, and JOY'S H ILL, Or CAPTAIN PRATT'S HILL, is On the south side of Beechwood Street. There is a fine view from this hill. About a mile cast of Doane Street, oil the north side of Beechwood Street is a great ledge, having a large bowIder on it, which is called MOUNT PISGAH. TURTLE ISLAND is near Beechwood Street where it crosses a branch of Bound Brook. Tile old IRON WORKS stood here.
PRATT's ROCKS form a ledge near the road, nearly two miles from Doane Street. On the south side of Beechwood Street, near Kill" Street, is WIDow's ROCK, which is shaped like a haystack. The property about this rook was once sold for exactly one thousand dollars. When the deed come to be passed, and payment made, the buyer offered the seller a one-thousand-dollar bill, which was contemptuously refused. " What," cried the seller, 11 1 sell my land for one little bit of paper like that! No sir! I will have a good pile of bills for it." And the buyer had to give him a sufficient quantity of small bills to the amount of $1000 to make the transaction look " big to him. A short distance cast of Widow's Rock is GOVERNOR'S HILL. The name has no special significance in this connection, however.
How exquisite it is now, in the quiet afternoon sunlight, its unruffled waters reflecting a white feathery cloud lazily drifting across the deep blue sky, and the scarlet and yellow forest.% about it contrasting so brilliantly with those rich, deep-green, pine woodlands!
That great rounded gray ledge rising Out Of its bosom PONDROCK, has looked the same to every race of men which has dwelt about these shores or fished in their waters, since the melting
way of the great glacier first let in upon it, as it is now, the light of day. It echoed tile war-whoop of the red man
died away for the last time on the western wind its lichenclad granite, slopes back .1 quick response to the sharp crack of the pale-faced pioneer's firelock, when it imperiously announced to those solitudes that the reign of the wolf and the Algonquin must give place to that of the Anglo-Saxon. In. The dawn will touch the Old rock with its earliest rosy beam and the last ray of sunset linger upon it in yellow light, when that Anglo-Saxon, with his mighty works, shall have vanished forever, and the history of his existence remain only as a myth.
Southeast of Deer Hill, is BARE HILL BEAR HILL now called JOINER'S HILL. where the Water reservoir is
A huge and steel) ledge ly ing opposite the westerly end Of Summer Street is known qs SUNSET ROCK 170 History of. Hingham
But the fair October sunset itself has failed into twilight, leaving a beautiful afterglow that promises another fine day for tomorrow. If the promise is fulfilled, we will start ill the early to visit the Hingham landmarks.
A morning like that of yesterday, 11 so cool, so calm, so bright," ushers in a second perfect autumn day, of -ill times in the year the finest for moddes in the saddle. Let us take tip our subject this morning at the point where three townships meet.
The Jerusalem Road ends at the Hingham line, where the towns of Cohasset, Hingham, and Hull form a junction. To the right, northerly, lies Nantasket Beach, about half a mile distant. A few rods to the north, the road to the beach crosses the old MILL LANE IlRfDGE, which separates Sti ait's pond from the little estuary called LYFORD'S LIKING, or Weir River. This, however, is not the river itself, but merely ail extension of the bay into which Weir river empties. The origin of this quaint name, A~?forXs Likiitti, is buried in obscurity. In 1642, however, in Suffolk Deeds, Vol. I., the munei; of ' Ruth Leyford, John Leyford her father, ill(] l4ordecay Leyford her brother, appear; and in 1649 -in old deed speaks of 'If oure Acres meadow, more or less, at Laiford's Likeing."
The, road coming from the south, on the, left hand, Halt Street, divides Ilin0nim from Coliasset, and winds through the rocky villaec known as TOGNIANUG, ail old Indian name of the localit~_ Until within thirtv-odd years, this was the only road from Ilingbain to Nautisket, Beach.
Rockland Street runs west along the marshes for nearly a mile, skirting a. range of higher and rocky table land lying to the south, which hI known as CANTERBURY. It was probably included in a grant to Cornelius Canterbury, who settled in flingliarn. before 1649.
In the ditch by the side of this street, where it runs through the suit marsh, are the stumps of gigantic trees, which were dug out of the, roqdway here when the strect was made, about the year 18.55. Those troes wore unquestionably members of a forest which lived and flourished here untold ages ago. The ImalFA wbere it existed were probably low, and near the then coast line; and through some graduat subsidence of the land, or sudden convulsion of nature, there was a breaking, in of the sea, with consequent destruction of the forest. All through the period of %ulonergence of this locality those stumps were preserved, being under salt water, and now, perhaps a thousand years after the catastrophe that ended ibeir lives, the relies of the trunks of these old trees are ivioulderiin, to decliv in the rays of the same sunshine tbat caused their buds to break into leafy beauty in the last
North of Rockland Street, just before it reachos the rishw ground, and perhaps a quarter of a mile Or so out Over tl)~B Marshes, "Poll Lyford's Liking, is BARNES51', ISLAND, formerly SPRAOUP'S ISLAM). From the road it has the appearance of a slight rise, well wooded.
A short distance further west the road cross(,s Wrin RivrR, here a pretty stream about to empti, into 11rEliz R(rjjR BAY, a quarter of a mile northward. Tide v~ator comes ill) bel oud file bridge at this point, to the falls at the dain a fell, s~ore rods south, where TuOMAS'S I'OND is, Rad where Tuom,ks's Folixony stood until within a few years.
There %,as ill carly titues across Weir River, not far froul the bridge now spannhw it, at Rockland street, a log, opon whiell people could cross the stream, mn] also a )andin',, where thuber and firewood were loaded upon Nessels bound for Boston and elsewhere. This place was called THE Lo(;, or AT THE Lo(;. L(O LANE led to this spot, from Weir River Lane.
upon higher ground, incluilod ill PLAIN MCK, NVIliCh COMPrObendS all tile CouTittv south and nes"t of this bridge (as well as northward as fill- a; Cushirn's Nock), which can be comprised ill I lie
terl-itory bovdered oil the cast and south by Weir River , :Old upon tile west by the harbor, and probably exteiiding n.,; far as C11,9111 berlain's Ran. The limits are indefinite, but old deeds show that they are about as described.
A short distance west of the river Rockland Street passes through a thickly wooded swamp, which Was for iiially ye"Irs,
Until 1855, TOF ~IERONRY. ROM WOM the Imilles of t'lle nil"Ilt berons, their nosts beial- visible in tile woods oil overv side. They were driven away wlion the road was laid out tlirough their haunts.
ing. For many years tile OLD COLONY HOUSE, a favorite summer resort stood here. It was built ill 1882, till(] burned in 1872.
On the west, the land lies ill beautifully rolling fields, dotted here and there with fine trees, down to the. water. The road finally winds over a slight rise, between shrubby woods and through a noble private estate till it reaches nearly a mile from Neck Gate Hill, NIAarIN'S WELL, formerly ABRAHAM"; WELL, tile remains of which are still visible ill the field to the right, near by where the lane ends. There is a pretty cove, or indentation, at this point.
Abraham Martin was one of the early settlers who came with Rev. Peter Hobart in 1635. Ile owned land in this locality and built this well.
This land is embraced in the strip between the harbor and, Weir River to the eastward, called CUSHING'S NECK,-large tracts having been owned here early by a branch of that family, which has furnished, in peace and war, so many celebrated Americans. Hingham was the home of the family in America. Lands at Cushing's Neck are still in possession of one of the descendants.
The road which crosses the head of this cove goes over the heavy Stone dam (MARTIN'S WELL DAM) Which shuts Out tile sea from the fertile meadows lying east of it. These formed one of the DAMDE MEDDOWES, So often referred to in old deeds. The cost end of these meadows is also dammed at Weir River Bay.
Passing through a gate, we come to PINE, HILL a little eminence overlooking the harbor, now a smooth, rounded hill, with a few trees upon its summit. North of this is tile fine PLANTER'S HILL, also smooth and oval in outline, like. all the Hingbain hills. There is a noble view from its top, extending, all around the horizon, - of the, Blue Hills; of Milton, in the far distance, the town lying close by, Third Division woods southward, the harbor to the west, quit broad ocean to tile north and East beyond Nantasket Beach.
At the foot of the northerly slope of Planter's Hill is a short, low isthmus a few rods in length, and very narrow at high tide, -WORLD'S END BAR A generation ago tile fox hunters used to beat the country at South Hingbain and drive the game northward through the woods and fields of the township till it arrived at the peninsula bounded by Weir River and tile harbor. After
rwel)aocsheinfigigtlhitatlepdotiliiet,nitliioilc-(,~-ilt~-:tilb~gI.viitoo or oil the next hit(, Choy atoned with their lives lor 11 crinies done in tile flesh."
There is a curiously stunted elm-five growin I on tile ~eiy top of Planter's Hill. It is cvid~,jltly dwarled by hav*ill~ 11roNVII up wed1ged among large rocks. It is of great age, enily jccoriN referring, to it soon after the sipttleineut of like colultry~ -Old appm., ently has not increased in size during the two past centuries. It is, indeed, an " ancient landmark."
The doubly rounded caninenoo north of this bar is Wonm)'6 END, a peninsula surrounded by water on all Sides excepting where this bar connects it with I'lanter's Hill. The harbor is o)'I the west, Weir River Bay upon the east side
Following the shore of Weir River Bay, we conic to a till](, cove upon the east side of Planter's ]till, and then :in exireniell, picturesque locality, havinx high rocks and precipices nlong its water front, and groat ledges croppiro, out all over it. This 16 known as ROCKY NEcK.
Up the little buy, to the eastward, lies Nantasket ])each and north of it, tile pohit of land stretching out into the luirho'r, i6 White Head. These localities are in Hull.
The water here is the westerly portion of the inlet which extends easterly to the dam at Strait's Pond, and which we met with there under the ancient naine of LN-ford's Likin,.
Let us go down the river again to Rocky Neck tOul cro." OLD PLANTER'S FIELDS, Moll Oil tile 8011theflStOVIV slopes of PIanter's and Pine bills, and ;n 'over the 11 Danule Ale'dilowes " to NIq 1-till's Lane, which we will cross at the cove, and proceed along, thc shore skirting the beautiful tract of country between Marlin's Lane and the harbor, called, anciently, MANSFIELD'S, tO M,i-,-,~ FIELD'S COVE, a lifight indentation at the head of tile barbor, bounded on tile west by a ledge making out into the water, callcil BARNM'S RocKs, upon and over which the old steamboat pier mid hanging wire bridge used to be. This ledge extends out mider the channel, interfering with navigation at low water, Tb e United States government has expended considerable sunis of 174 History of
money in not entirely successful attempts to remove it by sub~ marine blasting.
A few rods farther on is HERSEY'S WHARF, at the present time as stanch a structure as it was when it was constructed. Upon. this wharf. and on the beach West of it, were built several fine ships, beside% numerous barks, brims, and schooner,%; for this Was HALL'S SHIPYARD. West of this wharf is the steamboat pier. Upon Summer Street on the hill just above Hersey's wharf, is a large white house it the south side of the road, now the mansion of it private estate. This was, in former times, one of the old inns, and was known as the WOMPATUCK HOUSE
After crossing another stone wharf, now disused, we find this beach extending along toward a line of wharves at THE CovE at the head of the harbor. The earliest settlers at the harbor called the place BARE COVE, front the fact that the receding tide leaves the flats bare; and by this name the settlement was designated and assessed, until later it received the name of Hingham,
Previous to the building of Summer Street, the only highway leading from the cove to the village lying between the disused
Wharf above referred to and Nock Gate Hill, Was along the upper edge of this beach ; people and teams going down into the dock below the Mill-dam at the Cove, at low tide, crossing the mill stream and passing along the beach on their way east. Summer Street here was constructed from material taken from WARD'S H ILL, a high knoll of sand and gravel rising south from the beach, now known its COBB'S BANK, which in early times extended several hundred feet to the eastward. It is fast disappearing under the demand for sand and gravel for filling purposes.
Along the water side north of Ward's Hill there were also vessels built.
The low land lying between Summer Street and the railroad track, and east of Ward's Hill, was formerly WAKELY'S MEADOW, Or BRIGADIER", MEADOW. Within a very few years this meadow was salt, tend the owner, wishing to reclaim it, caused it to be (trained into the harbor, the pipes passing under Summer Street. In digging beneath this street at the old sea-level, the contractor unearthed old piles and the stone retaining walls of wharves, thus proving, the early existence of landing places for vessels far within the limits where it is now possible for them to come.
The meadow belonged early to Thomas Wakely. It afterward,; was the property of Brigadier-General Theophilus Cushing, And received its later name in this connection. Thomas Wakely wag all early settler with Rev. Mr. Hobart, in 1635,
The high land south of Wakely's Meadow, beyond the railroad track, is PECK'S PASTURE. Robert and Joseph Peck came to this country in 1638.
Following the ancient water line from the harbor up through the mill- dam, we reach THE MILL-POND. Here stood the CoRN
MILL, and also the SAW MILL, erected, probably, in 1643 or 1644, The present grist mill stands, upon or near the same spot.
The body Of water connected with the mill-pond through (lie Waterway which exists under the Junction of the railroad with Water Street, affords, east of this street when the full tide is in, some of the finest scenery, about Hingbain, taken in connection with the beautifully wooded uplands oil the marshes called ANDREWS or SASSAFRAS ISLAND, and the high rocks and precipices jutting out from thick oak woods along the eastern bank. The brilliant colors of the foliage contrasting with the gray of tile rocks, the blue of the water, and bright green of the meadows go to make tip a picture worthy the [)rush of all artist
The TOWN BROOK empties into the western extremity of the mill- pond.
north, we will avail ourselves of the ancient private way which runs along by the heads Of the old wharves, some of which are. yet used for the reception from a few coasters of such lumber and
numerous ships and smaller craft were built find lftunchcd, and the sea captains, sons of her stanch old families, sailed to all quarters of the world.
At the end of this old private wily, and where it connects u-ith Otis Street, was formerly SOUTIIER'S, earlier BARKER'S, S11111YAno. Here, where now are pretty seaside villas the keel of inany it line vessel was laid, and the ~hingc of these'into their desthied clement was made in a direction toward GoosE POINT, I small, low, 176 History of Hingham
Tile land lying south of this cove adjoining (and perhaps inChiding) the present, cainp-,"rounds belongiw-, to tile First Corps of Cadotts Of the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, was formerl.i known as JouN's Ntxw.
Upon the south bank of the Cove were, in carly days SALT IVORKs.
PLANTEtt's FIELDS LANE led front Crow Point Lane to Planter's Fields.
From "Y Bridges" northwestward toward Weymouth River for a Polisiderable distance lay the SHii, LOTS.
The hill takes its name froin John Otis, all early settler with Rev. Peter llobart, in 1635, and who received it grant of land here. lie was the ancestor of tile celebrated Otis family in America.
The view from Otis Hill, like that front all the higli hills of Hingham and Cohasset, is exquisite. ']'lie waters of the bay, and of flingliani harbor, Avith its picturesque islands, lie -It Olle's fe(A. To tile northeast and east, is the deel) blue expanse of occan, Ileyond the long, narrow neck of Nantasket Beach, which Connects the penhunflar town of Ilull with the mainland. Beyond Windmill Point, Hall, tile granite bastions Of Fort Warren reflect tile light in the aftcraition still. Ships and stearners oil their Course lend life to tire ocoan view. north shore melts to haze in the distance. ]stands dot tile watea s of Boston Bay, the white towers of lighthouses surniountin., some of them. To the northwest looms the city, crowned with its golden dome. The Blue Ifills of Milton, the Mas-sa-chu- setts,
rise against the western horizon. Fields and heavy woodlands lie from the southwest to the, southeast, interspersed with towns and villages scattered here, and there.
Daniel Webster greatly adinired Otis Ifill with its view, and often visited it oil his way to Marshfield. It is said that lie half It great desire to buy it and make his home there, but foared that as it was so near the city lie could not hope for the seclusion which a more dis
and fine trees all about it. Ali early settler of 1635, William Walton, owned land here, lictiec it-, iiiiine.
BOYOnd WaltOll'S Cove is CROW POINT, a rounded hill extending like a calic into the harbor. It was file first anvivrit landinark si,dited by the early vxplorers who sailed into Hingbain Ifitri)(r, and probably the Qrst spot lauded upon.
Before leaving this vicilghborhood, it will be well to take a look at tile islands. The tide h~ high, and it row about the bay will be a fine thing this bright fall aftei'llooll.
rock, and the scarlet and yellow of the sumacs, and other wild shrubs, form a fiery contrast to the deep olive green of the savins here and there among the ledges. At half-tide, the rusty underwater coloring of the rocks of these islands, supplemented by the dark, yellowish-russet tints of the rockweed, which only grows submerged on the ledges, is very interesting in an artistic point, of view.
East of this lies SARAH'S SAILOR'S or SAYLES'S) ISLAND. This is also the summit of a great rocky ledge rising up from the water, and clothed with sumacs and other shrubs.
Towards the bead of the harbor, hardly a mile south, lies BUTTON ISLAND. This little heap of rock and gravel, hearing no trees nor shrubs and but little glass, is not worth visiting. But one other remains to be noticed, LANGLEE'S ISLAND (in early days IBROOK'S), Which is a beautiful spot. Steep ledges surround it, except for small intervals, where there are gravelly beaches, upon one of which stands a fine linden. Shrubs abound upon the uplands. It will be, in a few years, yet more beautiful than now, thanks to the enlightened taste of the gentleman who owns it. Ile has planted many small trees, which will eventually cover it with forest growth, as wits originally the case when the country was settled, and restore it to the condition in which all the islands of Boston harbor should be. Had they been kept so for the past two centuries, file forces of erosion would not have succeeded in practically sweeping some of them from the face of the earth, and destroying the content of all. Richard Ibrook, who probably owned this island very early, came in 1635.
As we low ashore again, those few light clouds in the west are taking upon themselves from the declining sunbeams colors yet more gorgeous than those of the fall foliage, and we have a fine opportunity of admiring one of those superb sunsets for which Hingbain harbor is justly celebrated. Glowing, as it does, over the waters of the bay and across the western hills, it presents a Splendor which no locality in the world can surpass.
Although twilight is short at this season, there is yet time for a ride around the Shore before Clio gleaming is upon as; and as we left our horses here, let us mount at once and follow the road around the north side of Crow Point, and then the beach along the foot of the fine hill next west of it, the bank of which is bordered by a heavy growth of Lindens, Canoe Birches (very rare hereabouts), and other trees. This is PLEASANT HILL. Beyond it are PLANTER's FIELDS, or PLANILS, and another of those DAMDE MEDDOWES Which our ancestors rescued from the inroads of the sea wherever they could do so to advantage. Between the southerly slopes of Crow Point and Pleasant Hill, and Walton's Cove on the south, is -it slight eminence called TUCKER'S or TucKER's HILL. John Tucker was an early settler, coming in 1635.
The beach west of Pleasant ILE is GARDNER'S or GARNETT'S (GARNER'S) BEACH.
Beyond Pleasant Bill is the mouth of WEYMOUTH Back RIVER here all arm of the sea. At this point is HUET'S (HEWITT'S) COVE, which with the land in its vicinity including the localities formerly known Us THE WIGWAM and THE CAPTAIN"; TENT, is a beautiful and romantic spot. The cove itself is in indentation
During the siege of Boston by Washington, the English found themselves in sore straits for forage. Learning of some barns well filled with hay upon Grape Island, which lies off HUET'S Cove, the British commander ordered a foraging party to proceed in boats to the island and secure the supplies. The expedition, however, was discovered, and the militia of Hingbain and Vicinity were soon on the march down Lincoln Street to HUET'S Cove, it being feared that the enemy intended landing there. Finding, however, that their objective point was Grape, Island, a detachment was seat off which set the barns on tire before the English could land. Being disappointed in their object, the enemy returned to Boston without attempting a landing.
Among the fields at Huet's Cove is a small tract formerly known as PATIENCE'S GARDEN. Patience Pomctick, the last Indian squaw living in Hingbain, used to gather roots and herbs here, and sell them to the townspeople. ]a later days, and early in this century ail eccentric colored woman called "Black Patty " Used to visit Patience's Garden, and haunt the territory adjoining Huet's Cove. Upon one occasion Patty was collecting herbs there, when, happening to glance seaward, attracted by a peculiar and unaccustomed sound, the poor wretch's blood was frozen by what she saw. A dark, uncouth looking monster was rapidly approaching over the water, snorting black Smoke with a Spiteful sound, the waves of the bay forming, behind it, and sparks of fire mingling
The old building nearest, the bridge, on the north Side of the road was, in the days of the turnpike, the TOLL HOUSE From 180 History of Hingham
here a sharp ride over Lincoln Street will take as into the village about dusk. Until within twenty years this street only extended west a short distance beyond Crow-Point Lane, and file first sottiers who laid it out called it BROAD-COVE STREET, It runs along the northerly base of SQUIRREL HILL, near its junction with CrewPoint Lane. The view from this hill almost equals that front Otis Hill. At the foot of Squirrel Hill were formerly CLAY PITS, where there were brick kilns
The name of Broad-Cove, Street was changed to Lincoln Street in honor of Major-General Benjamin Lincoln, of the army of the Revolution. The GENERAL LINCOLN MANSION, On the corner of this ,Old North Streets, is still occupied by his descendants. A portion of it is upwards of two hundred and twenty years old.
About a dozen years since it became necessary to construct a sewer on Alain Street, to relieve the part of the road South of the Old Meetiing- House of surplus surface water. The line of this Sewer was laid out so as to run along in front of the hill upon which stands the Doi-by Academy; a part of which hill, as elsewhere stated, was cut down, and the roadway lowered to the present level. Tile rising ground thus removed was originally part of tile burial-hill, and Alain Street here passes over where the edge of tile slope originally was.
Upon digging to build this Sewer several skeletons were unearthed, which were identified as those of the Acadian prisoners who died in Hingham; for a number of those unhappy exiles were sent here after their expatriation. Some of them lived for a time in it small one-story house which stood oil Broad-Cove Street, oil land which is now the southeast corner of Lincoln Street and Burditt Avenue. In this house also were quartered, early in the Revolutionary War, Lieutenant Haswell and his young daughter, who was afterwards the celebrated Mrs. Rowson. Mr. Haswell was a British officer, and collector of the customs at Hull, for the King. He was for some time a prisoner-of-war in Hingham am] elsewhere.
oil Lincoln Street, at the easterly Side of the road, and at tile summit of the hill north of Fountain Square, stands a large, old fashioned house which was, sixty years Since, WILDER'S TAVERN, and yet earlier, HE ANDREWS TAVERN. There used to be a post in front of the porch, on which was a large golden ball.
and what could be finer than this for further explorations among the landmarks ? Let us start, therefore, in the direction of the WEST END The house next west of the General Lincoln mail
Street, we are all the time moving parallel with the TOWN BROOK, which rises in Bare Swamp and flows down, crossing South Street at Clio West Hingham depot, thence easterly through the centre of THE SWAMP, - a fresh meadow bounded by North, West, and South Streets, and probably extending origirially to the cove which is now the mill pond, - to its outlet in tire last-named locality. The bridge across the brook, connecting North and South Streets at the point near the Methodist church, is known .is GOOLD's BRIDGE. That one where these two streets approach each other at the cast end of The Swamp, is MARSH'S BRIDGE A short distance further west an old way called BURTON'S LANE runs north from North Street toward Squirrel Hill.
At the last bend of North Street is it small hill, it spur of Baker's Hill, known as MARS BILL. One of the Oldest houses in Hingham stands upon it.
After turning into Beat Street, BAKER'S HILL rises on the right hand. It is one of the largest and highest hills in town, and there is it superb view from the toll. It derived its name from the residence, at its foot, of Nicholas Baker, who with his brother Nathaniel came with Rev. Peter Hobart in 1635.
Beal Street, formerly THE TURNPIKE between Hingham and Quincy, and the direct road to Boston until Lincoln Street was cut through, was in early times GOOLD'S (GOLD'S) LANE, and ran north until it reached the first hill. Then it divided into three blind lanes. One led westward to Great Lots ; one northwestward to 'the same locality ; and (110 Was SQUIRREL- HILL LANE, which runs from Beal Street, north of Baker's Hill, to Squirrel Hill. Edward Cold, from whom this lane took its name, was an early settler. lie ws known a as "the pailmaker."
A few rods from the junction of Beal with North Street, HOCKLEY LANE runs west from Beal Street to HOCKLEY. Where this lane begins is HOCKLEY CORNER ( another Hockley Corner is on Fort-Hill Street). Hockley is an extensive district, consisting of hundreds of acres of rolling country embracing fine. meadows, woodlands, and a beautiful water front oil Weymouth Back River. It is one of the most attractive localities in Hingham. TUCKER'S SWAMP is situated north of Hockley Lane. In former days the cutting and drying of peat for fuel was quite an industry lit this place. There were about twenty-five buildings their standing in the vicinity, used for the strage of dried peat.
Near the foot of the lane is HOCKLEY RUN, Which empties into the river at BEAL'S COVE it a pretty indentation here TWO other small runs flow into the river nearby. The old crossing, known in early days as LONDON BRIDGE was not far distant.
The territory north, about Lincoln and Beal streets, including ALMSHOUSE and TOWN FARM, was formerly denominated GREAT LOTS. STOWELL'S HILL is oil Weymouth River, near the Alms House.
over West Street, we turn to the right into Fort-Hill Street, which passes over FORT HILL, about a quarter of a mile farther southwest. The old name was NICHOLS'S HILL, until, ill the time of King Philip's War, a fort was built upon it for protection against Indian attacks and tile name was changed to Fort Hill. When the top of the hill was cut off, the lines of the old fort were obliterated. Near the end of this street, and close to the Weymouth line, is FRESH RIVER, -,I little stream rising in Bare Swamp and emptying into Weymouth Back River. A small branch of this flows from the neighborhood of Natty Hill across Hobart Street. The bridge across Fresh River at Port-Bill Street is WEST BRIDGE. The one over it oil French Street is FRENCH'S BRIDGE At the corner of Fort Hill and French streets is a ,small sheet of water through which this little stream flows, called ROUND POND.
New Bridge Street, which runs in It southerly direction from Fort-Hill Street, crosses Fresh River, passes through 13ARE SWAMP, and skirts. the easterly side of GREAT HILL, which lies between it and Hobart Street. Bare Swamp was, like all meadows found already cleared of forest by the early settlers, very valuable to them, for the reason that such lands afforded forage for their cattle. In their system of valuation meadow property was rated highest, corn lands next, and woodlands least. How the present estimate would reverse this if a portion of the magnificent primeval forest which they found were yet standing I Bare Swamp whom they came, was found to have been cleared by the beavers, and received its name from its being bare of trees. Those animals, evidently plenty up to that time, had by their dams across the watercourses, overflowed the vicinity. This had, perhaps, been the case for centuries, at least for so long a period that the trees had died out and fallen, and meadow land was the natural consequence.
South of Hobart Street, and between it and High Street, lies HF51LOCK SWAMP. At the corner of French and High streets is NUTTY (or NUTTER's) HILL, 80 called because the early settlers found walnuts there in great abundance.
Ile vend High Street is Ward Street. The portion of this road, OLD WARD STREET, which used to be a, highway running nearly
due south to Queen Ann'% Turnpike, is discontinued, although even now it is to delightful bridle path through the thick woods. Where it crosses a small branch of Plymouth River is a peculiarly shaped field always known as OX-BOW MEADOW present part of Ward Street between its junction with Old Ward Street and Cushing Street, Used to be called Fox LANE. ROOT'S BRIDGE and ROOT'S HILL are near the junction referred to.
This street enters Hingham from Weymouth, and makes its exit at QUEEN ANN'S CORNER, just east of Accord Pond, at the point where it meets Main Street. On Whiting Street, near the Weymouth line, is a rocky ridge across the street, called THE DEVIL'S BACK. It is said that whatever may be done !it the way of covering this ridge, or lowering it by blasting, it always in time reappears. Whether the inhabitants of an earlier generation considered this peculiarity as evincing Undue activity on the part of Satan in making travel in that vicinity more laborious, or whether they surmised that the " Ward Witches " had a hand in the mischief, instigated thereto by the Evil One, they bestowed upon the ridge this unsanctified name. The territory certainly must have been Within the jurisdiction of those " Ward Witches," who were lady members of a family which formerly dwelt in a part of the town not very far away, and who were popularly believed to practise the Black Art.
It least be noted that the little streams called 11 rivers " in Hingham, were doubtless in aboriginal days much wider and deeper than now The denudation of the country by the extirfation of the heavy forests, with the consequent desiccation of lands which then held in their sponge- like soils, mulched by thousands of generations of fallen leaves, volumes of water vastly in excess of what falls ,poll or remains in them now, has resulted in the dwarfing of the once good-sized streams, and the dirninution of file annual rainfall ; and the. dry and starveling woodlands (as compared with the primeval forest), cannot retain the moisture necessary to the formation of rivers of any size.
River, on Whiting Street, we come upon Cushing Street, crossingthe old turnpike. We will turn to the right and proceed a few rods until we strike Derby Street, which leads from 'the intersection of Gardner with Whiting Street, westward into Weymouth. This country is all in the old FOURTH DIVISION Ancient landmarks are plentiful in this corner of Hingham, although many of them can with difficulty be distinguished, owing to the country being now extensively covered with Woods Where formerly were farms. Consequently, in most cases their location merely can be pointed out.
South of Derby, and immediately west of Gardner Street, lies HUCKLEBERRY PLAIN, famous for the abundance of the fruit from Which it derives its name. West of this, and south of Derby Street tire the FARM HILLS. Between Derby and Abington Street and Rockland, is MAST SWAMP, where formerly grow very large pines, suitable for masts of vessels. North of Derby Street, and between it and Whiting Street, are the SMOOTH HILLS. To the south again are the THREE HUNDRED ACRES, a tract once helonging to Madam Derby. Derby Street was Dinned in honor Of this lady. Just before this street enters Weymouth, it passes through MUSQUITO PLAIN, 80 called from the supposed super abundance of these insects.
Retracing our course over Derby Street, we will turn into Cushing Street and proceed almost due north. Between this street, Whiting Street, and Plymouth River, is BREAKNECH HILL, How Hot a specially perilous descent where it invades the highway, however steel) it may formerly have been East of Cushing Street, at this point, is HOOP-POLE HILL, whore great quantities of trees were cut in the days when the mackerel fishery was in its prime, to furnish hoops for the barrels made at the harbor for packing the fish. Woods How cover nearly all the hills in this romantic and almost deserted portion of the town. A branch of Plymouth River crosses and recrosses the road along the base of these hills six times. The next point of interest is MULLEIN HILL, a Sharp ridge lying on the east side of the road. The extensive growth of mullein in this localily in past days gave this hill its name. The somewhat abrupt ranges next crossed, and extending west of the road, are those of the HIGH HILLS.
The country all about here has a peculiarly broken surface, and the Woods covering it are principally oak.
wide, all over the country. It is proper to state, however, that it was the manufacture of buckets by hand, at little shops elsewhere in town earlier than tile establishment of this factory, that had procured for Hingham the sobriquet of " loicket Town." Here also were made the " Jacobs Hatchets " esteemed for their excellence and exported all over the world in days gone by. Alas, alas ! how the mercantile, manufacturing, and maritime enterprises of Hingham have holed away, never to reappear. The Thomas Iron Foundry at Thomas's Pond on Weir River, the Eagle Foundry at the harbor, the Bucket Factory and Ratchet Works at Cushing's Pend, the Cordage Factory, the Iron Works
The house near Alain Street was one of the old inns of earlier days. It was known as BRIGADIER CUSHING'S TAVERN. Reaching Main Street, we will turn to the right. The first hill on the road, going south, was in early days called MAYSE'S Or MAY'S, n0W LIBERTY POLE HILL. The country south of this locality, to the town line, is called LIBERTY PLAIN,
At the foot of the southerly slope of this hill, a blind hole leads west through the woods, towards Eel River. This is EEL, RivER LANE. The gradual rise oil Alain Street from this point, south, is called DIG-AWAY HiLL (in some old papers DIDGEWAY). Further on, to the west of the road, at Gardner Street, is WHITE OAK PLAIN. Half-way between Gardner Street and the town line, at GARDNER'S BRIDGE, Main Street crosses BEECHWOODS RIVER, sometimes called MILL RIVER, the little stream flowing northeast from Accord Pond, which unites with others near the centre of the township to form WEITZ RIVER.
It is a singular fact that of all the ponds of any considerable size in Hingham, but one is a natural pond. All the rest, Cushing's, Fulling-Mill, Trip-Hammer, Thomas's, and the Mill 186 History of Hingham.
pond, are artificial. According to one tradition Accord Pond received its name from the following irennistanecs.
A treaty with the Indians was about to Ile concluded by tile inhabitants of the adjacent country, and it was decided to assemble for the purpose at the point where the three towns of Abington, Scituate, and Hingham at that time met, somewhere near the middle of the pond which lay within the limits of these three townships. The conference was held in winter, on tile ice, and was entirely successful, tile! questions at issue being settled amicably. On account of the happy accord which manifested itself between the contracting parties, the sheet of water received from that time the name of Accord Pond.
There are other traditions of similar import, but this one seems the most interesting.
One other large natural pond was within tile original limits of Hingham, - Scituate Pond ; but it lies in Cohasset, which town, as previously stated, was set off from Bingham in 1770.
A small Stream Called SLOUGH RIVER flows from the Farm Hills across Gardner Street, and empties into the northern extremity of Accord Pond.
Oil Main Street, a long house, almost the last building in Hingham before reaching the town line, was in the early part of the century SIVRET's TAVERN. The old country taverns in those days were vastly more numerous than they are now, when the railroads covering tile country have rendered them superfluous.
And now that bright yellow sunset over there, beyond the Blue Hills, indicates a fine day for to-morrow.
This bright morning follows appropriately in the wake of the past few perfect days ; and now let us start for a stroll at the old cove itself. From the Mill bridge, passing west through North Street (the old TOWN STREET of the early settlers) we come within a few rods to where the road bends slightly to the right. Here, where the millpond contracts to half its previous width, there was in tile early days of the town, a second mill, and mill-dam across to the cemetery hill. A short distance farther west is Ship Street on the right, in old times Fish STREET. At this spot the early settlers with Rev. Peter Hobart landed from their bouts.
The old houses on either corner of Ship and North Streets were formerly the WATERs TAVERNS Ali old house next to the one of these two on the westerly corner, was tile NYE TAVERN. Here is where certain British officers, quartered in town as prisoners of war during the Revolution, were brought for their meals. Tile Old house next west of the Nye Tavern, standing on rising ground, MANSION, was tile home of the
Opposite this spot, South Street caters North Street diagonally. This road also was termed TOWN STREET when laid out by tile first settlers. At its very beginning it crosses the Town Brook by MAGOON'S BRIDGE
Passing oil a few rods more, we conic to Alain Street, which runs south from the. railroad depot. Oil the easterly corner of Cottage Street, which eaters North Street opposite Alain, stands the Cushing House, formerly the UNION HOTEL and earlier yet, LITTLE & MOREY'S TAVERN. This was a noted old inn in its day. Next east of it is a very old house which was one of tile " GARRISON-HOUSER" Of the time Of King Philip's War.
Oil North Street, facing Broad Bridge, where the Catholic Church now is, there stood until recently a line old colonial mansion, having tapestried balls, and with some of the doorpanels decorated by sketch" painted by the celebrated Madam
Just beyond South Street the road formerly divided. The principal roadway , came over the low hill upon which the DERBY ACADEMY stands, tile westerly portion of which has since been cut down. The other road ran along the foot of this hill. Between the two roads oil the high land stood the post-office, and one or two other buildings. Several old gravestones also were
there, as the slope had boon in tile early days a part of the burial ground, and the FIRST MEETING-HOUSE of the early settlers with
In this cemetery are interred sonic of the most distinguished of Americans, as well as those men who elime from over the Sea to make Ilingliain their home. Ilere sloop the long, line of eminent pastors of the First Parish, who preached ill ill(,, Old M(Tting lionse yonder, --- Hobart, Gay, Norton, Ware, Richardson, Lincoln. Many families whose inembors have attained to high position in the potitical, military, professional, or lov;iiiess circles of the republic bring their dead here to the hoine of their ancestors, to slumber in the beautifully wooded hills or valleys of this lovely spot.
Many a soldier, frolil the 101lerld Collinollidillp, all nrilly to file riflemen MID Stood shoulder to shoolder ill tile line of battle, await~ the halit reveille, lwlo. Many :1 sailor, Aillo folt(lid mider "Old Clary " behind tile eannon oil the high seaq, is roatil to start 111) from this gi oilld when " kit hands oil dvell: I " is piped for the List time. The, baid) of Major- Oolloral l"clij:111611 Lincoln, of the Revohitiollarv Arniv, i,; hert'. John Mbioll Andrew, the " "rent ANar governor" of ~Iiassaclhll.,etls 11111-ile, the Rebollioll, ics ts livic by his nionlioneld. The Shalt to those who died bvIalid or st'a ill the war for Cho l7nion crowns oil(, of thesi, IK-loilitid heikdlls.
Oil Main Sireot, in frolit of tile ellintlive to tile colneier v and on it heig it above the l"Wil, tile Illoolsonle retaining wall of which is rivalled with ampelopsk, Do", bviodihil in odinon coloriw, is Till,, OLD NIFi,.,r1NG- Il0lJsP. of ill(' I"irst Pirish, now in tile two hundred and eighth year of its VXis(CECC. Staodiitl,~ far apart Flom and 190 History of Hingham.
above all other buildings, and embowered in fine trees, it is too Well known to need description here. In simple, homely grandeur it towers there, a century older than tile republic its self. If it could speak so as to be heard by mortal ears, what might it not reveal of the dead and of the living, of tile story of the past! But to those who love Hingham and her history, it has a thousand tongues which are never silent.
Main Street, as far as PEAR-TREE HILL, Which is tile Steep bluff at the beginning of the Lower Plain, was, in the earliest times, known as BACHELOR's ROWE, or BACHELOR STREET.
The salt marshes cast of the road, below Pear-Tree Hill, are tile HOME MEADOWS.
Having surmounted Pear-Tree Hill, we are upon tile LOWER PLAIN, which is a tract of mainly level country extending South as far as Tower's Bridge, on Main Street. But we will leave this street and take Leavitt Street eastward. A large, low building on the corner, under a noble buttonwood-tree, was, in former days, LEWIS'S INN. Tile large, old-fashioned building east of it was Once tile Old ALMSHOUSE.
Leaving the Agricultural Hall upon the left, we soon come to Weir River, here crossed by LEAVITT'S BRIDGE. A short distance further oil, a Way is reached winding off to the right and South, which is PoPE's LANE, or POPE'S HOLE. At tile first turn on this lane are the CLUMP BAR,;, known also to the boys of past generations as PLUMB BARS. This is evidently a corruption, as they derived the name from being, in former times, near a clump of trees When there were but few trees in the vicinity The country thereshouts had not then grown up to woodlands, but was devoted to tillage or pasturage. Between this lane and Weir River lies ROCKY MEADOW. Turning to the eastward, the way leads into thick woods, in a rocky, rolling country, and among these, oil the right side of the lane, is the wild and romantic ledge known as INDIAN ROCK.
Further down the lane there is a rocky place in the woods called THE HOGPEN.
The lane, turning westward, crosses TRIP HAMMER POND by a causeway. This pond is formed by Weir River, which flows through it. There were formerly iron works here, with a triphammer, and also a shingle factory.
Returning to Leavitt Street (the part of which leading into Third Division Woods was the old THIRD DIVISION LANE) We will stop to look into JAMES LANE, now so overgrown with woods that it cannot be distinguished, except by its location, from other cartways into the forest. It leads to JAMES HILL, in Cohasset
Near its junction with Leavitt Street is PINE-LOG HILL. The IRON MINE (so called) is here at the corner of the lane, although indistinguishable ill the undergrowth It is hard to say now what gave this name to the locality. Near it is BLACK SNARE H ILL. DISMAL SWAMP is northeast of the Iron Mine, and extends into Cohasset. Close by is, or rather was, the famous FOREST SANCTUARY. This was air open grove of noble pines, the growth of centuries, - the ground beneath them being carpeted with a thick layer of fragrant pine needles, with gray arid mossy rocks here arid there. The name was it fitting one, and well expressed the quiet grandeur of the natural beauty of this, remote spot. But it was deemed desirable to sweep away these superb trees in order to
and Forest Sanctuary has accordingly long been a thing of the past.
WAS WROUGHT BY HOSEA
A NATIVE of HINGHAM,
WHO WAS A TRAVELLER HERE
July 4th, 1828."
It was regarded as a great curiosity, and would have been more and more interesting- as time passed on. But, unhappily, in the year 1833 certain persons considered that the only value in the great rock was the handful of dollars which it would bring for building purposes, and it was blown to pieces and sold for a pittance.
As one mounts higher and higher Upon this bill, or rather Upon this series of heights, the view in all directions grows more and more beautiful, Until, when the top of Turkey Hill is reached, it may be called sublime.
Look at it now in this red October sunset ! To the east oil the horizon lies the deep blue line of the broad Atlantic, which sweeps round toward the north. North and northwest are the headlands and islands of the bay. In the extreme distance in this last direction the sun's rays flame upon the roofs and towers of the city. In the nearer space they are reflected in golden light from the placid waters of the harbor. Weir River shines between the green meadows, almost at our feet, like a silver thread. The Blue Hills lore misty in the far west. Villages and houses speck the landscape here and there. That great hill to the southeast is SCITUATE HILL.
Now torn southwards. There are brilliant woodlands in the other directions, but what a glory of scarlet, yellow, and green from the painted forests that stretch away to the southern horizon's Vd1oQ ]lure ! This Surpasses any other Hingham view.
through a rocky, shrubby country and over high lands toward Rockland Street, is Weir Street, once the, old WEIR RIVER LANE. It, affords one of the beautiful and sequestered rides for which Hingham and Cohasset are famed, The tract of high land lying cast of it, now largely overgrown by woods, used to be GREAT PASTURE.
A little further on, around -I bond in the road, we come to CUSHING's BRIDGE, across Weir River. Many rule 11 wine-glaall chns " are scattered here and there in the ineadow by the river's banks, and by tire roadside, across the Stream, is the magnificent OLo ELM, Which was transplanted to this spot in 1729, three years before the birth of Washington. It is justly celebrated for it-, size and symmetry. All the territory in this vicinity, from Hall Street to Summer Street, has always been known as ROCKY NOOK.
The read, after passing a row of sturdy red oaks on the left, which must have been old tree-, when the Pilgrims hunlLd, reaches. a descent cut through it rough ledge and known as ItocKY HILL. Just bPyOlld tile hi"ll lands to the vi~llt is CHANUMILIN's SWA~tl?, ,and the little stroma running throul-1) the lileadow, parallel with the road and crossin', it at last, to elilpty into Weir River at tile foot of the Agricultural 806CWS fll`0111111S, is CHAMBERLIN'S RUN. It is nearly dry in summer. The large wbite house between it a rid the Agricultural Hall, now a private residence, was, in the old days, a tavern.
1,ust Street ends at Leavitt Street, passing over which west to Alain Street, we find ourselves in the middle of the village of "Hinghain Centre," open LOWER PLAIN, which eXtClide from Pear-Tree Hill to Tower's Bridge, as generally understood, although tile. town book giving the " narries of Streets. laries, plains, and bridges, as established by the tolvii May 7, 1827, and since," gives the lioundaries of Lower Plain, " Pleasant Street to PearTree Hill."
After a turn to the westward, about a quarter of a mile further oil, the street turns abruptly South at COLD CORNER, and a few roils bevorld is entered by Hobart Street, near the~ corner of which ~as the old TowN PouNo, where Stray cattle were impounded. Half a mile or so beyond, the road crosses ,I little Stream by Townits Brunap. From this bridge to the south line
a few rod~ 11"volld, r1ins West to Weymouth. Just off this strec, i" kVilim-flon~'r; Poxi). Freo Street is opposite to Ifigh, (11 Maill 14tri , ef, and runs cast to Lasell Street. JuA north of Free St roet is -I Klaftll C ofleal height. called Citow HILL, formerly a famous resort for i;ie birds of that foatbor. Near by is Caow_
A short distance further south 'Main Strect crosses the stream coluing from Ullshing'K Pend by WILDER,
After surniouliting anttlwr -is(' in tbo road, we find on (lie west ,-idi
, distance, runniyl~ between extensive lio.derin',, lawris and line rows of trecs. 'Back of the houses on tile east side is a high granite ledge, known as CLAD TJJ)INI;~ 1?0VK.
Ill King lihilip's War, a famous hunter, John Jacob by name, lvent, out to 'hoot deer
. near where the church now stands. lie, is quilt to have fi-equently declared that lie never would allow hillisolf to lie taken alive by the Indians if lip encountpred t1win. Thel aniliushed and Shot him dead near this rock, and one tra~litioii snys I lat. his friends, overjoyed to find that lie had 6een Cilled coutri".
We will turn eastward into South Pleasant Street, on the corner of which is a notable mansion, the ]ionic of the celebrated Rev. Daniel Shute, D.D., the first pastor of the Second Parish. The house is inhabited at the present day by one of his lineal descendants.
,South Pleasant Street is shaded by noble elms, set out by a former member of the old Cushing family ; whose lands, for generations, have extended far and wide in this section, and do still, for hereabouts the population is largely composed of Cushings.
FULLING-MILL POND is oil the right of the road, and at its outlet, which is a little stream called FULLING-MILL BROOK, once stood the FULLING MILL. The bridge across this brook is PACE'S BRIDGE. Betwben Paee's Bridge and Lasell Street, on the south side of the road, is LITTLE POND. This is it sluice-way of clear water which never freezes, and is on a piece of land of about three acres in extent, which was leased by the town to the Rev. Dr. Sbute for nine hundred and ninety-nine years! The hill beyond Page's Bridge is rightly named STONY HILL.
Now we will strike off into Laselll Street, a wild and pretty road, winding mostly through woods and between shrubby waysides.
On the easterly side of this street, about one eighth of a mile from Free Street, and just north of a rocky rise, there is in a thickly overgrown and woody field, the OLD LASELL FINE.
It seems probable that this ancient giant may be one of the few mighty trees yet remaining of the primeval forest. The shattered branches, rent by the storms of ages, would themselves form large trees, and the vast trunk, standing grimly amid its own ruins, presents but a picturesque suggestion of the old pine's earlier majesty.
Entering Union Street, we find that FEARING's BRIDGE crosses Weir River a short distance further northward, where it flows among willows. Now, turning about, we will keep to the southward over this street. At the first bend to the east, on rising ground, there is a gateway, through which a cart road leads to Tinp-IlAbimnn POND. A short distance beyond this gateway LONG BRIDGE LANE runs eastward from Union Street, winding through woods to granite quarries, and then crosses Beechwoods River. Near the entrance to this lane is COAL-PIT HILL. A few rods further south the road crosses Beechwoods River at SPRAGUE'S BRIDGE, and then passing the place where South Pleasant Street enters it, rises on to high land, and over what is called THE MOUNTAIN, or MOUNT BLUE ROAD, Mount Blue being in Norwell across the line.
The view west and south from this vicinity is very fine, and the drive over this road, thence over Beechwood Street into Cohasset, is a most delightful one.
Beechwoods is a very sparsely settled district, mostly beavily wooded with beech and oak, and with much of the beautifulnily growing at intenais. inat rare and delicate shiub, tile
ink-berry, is not uncommon oil the open roadsides of Union Stl ect.
Retracing our way, and taking South Pleasant Street, we will turn south into Charlel; Strect by Stony Hill. Here is MASTBRIDGE PLAIN, MI)CIT formerly fine inasts were out from tile forest to equip the vessels building at the harbor. AIAST-BRIDCE MEADOWS lie along Beechwoods River. This little stream is crossed by Hunspy's BRIDGE. The noble height to the east is PRO~PECT HILL, the highest in Hingliani. The view from the summit is very extensive.
After crossingliersey's Bridge the road turns southward. To the westward is THE WIGWAAI, a most interesting localitv. Here dwelt the Indians in considerable numbers, and the sl~one fireplaces of their wigwains were standing within the remembrance of persons now living. Many of their implements of domestic use and of the chase have been found here.
There renutins but one part of Hingham which has not been explored for the landmarks. To cover that, we will start at Cold Corner and take Central Street, a road laid out within a few years, which near the Ropewalks runs over a imirsh which wis once known as CHRISTMAS POND. No trace now rerilains,however, which would indicate that a pond had ever existed here. Turning west into Ella Street, we soon pass over rising ground, the portion of Which oil the rilght, between Elm and Hersey street~, was called POWDER-11OUS'll, IIILL. A red POWDER HOUSE formerly stood upon it, in which %vas stored a supply of gunpowder. It was moved here from the hill just north of the New North Church, oil Lincoln Street.
Near the corner of Elm and Hersey streets, there stood until within a few years a beautiful wool[, known as TRAN~')ITILTXTY GRovE. It was ]oil- made use of for picnics an(] various others-is of gi -hops, social , political, and religious. The early
The bove" part of Mersey Street, froin Elul to South street's was in carly tinies AUSTIN's LANE, taking its naine, fniin Jonas Austin, one of the first settlers in 1636, who had his homestead granted oil Town Street (now South) at the north end of this laile.
South Street, which was, like North Street, first called Toa`N STREET, begins at North Street opposite the old Gay inalision, in[inediately crosses Alu!_~oon's Bridge, and runs west. After cross ile, Main 'Strect, and just before Lafayette Averine is reached, it until within three years passed by a li~iucly old provincial buildinlo, which was in the last century the ANcHoa TAVERN. Cvllend Lafayette once lodged in it when lie had occ:ision to pass flic night in llingharn, during the Revolutionary War. It %%as the198 History of Hingham,
country home of John A. Andrew, the war governor of Massachusetts, for one summer during the great rebellion. The short street which contiects South with North Street, immediately west of the railroad depot, crosses the town brook, and is known as THAXTFR's BntDCE. In the old days the WHIPPING POST Was located here. About a quarter of a mile further on, and a few rods cast (if AUSTIN's LANE (now Hersey Street), formerly stood the old PINE-TREE TAVERN. Oil the Site of it there now stands a large white house which was built by General Lincoln for his son-iii-law and private secretary, Mr. Abner Lincoln. The road runs west and enters Fort-Hill Street after crossing the Town Brook at Drany's BRIDGE. On the south side of the street at this point formerly stood the mansion of Madarn Derby, who applied the properiy left for the purpose by her first husband, Dr. Ezekiel Hersey, to founding Derby Academy. Alany stories are told of this able but eccentric wonian. Among others is this one, applicable to her home.
She lead it rustiv, seat arranged among the branches of one of the trees Hear her house, front which she could observe her laborers in the fields. She was upon one occasion sitting there decidedly in dishabille, when she saw a carriave some distance off, containiDg visitors whom she bad expected to arrive later in the day, but with whom site was not well acquainted. She jumped down from tier perch, ran round to the back of the house, caught a brace of chickens on the way, twisted their Hooks and flung them to the cook with orders to broil them for dinner at once, ran through the house, and (her house Servants not being at bonic) veceived the guests, who did Hot know her in her r6le of servant, showed them to their rooms, and lialitening to her own, dressed and descended to the parlor to welcome them as Madam Deiby; and they did Dot recognize the servant who bad usbori-d theiii to their apartments in the lady of the mansion who received them in state.
When the money for the endowment of Derby Academy was brought front 1;aloin to Hingbain by Nathan Lincoln an(] his wife (lie wits a nephew of Ill-. Ezekiel Hersey), it was concealed in a bucket which stood on the floor of a chaise, between Mr, and Mrs. Lincoln. Madam Derby caused Stories ill the collar wall of her house to be removed, and the money, enclosed in woollen bags, was built into the wall, for concealment and safetv.
Wiien this old mansion was burned, in the early part of this century, there had been living in it people whose babits of life were fill- fioni being such as invited the approval of the neighbors. And certain old women who were gathered together watching its destruction, averred that the)- saw fiendg and witches ascending ill the smoke and dancing in the flames.
The nineteenth century would appear to be a little subscipient to tile era of unseemly performances on the prut of indk iduals
of that ilk ; but the old ladies who witneaso(l their antics at tho' fire aforementioned Nvvre %6Nes of iospeclable citizenK of the West End~ and their statcnionts are not to be lightly called ill itil"tion [ON. tile incredulous.
In the atmosphere of such surroundings, what wonder is it (hit( 1111011 MIIS COodaillill" tile Hingham and Coliasset names of Lincoln, cosi,ing, iiobart, Tower, Gay, Thaxter, Shute, Sprague, Pratt, llorseN, '~toddard. Fvaritig, and others, should be found many which have adorned the professions of the ministry, law, all(( inedicine which have become eminent '.IS those of poets, liter'di, Zirtists of men who have achieved the fortune and practiged ill(,, lik,ralitv of merchant princes ; who in the, battle line 6v land and Sea have, frona -,,liters -it their glins and soldiers in tile ranks to great generals, shed lustre upon tile Colony aud tile Republic ; N% ho have, as deputies, or congressinell, or governors, or anihassadors, reaped honorable laurels in this and in foreign hUldS ; Or laKf(V, ill ill(,' presidential chair itself, won a sinipic, homely, but ifluArious faine which will through all our future history go hand in ]land Ni ith that of Washington
HINGHAM is one of the oldest towns in Massachusetts. There were settlers here as earlv as 1633. Its first name was Bearcove or Barecove, more likely the latter, in view of the exposure of almost its entire harbor at low tide, and as appears also in the spelling of the name in the order of tile General Court referred to below. So far as it had any legislative incorporation, it was incor oratedland this has been the usual statement of writers, Sept. 2, T635 , 0 y eleven towns having in that respect all earlier date. Perhaps, however, the term incorporation is not appropriate in this connection, the brief order which the General Court, consist~- in- of the Governor, assistants, and deputies, adopted and entered on that day being as follows, -a form used before,and afterwards, n the case of several other towns: - 11 The name of Barecove is changed and hereafter to be called Hingham."
Who was the first settler, or at what exact date he came, it is impossible to say. Mr. Solomon Lincoln, the historian of the town in 182T, gives the following interesting facts : -
11 The exact date at which any individual came here to reside cannot be ascertained. Among the papers of Mr. Cushing, there isa 'list of the names of such persons as came out of the town of Iiingham, and towns adjacent, in the County of Norfolk, in the Kingdom of England, into New England, and settled in flingham.' From this list we are led to believe there were inhabitants here as early as 1633, and arron, them Ralph Smith, Nicholas Jacob with his family, Thomas Lincoln, weaver, Edmund Hobart and his wife, from Hingham, and Thomas Hobart with his family, from Windham, in Norfolk, England. During the same year Theophilag Cushing, Edmund Hobart, senior, Joshua Rob7irt, and Henry Gibbs, all of Hingham, England, came to this country, CUSIIiTo~ lived some years at Mr. Raineg's farm, and subsequently removed to Hingbarn. The others settled at Charlestown, and in 163.5 removed to this place. In 1634 there were other settlers here, and amon_v them Thomas Chublauck ; Tlare Cove was assessed in that year. To 1635, at the Afay court, Joseph Andrews 202 Histary of Hingham.
was sworn as constable of the place. There was a considerable increase of the number of Settlers, and in that year grants of land were made to upwards of fifty individuals, of which a record is preserved. It was in June of that year that Rev. Peter Hobart arrived at Charlestown, and soon after settled fit this place.
11 1 here sulljoill the names of those who settled or received grants of land here, in tire respective years mentioned. Possibly there may be some names omitted, which have escaped my observation, and those of others inserted to whom lands were granted, but who never settled here. The list is as perfect, however, as long, careful, and patient examination of public and private records call make it.
. 11 lit 1635, in addition to those before-mentioned (namely: Joseph Andrews, Thomas Chubbuck, Henry Gibbs, Edmund Hobart, Sen., Edmund Hobart, Jr., Joshua Hobart, Rov. Peter Hobart, Thomas Hobart, Nicholas Jacob, Thomas Lincoln, weaver, Rallph Smith), were Jonas Aastill, Nicholas Baker, Clement Bares, Richard Betscome, Benjamin Bozworth, William Buckland, James Cade, Anthony Cooper, John Cutler, Jobn Farrow, Daniel Fop, Jarvice Gould, Wor. Hersey, I Nicholas Ilodsdin, Thus. Johnson, Andrew Lane, Win. Lar,~, Thomas Loring, George Larkin, Jeremy Morse, William NoltOu,'Jo=n6tis, David Phippeny, John Palmer, John Porter, Henry, Rost, John Smart, Francis Smith (or Smyth), John Strong, Henry Tuttil, William Walton, Thomas Andrews, William Arnall, George Bacon, Nathaniel Baker, Thomas Collier, George Lane, George Alarsh, Abraham Martin, Nathaniel Peck, Richard Osborn, Thomas Wakely, Thomas Gill, Richard Ibrook, William Cockerum, William Cockerill, John Fearing, John Tacker.
~41a 1636, John Beal, sertior, Anthony Eames, Thomas Hammond, Joseph Hall, Richard Jones, Nicholas Lobdin, Richard Langer, John , Leavitt, Tbomas Lincoln, Jr, miller,Thomas Lincoln, cooper, Adam Mott, Thomas Almard, John Parker, George Russell, William Sprague, George Strauge, Thomas Underwood, Samuel Ward, Ralph Woodward, John Wincliester, William Walker.
,11n 1637, Thomas Battles, Josiah Cobbit, Thomas Chaffe, Thomas Clapp, William Carlslye (or Candy), Thomas I)imock, Vinton Dieuce, Thomas Bert, Thomas Joshlin, Aaron Ludkin, John Morrick, Thomas Nichols, Thomas Paynter, Edmund Pitts, Joseph Pbippeny, Thomas Shave, Ralph Smith, Thomas Turner, John Tower, Joseph Underwood, William Larkin, Jonathan Rozworth.
11 lit 1638 there was a considerable increase of the number of settlers. Amor,-, them were, Mr. Robert Peck, Joseph Peck, Edward Gilman, John Foulsharn, Henry Chamberlain, Stephen Gates, George. KDights, Thomas Cooper. Matthew Cashing, John Beal, Jr., Francis James, Philip Jamps, James ]lack, Stephen Payne, William Pitts, 'Eawaxil-Michell, John Sutton, Stoplien Liticolo, Samuel Parker, Thom" Lincoln, Jeremiah Moore, Mr. Henry Smith, Brizoan Allen, Matthew Hawke, William Ripley.
11 All of those preceding, who came to this country fit 1638, took passage in the ship I Diligent,' of Ipswich, John Martin, master. In addition to these, tire followin.q named persons received grants of land in the year 1638, viz. : John Back, John Benson, Thomas Jones, Thomas Lawrence, John Stephens, Jolm Stodder, Widow Martha Wilder, Thomas Thaxter.
"In 1639 Anthony Hilliard and John Prince received grants of land. The name of Hewett (Iluct) and Liford, are mentioned in Hobares Diary,
in that year, and in the Diary tire following names are first found in the respective years mentioned; in 164(;, Burr, in 1647, James Whitoll -1 ill 1649, John Lazell, Samuel Stowell; in 1653, Garnett and Canterbury.
11 Tire numbor of'persons who vanic over ill the ship I Diligent,' of lpswich, in theyeal. 1638, alid setti'-d io I lio~ghaia, was oil(, bombed tia(l thirtythree, All that came before wete hurty-two, makinIg ill all ooo hundred told seventy-tive. rhe whole number that came out of NO4011k (elliefly from I lingham, and its vicinity) from 1633 to 1639, and settl(A it] this Hingham, wa% two hundred and six. This Statement, On die aut'llOrity Of the third town Clerk of Hilcyliam, Must Ile. rff(oll'ilcll Witli ill(' U(t that there was a much larger number of settlers here it) 16:19 thati would appear !rom his estimate. rimy undoubtedly came in from othcr IdiUMS, aud I am llielileA to believe that there may be some omissions it, Air. Crishinlg'i list. It may be remarked here, that many of the names mentioned in the previous pages are now scattered in various parts of the country. Alany of the first settlers removed to other places during the militia diffitailtiv, which occurred within a few year., after the settlement of the town ; and a considerable number had previously obtained lands at Rehoboth.
11 The earliest record to Ile found of the prococdinl~s of' the town in relation to tire disposition of the lands is in 16,35. lit little of that yeal, grants were malle to a considerable number of individuals, and oil the l8th of September, as has been before stated, thirty of the inhabitants drew for house-lots, and received grants of other lands for file purposes of pviture, tillage, ete.
11 It was in July, 1635, that a plantation was eiected here ; and oil the 2d of September following that, the town wall incorpornled by the name of Hin.-ham, from which it appears that there are but eleven tflovici ill this State, and but one in the county of Plymouth, older than Hingliam. I (!:litriot ascertain satisfactorily when the first meeting for civil purposes was held. It is stated by Mr. Flint in his century discourses, to have beell oil the 18th of September, 1635. There is as much evidence in our town records, and in those of Cushing's MSS. which I have examined, that the first town-meeting was held in June of that year,as fit September. The state, ments fit the same discourses, that tire inhibitai&s of Hingham arrived in 1635, and that thev obtained deeds of land from the natives to form file town previously to holdimg tile first town-mectin1g, are unquestionably erro-
neous, being at Variance with our town records, Cushing s AISS., and the Indian deed itself.
,, 'rhe house-lots drawn oil the I Rth of September, 16:35, were situated on the "Pown streets' the same which is now called North Street. Hitting that year the settlement was extended to - Bmwl Cove Street,' recently named Lincoln Street. In the year following, houso-fots were granted ill the street now called South Street, and ill the nortlierly part of I Bachelor Street,' now Main Street."Some idea of the relative wealth of several towns in 1 (13.5 nctv Ile
town clerk. Joseph Andrews was chosen, and in 1638 the first record of the choice of assessors."
The following is a literal copy of the deed of the township of Hingham, given by the Indians in 1665 : -
"WHEREAs divers Englishmen did formerly come (into the Mastandrusets now called by the Englishmen New England) to inhabit in the dayes of Chickatabut our father who was the Cheitia Sachem of the sayd Massitchuseui on the Southward side of Charles River, and by the free Consent of our sayd father did set downe upon his land and in the yeare of our Lord God one thousand six hundred thirty and four divers Englishmen did set downs and inhabit upon part of the land that was formerly our sayd fathers land, which land the Englishmen call by tile name of Hingham, which sayd Englishmen they and their heires and assosiata have ever since had quiet and peaceable possession of their Towneshippe of Hingham by our likeing and Consent which we desire they may still quietly possess and injoy and bemuse ther have not yet bin any legall conveyance in writing passed from us to them conserning their land which may in future time occasion differcress between them and us all which to prevent - Know all men by these presents that weWompatuck called by the English Josiah nowCbie1c Sachem of the Massaebusets aftermayel and somm and beire to the aforimmyll Chick. mabut; and Squanuck all called by the English Daniel scene of the afouesayd Chickatabut and Alialneu - Indians: for R valumble consideration to us in hand payd by Captaine Joshua Hubberd set Ensigne John Thaxter, of Hingham aforesayd wherewith wee doe acknowledge our selves fully satisfyed contented and payd and thereof and of every part and pet-cell thereof due exonerate acquitt and discharge the sayd Joshua Flubberd anti John Thaxter their heires executors and Administrators and everv of them forever by these presents - have given granted bargained sold ei4offed and confirmed and by these presents doe give grant bargaine sell Enfeofre and confirme unto the sayd Joshua Hubberd and John Thaxter on the behalin and to the use of the inhabitants of the Towne of Hingham aforesayd that is to say all such as are the present owners and proprietors of the present house lotts as they have bill from time to time granted and layd out by the Towne ; All That Tract (if land which is the Towneshippe of Hinglumn aforesityd as it is now boarded with the sea northward and with the River called by the Englishmen weymoth River westward which River flow bum the sea; and the line that devide, betwene the sayd Hingham and Weymoth as it is now layd out and marked until it come to the line that devide betwene the colony of the Massachusetts and the colony of New Plimoth and from thence to the midle of accord pond and from tile midle of accord pond to bound Brooke to the flowing of the salt water and Be along by the same River that devide betwene Scittiate and the said Hingliam untill it come to the sea northward ; And also threescore acres of salt marsh oil the other side of the River that is to say on Scittiam side according as it was ingreed upon by the coninnissioners of the lilassachusets colony and the commissioners of Plimoth colony Together with all the Harbours Rivers Creekes Coves Islands fresh water brookes and Include and all marshes unto
'Josiah Wompatuck Squinuck Alialiden Indians Speared P'sonally the 19th of may I F;68 and acknowledged this inArtmin't of writing to be i1myr act and deed freely and voluntary without compulsion, acknowledged before
It needs but, a glance at the zMmes of the early settlers Of Ringhain, as given above by Mr. Lincoln, to recognize the founders of some of the most respectable and influential families of Massachusetts. Few names are more distinguished ill tile annals of tile Commonwealth or nation than that of Cushing. There is reason to believe that Abraham Lincoln was one of the many descendants from Ifingliain stock who have made it illustrious in American histor ' y. Noarly all of the names in the foregoing lists are still familiar in this generation. These first settlers were men of character and force, of good Englipli blood, whose enterprise and vigor were evident in tile very spirit of adventure and push which prompted their outset from the fatherland and their settlement in the new country. Tile), were of the Puritan order which followed Winthrop raflo~r than of the Pilgrim element that settled at Plymouth a few vears earlier. The distinction between the two is now well unders6d. The Pilgrims were Brownists or Separatists later called Independents, opposed to the national church, insisc ing on separation from it, and reducing the religious system to the simplest form of independent church societies.Indeed it was natural that the spirit that led to reform and
peoplenotwithout lomior,iiotalfog~thor innocent of q niodicuin (I onarrel and greed -.And heni-t-borliblir, yet warin Nvith the kill([ and neighborly spirit of a comnion and interdepon4vul; fellowship. The Massachusetts settlers indtilgod in no incro drealut of foltudilq a Utopia or it Saintn' Rest. TlaY AN-ere neither % isiolkilrY philosophers nor religion,,, fanof ics. Their early recorliq deal will, everN.-day detalls of farm Rod lot, of domi,stic affairs, of straviw, cattle and swine, of runiwity ipprentievs and scolding wives, of barter with the Indians, of whippim,A awl Storks and fines for ait sorts of naughtinesses, of bouu(lario~ toul miits, (if debt and 4-11al process and probate, of electiorv; and pettv offices civil and military, and now quit then the alqvinu of Avar mid the illovitable assessment of Oxes. They Smack very much iilore of the concerns, Rod the common concerns, of this World than of emicern for the next. They are the rnemorandit of a hard, prav 208 History of Hingham.
Connection with a fine for bad roads, or leave to make hay in Conihasset meadows, or Permission to use its inecting-house for a watch-house, or the appointment of a cominittei- to .-"I- .-
.11,,tu lug doncultics with Autritasket, or something of equally homely import. There is in these records no cant, our snill im,, none of that pretelitious sanctimoniousness which is so flipl;untly charged upon file Puritans. There is less reference to theology than to ways and means ; and the practical question, for instance of restraining the liquor-traftic and evil, seems to have taxed the'ingenuity and attention of their law-makers and magistrates very much as it does in the case of their descendants. There is no waste of words in the grint sentences, but a plain, wholesome dealing with the material needs of the colony. One cannot read them and not feel the sense of justice and righteousness that inspired the leaders of the settlement, and that songlit, rigorously indeed but honestly, to institute and maintain a commonwealth which should be animated by virtue, thrift ' education, the sanctity and sweetness of horne, fear of God, and fair dealing among men. They were developing th sturdy, educating' self-reliant New England town life which till forty or fifty years ago was so unique, but which since then has gradually been disintegrated and changed by the tremendous influence of the transportatiODS of the railroad, the wide scattering of the New England seed, the influx of foreign elements, the rapid growth of large cities, the drain on rural sources, and the general change from diffusion to consolidation, and from the simplest and most meagre to the most profuse and complex material resources.
TiiF. story of the settlement of Ilinghain and of the struggles, craploynicats, and daily life of her first inhabitants, is one differint, btit little froin thai of many other of the older sea-coast towns of New En'-daild. Alike in their origin, their religion, and their opilliors, silnilar ill their pursuits and experiences, inenaced by a
C0111111oll darl'-'or, and, with the exception of the Plymouth Colony Voinuilunitics, influcliced by the same holues and purposes and 111VOrloA bV the saine I:tivg, it was natural that in their growth and deNclopilleat the little hatillets forniiii~g a frequently broken thrv;ol itom thc Merriniae to Buzzard's Bay, should, for a consid,-tal.k- pot iod, Iwar a stront-, resemblance to One another. Yet i I oni I ht! li rA, possessed those pectiliar characteristics which dill,ienvos of ut,alth, the impresg of particular families, and tile inthouict, If % i,.rorous leaders inevitably create. This individualism mas; nh:oo-v(I to tho clfi~cfs of little, of situation, and of interest, an-i lit vach t!rciv up the lel-ends, traditions, and local history P.-Cillial. to it,clf.If thIts, of our oW n toWn are devoid of the dramatic and tragic
of those modern democracies which form the distinguishing characteristic of Now England. 'We canitot however isolate ours from the other settlements which already, two hundred slid fifty years ago, formed, like it, parts of a. complete commonwealth, with established customs, diverse interests, and self-reliant spirit.
It is inteiestinl,, to observe these sturdy and half independent plantations, bound together as they were by the common laws and necessities, re-enacting, each within its own limits, much of tile complex life of the province at large. They were truly miniature commonwealths, and the claims of the State and the claims of the Church received as well the consideration of the people of the village as of tile deputies at the capital; and tile various commercial, religious, and social interests made themselves felt alike in the town meetings and in the legislative and council chambers.
In each town, too, was the military organization and establishment, demanding and receiving from nearly every citizen active participation in its exacting and stern requirements. Like tile civil authority it was, it is true, regulated and controlled largely by the central government, but it nevertheless possessed, from very necessity, much local independence.
To the story of its part tit the life of Hingham this article is devoted. And here it may not be inopportfne to consider briefly a phase in the history and policy of the colony, and indeed of the other colonies as well, which has perhaps not at till times been accorded its full value, and which is well illustrated in tile record and experience of our own town. From their situation and surroundings the North American colonies were necessarily little less than military provinces, whose armed forces were their own citizens. Of them Massachusetts was the most prominent, and her usual condition was that of all armed peace, with many of the incidents of martial law, not infrequently broken by open hostilities with her Indian and French neighbors. For more than one hundred yearg succeeding the organization of the government,, a large portion of the legislative enactments pertained to the arming and disciplining of the inhabitants, to the erection of forts, the purchase of military stores, and to other measures of deferice and offence. ; and no inconsiderable part of her expenditure was for the raisinv and equipping of troops, and for expeditiong against the I ndians and -against Catinda. The laws oil these subjects were frequent, ininato in their details, and often severe in their requirealerts ; and they affected not only the individual citizen, but reached the towns in their corporate capacity and prescribed their duties as well.
These enactments, with frequent experience in actual service, produced not callv a hardy, disciplined, trained citizen soldiery ready for the cm~rgcncy of the hour, but, continued us they were through the legislation of a century, they created tile military tradition, knowledge, and discipline which were of such inestimable
value in tile opening days of the Revolution; and into that struggle sprall", not alone the embattled farmer, but with a value far "reater to the cause, the allert alinutc-mall who ba bc,~,l I - ad , at tile
One of the earlier of the settlements, situated upon the very bonfi~r of the Colony and adjoining tile frontier of that of MY, mouth, Hingham was pecilliaky liable to suffer from the diffc~r- i which might, at any time arise between the poveratuents of
allool-I the red moll known fut the Ahonquiris. This mip.hh" race V. , olloisetl nunly polverful tribes, and occupied nearly iibe'vrbole territol-Y or tile northeastern United States. Tile 'strenqfb of th" NOW 1-:111-11and, and e9pocial1v the Massnebusefla nations had
;1 01:11 1- 11 of b-'ll -iven certainly to knowe that within these late years to rt. hath I'N G-C, vi,itition reigned a wonderful plague toniller with
~., leg togethor in :t inanner an-y that doe chilli or -~halft,ronl Mly kind )f illlert~,lq t1lereill."212 History of Hingham.
Tile earliest known settlement of Hingliam was made sometime in the year 1633, and tile first houses were probably located upon what is now North Street, and near the bay which the erection of tide gates has converted into the Mill Pond. This little arm of the sea although fordable at low tide was still of sufficient depth to float craft of asizu considered respectable in those days; and many a fishing smack has ridden out ill safety the gales of winter under the lee of the protecting bills which surrounded it, and upon whose sunny southern slopes were perhaps the first cleared land,; in the towt;.
Up it, too, sailed one day in the summer or early autumn of 1635, the Rev. Peter Ilobart and his company ; they landed, as we are told, oil file northerly shore about opposite tl~ where Ship and North streets intorscc~l and here ill the open air, thu first public relig,ious services ivere held. Not far from this spot, and but a few Volts in front of where Derby Academy now stands, and upon a part of the hill long since removed, was erected the first meefliv-honse. This was a plain square building, low and small as compared with modern churches, bur constructed of bewn logs and undoubtedly very substantial. It was surmounted by a belfry containing a bell, and around was a palisade for defence al,ainst the Indians.
aplUrOutly less lifted to command in a temporal than to lead in R spiiitual capacity. Of its actual use as a defensive post we ha% e 111) la(,~k of evidence. Ili June, 1639, according to the 11 Reconk of tile Governor and Company of Massachusetts Bay ill New England " (from which the authority for much here given is derived), Ilingliain had liberty to use their ineeting house for a watch
service cither in person or by sonic substitute to be allowed by hit-- that hath tile charge of the watch or warde for that time, with punishment for disobedience." The settlement of 1682, Vilen called Bare Cove, was in July, 1635, erected into a plantation, which carried the right of sending deputies to the General Court ; and in Septcluber o I the latter year tile name was changed to Bingham. Rouse lots were ' -ranted to sonic fifty individuals in June and
It was file second year of the Pequod War, and Massachusettswhich had already been acting with Connecticut - was to raise an additional force of one hundred and twenty men, to be placed under tile command of Capt. Israel Stoughton ; this number was subsequently increased to one hundred and seventy. Of these, six wele men f roin our town. We unfortunately know the names of none of thrin, but we can follow in imagination tile toilsome march of tile little army of which our forefathers formed a small part, as it slowly and painfully made its way through the virgin thickets, almost impenetrable with the stiff, unbending, knarled scrub oak, the matted masses of luxuriant-growing and lacerating liorse-brier, beautiful in its polished green, and the almost tropically developed poison-surnac, seductive in its graceful form and rich coloring; through the great forests, dark with the uncut forms of the towering pines ; and through the swarnps of the country around Narragansett Bay, with the rich, black soil of the bottouls, and the majestic white clabirs rising, like great sentries of the red man, far into the air ; and thence kip towards the Mystic, spreading widely over the country between. We need not rehearse the details too minutely here ; we know the story, - tile Indians defeated, their tribe destroyed, and a day of thanksgiving appointed ; this time October 12, when it was also ordered that the various towns should " feast " their soldiers, - an injunction doubtless faithfully obe~ed, here at least.
From the time of tile, Pequod War, apprehensions of renewed trouble with the native,,;, and the necessary precautions against it, continually grew throughout the colony. Among the enactments was one jIiissed Alarch 13, 1638, directim, 11 that Ilinglumv have a barrel of powder, to be paid for by the town," and from 1640 to 1644 frequent orders regulated the time for training the trainbands, and prescribed punishments for neglect. In the former of
these years,an interesting torwil record informs us that the follow iLW vote was passed, 11 That from the date hereof thenceforth there shall Lie. no tree or trees cut or felled upon the highway upon the pain of twenty shillings to be levied for the Ilse of the town because ill good trees are to be juescived for the shading of cattle in the summer tinic and for tile exercising of tire milita'ry-11 The desirability of prcser~ in,, tile trees "for the e . .
-Xcl'Clslllg of the military " arose from the beriefit to be derived from training the latter in the practical methods of Indian warfare, wherein every savage placed the protecting trunk of a tree between himself and the cileiny ; a situation giving him a distinct advantage over troops in regular order. It was ignorance or neglect of this fact that led to the destruction of the brave Capt. Pierce of Scituate and his company in 1676 and to tire defeat of Braddock nearly eighty years later. 11 Garrison houses," so-called, which for the most part were probably private dwellings of unusual size and adaptability for defence, were constructed, and stringent laws passed for tile enforcement of military discipline. The location all([ appearance of such of the former its were then or afterwards erected in llingham, it is not possible to fully determine. Anion', them, however, was what is now knowil as the Perez Linculil house standing on North, and a little cast from Cottal,w Street. It was erected by Joseph Andrews, probably in U 11). Ile was tire first constable and first- town clerk of Hiehani. From him it passed for a noininal consideration, in 1665, to his son Capt. rhowas Andrews, and was then known as the Andrewsl house. It is the best authenticated 11 garrison house " that we have. Doubtless during many an alarm its massive filnbers an(I thick log walls gave a sense of securit), to the settlers wil, " with their wives and children, hall gathered within. A peculiarity of th is building, now perhaps tile oldest in town, is that, except ing, its first transfer, it has never been conveyed by deed, but lols oonti nuously passed by will or simple inheritance for sonic tx%,, hundred and 1wenty-five years from one, owner to another. Ahl~luozll now clapboarded and plastered, it is still one of (lie 1110~ intoresting of the old landmarks, and its sound old rills i's sooll 1%i0lill svem capable of defyinIg the inroads of another cvIlt1lrY. Alloillel, of these primitive defences steel] near what is uo~% (ill' -'sterly c(ruer of Ifersey and South streets, and oil thesite of ill,, Cazaeau housel-formerly beloindit.- to Mattliew
And timin,-hosideg manv other similar disbursements,"John Lincoln to be paid ten Shillings a year for drumming, lie to bay his own drum ; " this in 1690. Increasingrumorsof Indian conspiracies inducedgreatervigi
and that they were commanded by a captain residing in the latter place. Winthrop says that in 1645 Hingham choso Lieutenant
1,.,l lipon flip. chief commander for tile urevions seven of- eight years, to be captain, and presented him to thG council for confirmation. For some reason not now known, the town became offended with Earnes before his new commission could be issued, and a Dow election was held, or attempted to be hehl, fit which Bozoan Allen was chosen captain ; whom, however, the council refused to confirm. A bitter controversy lasting several years ensued. Tile town became divided into partisans of the two Officers, find the quarrel occupied much of tile time of the deputies and magistrates until 1648, lit it the Rev. Peter Hobart, together Nvith many leading citizens, became deeply involved, and the issues soon came to relate to civil end reliVj,nis, rather than to military interests. Tile details of this most unfortunate affair, which cost the town many of its best families and much of its prosperity, would seem to belong more property to the chapter oil ecclesiastical history, and there they may be found at leinth.Licut. Anthony Eames, tile first local eonamander of the town,
from other towns, and the danger from farther delay ah'alelitly led the people to seek a settlement of the military trouble, and we Iind in the State archives the following petition : -
Tho Horrible Petition of the Soldiers of Ilin.,liane, to the Honorable Court now sitting in Boston, Slieweth ThA Nve acknowledge ourselves thankful to you for many favors; especially considering flow little we have' deserved them, either from the Lord or you his instruments. Yet your bounty does encourage us and our own necessities forces us to crave help frorn you that so we may be provided for the defense of ourselves, wives, children, and liberties, against all oppressors. Therefore we crave this liberty, as the rest of our neighbors have which we take to be our due, to choose our own officers, "hich if granted it will be a great refreshment. But if lve lie not worthy of such a favor for present as your allowance herein, then that you would be pleased to set us in a way that we may be able to (to you servis and provide for our own safety and not be in such all uncomfortable and unsafe condition as we do. So praying for the presence of our Lord with you, we are yours as lie enables us and you command us.
III answer to this it was ordered that Bozonn Allen be lieutemant, and Josliua Hobart, ensign. Three years later at the request of the town both these officers were promoted, and Allen obtained at last the rank for which he had vainly striven six years before. Ile was a man of much force and consfderable pugnacity. On at least one, and probably two occasions he was compelled to humbly beg pardon for disre;pectful words spoken of Governor Dudley, and in 1647 he was ditomissed from the General Court for the session. He held, how-ever, many positions of honor in Hingham, being repeatedly elected a deputy, serving often with his friend Joshua Hobart. He came to Hingham in 1638, and as already mentioned was, with Lieutenant Eames, one of the owners of the mill. He removed to Boston in 1652 and died the same year. Joshua Hobart, a brother of the Rev. Peter Hobart, succeeded to the command of the company in 1653. He was a man of great
strength of character aint one of (lie raost distinguished citizens Ihv town has had. In 1641 ]1(,, was a member of the Ancient and I hunuable Artillery company, - then a military oi eanization n-lis it depatv ocore than twerity-five times, serving with Allen,
Th., S,.il %%:v, however fail- and in 111,111v places rich, and its slic... s,1t1I cullkation le'l to the ropid increase in the inunber and all ;L Of tht' - Idjujill" field, " which ~~Vrc I' granted from time to
It is ordered by the Selectmen of the town Ina all such p's's as are app' &, warned to watch oil the constables watch sliall from time to time appear :it the meetho, house half all hour after sunset to receive their char~ge ; and the constable is herel~y ordered to meet them there at the said time or soon after to give thein their charge according to law ; and we do also order that after tile new wqtch is come about its far as the meeting house that then the 2 constables ,hall take their watch" to give the watch in cliarge. tbit is, one coustable I watch & the other another & so by tunes till tile time is expired which the law sets for the keeping up the A watch.
acy in 1654, afforded valuable experience, although accompanied by little or no bloodshed. Suddenly the long anticipated conflict oj)vncd. An Indian was found drowned )it Assawaliset Pond near M i(lifleborough. Ile was a friend of the whites ; three Wantpanoags %vere arrested, tried, and executed for the murder. Oil tile 20th day of June, 1675, several houses were burned tit Swansea, and the greatest of New England's native warriors opened the first of the two campaigns which only laided with the
death of Philip at Mt. Hope August 12, 1676, sealing oil that (lay the fate of a mighty race, and after tile niost extreme suffering and cruelty on both sides.Thirteen towns hall been wholly destroyed, and nian ' v more
church, and a man of no little consequence. Tile house in its modernized form still remains, and is the first one west of St. rank 8 1.1hurch. Directly 'In Its I-rowit is L HaNbel 1 11. loge, mintil ning the brook, and diagonally across the street, as already mentioned, was the abode of Samuel Lincoln, weaver and inariner, and of his soil Samuel, who served in tile war as a cornet of cavalry. Opposite the General Lincoln place, Broad Cove Lane, now Lincoln Street, branched off, passed a low, marshy thicket, which, cleared and filled, has become Fountain Square, climbed tile gentle slope beyond, and then descended again until it reached the broad, and then deep arm of the sea from which the lane was learned. Be)ond this point it continued for perhaps half a mile, and terminated in pastures and planting fields beyond. From it another lane running Dearly at right angles led, as does the wide avenue which has succeeded, to the deep water at Crow Point and to Weary-all-Hill, since called Otis Hill, where, through other lanes and by deep ruts and numerous bars the rich lands granted as planting lots were reached. Upon Lincoln Street were located the homes of tile Chubbucks, of John Tacker, and perhaps a few others; and oil the corner, and fronting oil Town Street, we should have found Benjamin Lincoln, great-,grandlather of General Lincoln. Be was a farmer, with a Youle, familv, and oil his lot stood the malt-bouse given him by his father, Thomas Lincoln, the cooper; here was carried on one of tile primitive breweries of our ancestors, and here doubtless was enjoyed really a glass (if flip. Mr. Lincoln's next neighbors to the westward were his brothers-in-law John and Israel Fearing, who occupied the family homestead nearly opposite to the site of the Universalist Church; while just beyond, and extending for a long distance up towards the West End, were the domains of the Bobarts, a very prominent family at the time. Here was Edmund tile younger, but now a venerable mail of seventy-two years, a weaver by trade, prominunt ill town affairs, and a twirl brother ol the minister. His house was near Hobart's Bridge, where with him lived his son Daniel, who followed his father's occupation and succeeded to his influence. Joint and Samuel, elder sells, Pind both just married, had their homes with or near their father, while just beyond. and opposite Goold's Bridge, tile Rev. Peter Hobart occupied the parsonage, which for forty years had been the centre of social ail(] intellectual life in the town. It mav be welt to mention here that the brook, which ill general occupies nearly its original bell for the greater part of its length, has had its course materbtlly altered in recent years between the site of John and Israel Fearinl,,'s house and HobarVs Bridge. It formerly fboved quite up to, ,in(] in places even into the present location of North Street between these points ; and the line of the sweep of the marsh and old Town Street is clearly indicated by the segment of a circle upon which the houses from
In ill(' ininiediate vicinity were Simon Cross, J;)shua LinNwhald Wood, and Sainuel Bair, who halt a daughtvi. Imin Alkil 12, 1676, -iii tile garrison,"-not improbably the glarri-1,111 h(lise (I Steven Lincoln, which was undoubtedly already Ps'"IpiUll nS a pIaC0 Of refuge in consequence of tile aflurn pre I.,i., , ~ - 15 2'~ 6 I-listary of Ilinghant.
ample protection to the settlement. Tile two latter completely covered the strearn for ;I long distance, making it impossible for the Indians to deprivo the townspeople of its mvect waters. Nearly every house on the lower part of Main Street ivas within range, and under the Protection of the guns of the fort, which al so commanded all unobstructed view of tile whole territory between Captain Andrews' and tile barbor, whose blue waters, framed in their bright setting of green, then as now inade a beautiful and peaceful picture, as seen from its ramparts. The present appearance of the fort is outwardly that of a circular, sodded embankment, two or three feet in height, upon which are planted Several of the oldest of tile gravestotics; but from within, the earth walls appear to be consideraldy higher, and the excavation is rectangular, with sides about forty feet in length. In the centre, from the summit of a mound, there rises a pblin granite Shaft, inqcribed upon the southwesterly and northeasterly sides respectively as follows: -
The life flon. Solomon Lincoln, in his 11 History of Hingham," mentions in a foot-note a tradition related to him as coming front Dr. Gay, to the effect that " this fort was built from the, fear of invasion by the sea, by the Dutch, etc." There call be no doubt that the tradition referred to another fortification, also in tile cemetery, probably built for defence against the Dutch or the Spanish, the remains of which werc discovered a few years since while constructing a road in that part of the bur)ing-ground towards Water Street, by ~Afr. Todd, the superintendent. Tile location, as described bv him, was on the northerly side of the hill formerly owned by fBaac Hinckley, whose family lot is upon its crown, the Situation entirely commanding the harbor and its approaches, and affording a magnificent view, and a valuable outlook for military purposes. Tile defence was probably in tile nature of a stone battery, upon which it was intended to mount a gun or guns, and the remains consisted of several tiers of large "tone"' Placed regularly together and backed by earth. Unfortunately thev have been removed.
On Bacliefor's Row,and near where Plan Street now intersects tho main highway, Daniel and Samuel Stodder, brothers, and each With· numerous family, occupied neighboring houses. Daniel attnined
Joy, by occupation a carpenter, bore them companY ; and On tile opposite side of the street, and not far from Where'tbe Oil] Afecting-house now is, was the home of blacksmith and lieutenant Jeremiah Beale, with his family of seven children, Close by, for ~23 History of Hingham.
a neighbor, was the famous Captain of the Trainband, Joshua Hobart, the most prominent of the townspeople, excepting his brother, the minister. As already said, his lot included 'tile 11and upon which the meeting-bouse of 1681 stands.
Here too, then, or a little later, we should have found probably the only gathering-place outside the Meeting-bouse, for the matrolls of these early times in our history; for here Dame Ellen, the worthy wife of the Captain, kept a little shop, in which were sold the gloves and ribbons, the laces and pins and needles arid thread, and possibly even, now arid then a piece of dress goods of foreign make, and all the little knick-knacks as dear arid as necessary to out- great-great-grambnothers as to the wives and sisters of the present day. Upon the homestead of his father on the easterly side of the street, lived Samuel Thaxter, a cordwainer, and ancestor of Joseph R. Thaxter, who occupies the same spot ; while a little south, arid about opposite the licad of Water Street, Andrew Lane, a wheelwright, settled upon a lot of some four acres, with John Mayo near by. A little beyond, and very near to where Winter Street intersects Main, Joint Prince, a soldier of the war , - made his home. At this point also we should have Been the taimery of the Cushings, stretehing for a considerable distance along the street, as tanneries almost always do, with the sides of leather drying in the sun, the bits scattered here and there, the piles of red balk, and the inevitable tan entrance and driveway ; all making, the air redolent All an odor by no means disagreeable.
Upon the lot now occupied by Dr.Robbins at the foot of Pear-tree Lim, it rew rods north oc his residence, Mattliew Cushing, who died in 1660 :it seventy-mic years of age, the progenitor, probably, of all tile fanailies oCthat name in the United States, had established the home which remained uninterruptedly in the family until 1887 ; and here still lived his wife, who died subsequently to the war, aged ninety-six, his son Daniel, then and until his death town clerk, and one of the wealthy men of the period, and Mattliew a grandson, afterw.,iril,~licuteiiitiit,,tiidc,,tptaiii. Not far away Matthew Cushing serior'sdatighter Deborah lived with her husband, Matthias Brig ,I g_s while oil the opposite side of the street, at what is now the Keeshan place, Daniel the younger, It weaver by trade, established a home arid reared a numerous family. The Cushings were shopkeepers in addition to their other occupations, and probably the little eild shop built onto the dwelling oil either side of the street contained articles of sale and barter, - produce and pelts and WQst India goods %all aninumition. We may suppose that these small centres of trade, together with the tannery in the immediate vicinity, gave quite a little air of business to the neighborhood,-forming indeed the primitive exchange of the period.
Not far from where Mr. Fearing Burr's store now is, Lieut. John Smith, Captain Hobart',; able second in rank, bad a horne and a fort combined, being one of the 11 garrison houses " whose wise
location probably saved the town from a general attack. Licittenant Rmith is stated to have bc(,u in awtk c service (hiritiP, I lie war, an(a to have commanded a fort. Ile was a mail of neirked ability, holding many positions of public trust, repri,sunfin', tile town In tile General Court and succeeding to the command of the foot company in 168.3, after the death of iJ~;ptaiii Hobart, H(.- was also one of the wealthiest of 11higharn's inhabitants, loin ho, property valued at upwards of X1100, a considerable tuni for tile time. Commencim, at his house and thence extendau, south to tile present location of Pleasant Street arid cast to that of Spring Street and bounded north by Leavitt, and west bY Main Street, was a large common or training-lield in which, probably not far o froin where is now the Public Librar~y, was flinghtlin's tbird fort,
To the Constable of Illugham. You are hereby required ill his all jestvs natur. forthwith at the sight hereof to destraiDe upon the goods or chattels of Nathaniell Baker of this Town to Clio value of twenty -hilling-. for his entertaining a Indian or Indians contrary to a Town order wbi~.h fine is to be delivered to the selectmen for the use of the Town. Hereof you are not to fail. Benjamin Bato in the name of & by the order of the rest of the, Selectmen of Ifinglami.
This is a true copy of the warrant as attest Moses Collier Constable of Ilingloull.
The title imposed upon Mr. Baker was in consequence of his disobedience of all order passed by the town forbidding the craployment or entertainment of all Indian by any person. It was almost immediately followed by petitions from Baker, John Jacobs, and others to the General Court asking that they be permitted to retain their Indian servants, and it appears from the State Archives that the followin., similar request had already been granted. It is of added interest for its illustration of the conduct of the war and the standard of the times.
Froin file residence of Nathaniel Baker, going cast, there were few, if iny, houses until reaching the vicinity of Weir river on East Street, then a little travelled lane. Here, however, we gliould leave collie upon the farm of John Farrow with whom lived his Polls Jubn and Nathan, while beyond and near if not upon the very spot where the Misses Beale now live, was the last residence of Sergeant Jeremiah Beale ; and near him his friend and Deighbor Purthee McFarliti, the Scotelinian, found himself blessed with nine bonny lassies and three sturdy laddies. Beyond, in what is now Cohasget, then known at; the Second Precinct, there were a few settlements whose story seems properly to belong to that of our 4ister town. On the farther side of the common before referred to, Simon Burr the farmer, arid his son Simon, a cooper, located on a lane which has since become School Street; and not far off, Cornelius Cantleberry, John Mansfield, and big son John, arid perhaps a few others made homes for themselves. On the corner of Union Street Captain Eames had lived, and it was in that part of tile town known then as now is 11 over the river," and where let ael Whitconih grows his beautiful asters in such profusion, that Millicent Faines, daughter of Capt. Anthony, went to live with her husband William Sprague, the first of a long line of descendants
many of whom have become celebrated - and here in this exciting period was a little settlement almost by itself, of which Antony and William Sprague, tile y- old man, his son Joseph will o""ger, "ObOck i0fics, then quit(, an
that officer's death, nud directed the defences at Medfield when that town was attacked and partially destroyed Feb. 21, 1676. Oil this occasion there were with him Lieutenant Oakes and twenty troopers, besides his own foot company of about eighty men. The only Hingham naine upon the roll at this time of which there is reasonable certainty, besides his own, is that of Nathaniel ]'eat. With Captain Wadsworth, Captain Jacob was engraged during the winter in (nitirdinIg the frontiers from Milton 6 the Plymouth colony bounds,-Weymouth, Ifilighain, and Ifull, being, specially assi~,,ried tothe latter. The service was an importa tit and arduous one, and these towns were fortunate in having so -able an officer assigned to their protection ; it may well be that to this is to be aserdied the small loss sustained from attack by ally of them
4during the two eventful years. Ile was among thi moneyed men of the town, his estate being appraised at X1298. He owned a sawmill and a f tilling mill, besides much land and considerable perBrand property. Ile too was a son-in-law of Captain Entries, having married his daughter Marjery. Their soil John, a young man of twenty-two years and who had served in the war, was perhaps the only inhabitant of Hingham ever killed in the course of militnry hostilities upon her own soil.) Preceding the descent upon the southern part of the town , to be hereafter spoken of, he was shin near his father's house April 19, 16746. Joseph, a brother of Captain Jacob, was also a resident of this part of the town, and Samuel Bacon, who married Mary Jacob, and Peter Bacon were ricar neighbors. At Liberty Plain, Ilumphrey Johnson, who laid been turned out of Scituate, set up the house which be removed from that town, but only on condition that lie should remove it out of Bingliam on short warning, as be was it troublesome man. Later he was admonished to accept a fence line quietly. Be, however, in part atoned for his sbort-comings by, serving his country in the conflict then going on. His soil Benjamin, ablacksmith and afterwards proprietor of Pine Tree Tavern, doubtless resided with his fattier at this time. Other residents of Liberty Plain werefaines Whiten, whose house. was burned by the Imlians, and his soil James who lived near by, and William Ilifiard. Oil Scotland Street a Scoteliman, Robcat Dunbar by name, made his hoine, and from him haic descended the Dentists of the present time. Nathaniel Chubbuck, also one of those whose houses were destroyed oil the 20th of April, lived not far away, and probably near or upon Accord Pond.
On the 25th of February, 1675, it was ordered, on request of Capt. John Jacob, " that his house Atinding in the pass between this colony and Plymouth be forthwith garrisoned, and such an are his nearest neighbors are to joyne therein." This was the last of the defences of the town of which we have any knowledge,
JacollB garrison house was situated is somewhat uncertain. It may have meant simply the-Sstreet leading toward Plymouth Colony, or possibly~ the Indian trail near Accord Pond was so denominated.
This, then, was the Hingham of 1675, and those, with perhaps a few more whose names the kindly and gentle hand of time has shadowed into the great oblivion, were the heads of families in this olden time,- a little town consisting of perhaps one hundred and twentv homes, divided alitiong several small villages and it few nearly isolated settlements; a lialf-dozen or so streets, of whieliTown, 01' North, Fort Hill Street, South, Bachelor's Row, it part of Leavitt, what is now School, and the part of Main f runt Bacliclor's Row proper to the extreme southern boundary, were the principal., These strects,however, were incre grassy lanes,almost unimproved, whose deep-cut ruts were strangers toany other vehicles than the heavy, lumbering teams which served as farm wagons two centuries ago. Here and there it is probable that necessity or the public spirit of an individual, or perhaps the combination of several, lead resulted in tfiffin~g attempts at road making, and in some of the swappy sections bits of corduroy were constructed. One such, at least, was upon the low approaches to the brook at Broad Bridge, and some of its remains were found several years since, and e% ~n yet lie in the bottona of its bed. Road surveyors and superintendcuts and working out of taxes, and even taxes themselves, were for the most part blessings of a later period. There were no sidewalks either, and along the little side paths leading front house to house and farm to farm, the blue violet bl",sonied in the early days of May as now, and the white violet scented the air with its delicate fra-rance, while the wild rose and the golden red in their season made the ways bright with their beauty. The chipmunk, his checks filled with the yellow Indian maize stolen f rom the adjoiiiin-, field, sat saucily upon the fresh-cut stmop and chipped at the passer, while the golderi-winged woodpecker tapped for instTis in the tree overhead, the kingfisher flashed his steel-blue breast across the waters of the bay and uttered his shrill cry, and the robla and the cat-bird danced along with their falmliar friendliness before the settlers' feet. On either hand, and nestling near tolgetber for mutual protection, were the low log or liewri-board thatchroofed homes of the people, in most of which glazed windmvs, were unknown, the light entering through oiled-paper pare, ind the opened door. Heavy board shatters added soniothin-,, to the warmth and much to the safety of the interior after dark. rhe roolng were few in number, implastered and not always %heathed inside, while a single. chimney, with it great open fireplace :1114 a crane, served as oven and furnace alike. Here and there, how234 , Histai-y of Hingham.
ever, more pretentious, and in one or two cases perhaps, even stately edifices bad been crected, Some of these had a second story" overhanging slightly the first, and this added greatly to the power of resisting an atta~k. A few had glass windows, and here and there a little shot) protruded froul one end. Besides there the three forts, the garrison houses, and the InCetilIg-bouse gave a certain diversity and rough picturesqueness to the landscape. Fine tracts of wood covered a large part of the territory, but nuuncrous planting fields had been granted from time to time, and the axe of the settler during forty years had made no inconsiderable mark, and the clearings had been industriously cultivated from Otis, or Weary-all-Hill, to World's End. The roil Was Dew and fairly good, and prosperity had lightened the lot of not a few, so that while certaitily far from rich as wealth is measured in tbeRG days, the appraisal of some estates indicates the accumulation of the means of considerable comfort and influence. The people were for the most part sturdy, industrious, EDglisb farmers with a fair proportion of carpenters, blacksmiths, and coopers, more, probably, than the necessary number of inn-keepers with their free sale of stroug-water and malt, a few mariners, several inill owners and millers, two or three brewers, not a larger number of sholi-keepers, a tailor, a tanner perhaps, one or two 41 gentlemen," a schoolmaster, and last, and on inany accounts most important of all, the parson. As already said, the inhabitants were for the most part English, but a largc~ proportion of the younger generation was native born, and there was also a small sprinklp Ing
doubtedly the style of their garments was that so often seen in the pictures of the period. Carl we not, for the moment, people our st-ots with them once. more ? - the men in their tall-crowned, broad-brimined hats, the short coat close-belted, with broad buckle in front, the knee breeches, long stockings and buckled shoes varied by the better protection of loiny boots worn by others, especially ill winter, and in this latter season the long cape lian~ing gracefully from the shoulders ; the women in their beMen, g hoods, faced it may be with far, the straight, rather short skirts, and the long enveloping cloaks, with gloves or mittens ill cold weather.
The costumes were picturesque if the materials were not of the finest, but we have no reason to suppose all uttor absence of more elegant fabrics when occasion demanded, and not a few are the traditions of silks which would stand alone, carefully treasured as their chief pride by our great-great-grandiuothers, while doubtless velvet costs and knee-breeclies, with famous pasto or silver buckles, ana perhaps even a bit of gold lace, about this time forbidden by the General Court to all but certain excepted classes, found proud and dignified wearers oil days of inipoitance among the town fathers and military commanders. We read, too, of the bequest of swords in some of the Nvills of the period, and it is not unlikely that they were at least occasionally, worn by the grandoes of the town, as well as by the trainband officers, oil ceremonious occasions. Nor must it be forgotten that froul necessity, as well as by mandate of law, the musket had become so constant a companion that, though strictly not an article of dress, it may at least be considered as a part of the costume of the men ; it was upon their shoulders in the street, it tested against the nearest tree when the former toiled, it went with him to inecting oil the Sabbath, and leaned, ready loaded, in the corner at the house when he was at home.
The heavy cloud which had so long threatened Plymouth, and which finally burst upon Swansea in June, was exicilding over Massachusetts also. The border towns were ininiodiately upon the defensive. Hingham, with her boundary upon that of the Plymouth Colony, and peculiarly bound to it by neilghborlicod, by frequent marriages between hop families and those of the Pilgrim settlements, and by the removal of some of their people to live among hers, may well have benefited by the kindly intinences of the sister colony, and imbibed a liberalisin and iinalgination not common among the Puritans. At all events, no persecution for conscience' sake mars the records of the, old town, which a little later loyally followed for more than half t~ century the teachings of Dr. day, with his broad and embracing Christiftnity. Now, with sympathy for her friends and apprehension for berself, the town quietly, soberly, grimly prepared for the contest, and awaited the call for duty.236 Hi3lory of Hingham.
Oil the Sabbath-day all attended meeting, and after the services - probably several hours long -lingeted around the porch to exchange greetings and make inquiries hbout friends and relations too scattered to visit during tile week.
Ali occasional sail whitened tile placid bosom of the little circular harbor, whose outlet was nearly hidden by the three islands with their dark cedar foliage. Grand old trees here rairrored theinselves, and again in the waters of the inner bay and the beautiful pond, which belonged to Plymouth and Massachusetts alike, while fields of maize ripened and yellowed on the hillsides.
The sharp stroke of the axe, the occasional rep~;rt of a musket, the voice of the plowman talking to his cattle, the grinding of the mill wheels, the music of the anvil, the merry splash of the bounding Stream, the whir of the partridge, the not distant howl of tile wolf, the stamp of tile startled deer, the cracklitig of dry boughs beneath the foot of art Indian, whose swarthy form flitteil silently and ominously along the trail to the sister colony,these were the every-day sights and sounds of the summer of 1675.The weeks following the attack oil Swansea had seen the up
in perstlanCe, Of all order from the lJon. Major Thomas Clarke bearing into of lhe 29 of v' 9 in 167.1), we have accordingly by the Constables ,iven notice to our soubliers impressed for tile COUTILrys service to appear ;s expressed in the sayd order and find those that appear completoly iurlished for the service. Others we are informed [are] to be at Boston nakitc, provision for the sayd service. So as we [he able] they will be !Oulpletely furnished according to sayd order.
The names of these iouldiers ire as fc0lows, Benja Bates, John Jacob, -John 1,anglee, Edward Wilder, Thomas Tbaxter, Ebenezer Lane, Soulmerwell Lincoln Jun,, Ephraim Lare, John Lqzell, John Bull, William Woodcock, Williain Hersey Jun', Francis Gardner, Nathaniel Beal Jaw, Nathaniel Nicols, Humphrey Johnson.
JOSHUA HOBART, Captain. JOHN SNEIT11, Sergt. HINGHAM, DeC. 1, 1675.Upon inilairy 4 of the above souldiers are found to want coats which
William Woodcock was missing when the time came to march, but lie Subsequently appeared and Served. In addition to the above, the New E, ngland Historical and
To tile much hou" Governeur and the rest of Y, llon'4 Ma.,estrates now sitting in Courcill, the petition of James Bate of Hingham, fluillbly showeth, that whereas your petitioner havine, now for the ,pace of more than two niontle; had two sons prest nltO the service against the I ndians whoruby many inconveniClICYCS and great Damages have been Sustained i:' ~ u, for wzolt of my Vldest Son who hath house' and hold and Cattle Of I i; own adjoining to mine bcin.g a mile from tile Town and therefore nobody to look after them in his absence, and whereas there are many in 238 History of Hingham.
our Town that have many sons that were never yet in this Service who have also declared their willingness to take their Turns and seing God 1 ~ ath men p, 1 -1 . . I . _. .
These sells were probably Joseph and Benjamin. Besides these, Cushing tells us in his diary that, oil October 28, 1675, his sou Ybeophibus was pressed for a soldier, and marched to Alendon, unit that oil December 11 lie returned home.
]it 1725 seven townships were granted to the officers and soldiers living, -end the licit s of those deceased, who were in the war of 1675; one of these townships was Bedford, and among the grantees were it number from Hingham. Besides including part of the nanics already given as in the service during this eventful period, we find those of Joseph Thorn and Samuel Gill, then still living. Cornelius CURtlebury's heirs, John Arnold's heirs, and Israel Vickery for his father. lit this connection it may be interesting to add that on June 6, 1733, a meeting of the proprietors of Bedford was held oil Boston Common, and that Col. Samuel Thaxter presided, and that subsequently lie, with others, was appointed on a committee to lay out the town. Including Capt. John Jacob, we are thus enabled to furniAll the names of some forty-five inch who served from RiDghant in the war against the great Indian warrior. Besides these there were the six or eight in Captain Holbrooke's company, and doubtless very many others whose names the imperfect lists have failed to preserve to us. Indeed, if tire tradition that Captain Hobart commanded a company in active service is well founded, the probability is very st~oag that it was largely, if not entirely, composed of Ifinghain men.
The day after the draft for Captain Johnson's company was observed as a " solenin day of prayer and humiliation, to supplicate the Lord'B pardoning mercy and compassion towards his poor people, and for success in the endeavors for repelling the rage of the erienny."Oil the 20th of December, after a night spent in the open air
lost, and over one hundred and ninety of the English were killed or wounded, of whom over one hundred belonged to Massachu~ setts, out of a total of about five hundred and fortV.
In the 11 great Narragansett fight " the men of Hingham, under their unfortunate captain, led the way. We must regret having but little record of their individual experiences. We kuowj however, that the retreat from the Narragansett country was one series of hardship and suffering, and that besides the death of many of the wounded on the way, that the unharnied nearly perislied from exposure and hunger; so that when General Winslow reached his headquarters four hundred of his little army, besides the wounded, were mint for duty. On the 24th of February, Weymouth was attacked and seven houses destroyed, and by Allarch the Indiana had become so aggressive that Massachusetts ordered garrisons to be established in each town, filed a select numbor of minute-men were to spread the alarm upon the first approach of the Ravages.
That the three forts, and perhaps all of the g,arrison houses were occupied permanently at this time there call be little doubt. Lieutenant Smith, as has been said, is known to have commanded a fort,-tuore than probably that near his residence upon the Lower Plain; while Captain Hobart, though exercising general supervision of all the defences,took immediate personal charge of the one in the ceineterv, directing, we may presume, the garrison of the fortification A Fort, Hill to obey the orders of Ensign John Thaxter, then the third officer of the company.The Tbwn Records have the following: -
11 At a meeting of the freemen of Hingham on the 18th day of October, 1675, on complaint inside against Joseph the Indian and his family, who were in the town contrary to the views of most of the inhabitants, and on suspicion that he will run away to the enemy to our prejudice, therefore the freemen at the said Town meeting passed a clear vote tloit the. constable forthwith seize the said Indian and his family, and carry them up to Boston to be disposed of by the Governor %Pd Council is they shall see cause.,,
October 13, 1675, Hingham was ordered to pay X30 toward carrying oil the war. Besides this tax, the selectmen's records show many allowances for arms lost, for money allowed the soldiers, and sums voted for transporting them to Boston, and various other military purposes, including ail allowance for 11 lickars " for the committee having some duty connected with the war.
In February, 1676, the selectmen forbade, under it penalty of twenty shillings for each offence, any person from harboring or entertaining any Indian within the limits of the town.
Early in February the little army of Massachusetts returned to Boston, and the men were dismissed to their homes. But the vigorous prosecution of the campaign by Philip in the very first0,40 Ni8tory of Hingham.
It is the 16th of April, and the Sabbatli-day ; a bright, crisp morning, but the sun is already softening the surface of the quiet pools thinly skimmed, perhaps for the last tirue in the earlier hours; the frost coining out of the ground inakes moist the patlis ; the brook at the foot of the meeting-house hill is dancing with its swollen flood and sparkling in the sunlight, while over and along it the pussy-willows are already nodding, and the red maple's blossoms go sailing, and tossing in the pools and eddies. A little further up the stremn the ever-gramful elms are beginning to look fresh and feathery in their swelling and opening buds, while oil the slopes rising up from the valley the blossoms of the wild cherry and the dogwood glearn white among the (lark trunks and branches of the oaks and the sombre shadows of the evergreens. In the warm nooks the blue, and in the swarnpier meadow the white violet breathes out the same faint sweetness which in the same spots, two hundred years later, will delight the sebool-children of another age, while above them the red berries of the alder and the seed-ves%els of last year's wild roses give brightness and color to the shrubbery riot yet awakened to its new life ; the bluebird, the soulm sparrow, and the robin twitter in the. branches, while a great black crow lazily flaps his way across to the horizon ; possibly here and there, in some shaded and protected places, the inelth;g remnants of a late snow linger Yet, but in the clearings elsewhere the young grass has already veiled the earth in fresh green. The furrows of the planting fields show that the farmer has already commenced his preparation for the spring sowing, but some of the more distant lots tell of the universal apprehension, for last antumn's stubble in them still stands unmolested. The quiet of the Puritan Sabbath has no fears for his highness the barnyard cock, whose clarion and
cheery notes ai-e heard far and near, while faint colunins and blue wreaths of slo(ke rising here and there each inark the home of settlere Hours sincn5 witil the, 1,W11" Quo Af""Pm Lineoln has beaten the drum, and the-"tired been relieved and replaced bv the," warde for the Lord's day
the quaint, paligaadicidouslogofbi~'vi~I)di~isilli,l),No~-fitla, ii,itsel)iieilgfri))~l,aewelifioelri ptiabd serve, so long as
lie conference, of refoge ill alarm, of Stol-age to[. alluillillition of defence from danger, and which is getting old and must sooll, be deserted, still stands overlooking the village, its doors wide open for the nine o'clock service, and the cl of its little bell biddiiv the living to "remember the =It day to keep it holy," while to theni under the little green mounds oil the slope between the two roads it tolls a requient Goodman Pitts, the venerable sexton, still restrains with his watchful eye the small boy and awes him into a temporary quiet, while the people move
decorously into their allotted places, the men and the women each into their own parts of the house. 8ee them as they come picking out the best and dryest places between the deep ruts and along the paths, now two or three abreast, and now in single file, stretelling along the ways leading to the meeting-house. How sturdy the men look, with their belted coats and broadbrimmed hats, and the inevitable inusket, which each places against the building or some neighboring tree before entering, How cheery the Oodwives seem, even in the midst of the get)cral anxiety, as they greet each other and pause for it word of inquiry about the children - by no means fell, in number- who are trailing along after; and how sweet the Puritan maidens seem to its as they glance shyly at the great rough buls, whom danger
and responsibility have s4 quickly transformed into mumly young soldiers. Here from file Plaill comes John Bull, and his young wife, Goodman Pitts's daiighterl bringing perhaps a message and report to Captain Hobart from Lieutenant Smith, whose watchful care for the forf keeps hint away to-day. Indeed, many
a one is forced by the threatening peril to an unusual absence and the attendance will be strangely small. Still, most of the people from the lower part of the toi~n are on their way ' though with anxious hearts, still inativ a fluawlit will wander from the loin, sermon of the dav to the iittle boule, and every sound front without will strain lq,ain tho already weary ears. There, crossing tile bridge by the corditroy road, is John Langlee, leading his little
daughter Sarah, and talking bv the way to young Peter Barnes ; while close behind come Serge~nt Thomas Andrews, with his wife and six children ; and a few rods further back we see Air. Samuel Lincoln and Mrs. Lincoln, with tbeir straight young son 8anuiel, whose title of cornet is well deserved, and who is not only the pride of his parents, but one of the heroes of the town for his gallant part in the, great Narragansett fight; there, too, are his vOL 1. - 16242 History of Hingham.
brothers, and two or three of his little sisters, following as so]. enud:v is youth arid a bright day will permit. Just stepping out of his door is Benjamin Lincoln, whose wife, Sarah, with her little son John and six-years-old Margaret, are BtOppin- to gl'eCt
their uncles, John and Israel Fearing, who live next door. Rounding the corner of Baclielor's Row, with a brisk stride and erect carria", we see Ensign John Thaxter, who has come down from the fort oil Fort Hill, where all seems tranquil, leaving Sergeant Daniel Lincoln in charge while he atterids meeting and holds a council of war with Captain Hobart, On his way we presume fie stopped at the garrison house at AuKtin's Lane to speak a word of warning and make a kindly inquiry for Mrs. Bate and tire four-days-old girl ; arid only a moment ago we saw a sterner look as he sharply inquired of the luckless inmate of the stocks what folly had made him a victim on this Sabbath morning. Near a large tree upon the hill, and against whose broad trunk rest half a dozen muskets, quietly awaiting Ensign Thaxter, stands one of Hingham's two foremost citizens, the late speaker of tile House of Deputies and captain of the town forces. Captain Hobart is sixty-two years of age, and among the darker locks the gray hairs are thickly scattered, yet in his well-knit figure there is little sign of 'age; a strong, able, brave, wise man, loaded with all the honors in the gift of his townsmen, faithful for many years in their service, he is crowning his work by a care and watchfulness which will save those whose confidence is so well reposed in him from the horrors which have devastated so many sister communities. Even now lie might have been seen coming along the path among the trees that runs between the meeting-house and tire central fort, the garrison of which latter he has in part relieved for the services of the day.
As the soldier ill long boots, sbortbelted coat and sword, with his alert military air waits, we note the similarity and yet the dissimilarity between him and the sliglitly bent and older figure which in long clonk and buckled shoes is rather slowly mounting the hill, though declining the proffered arm of Ensign Thaxter. It is Parson Hobart himself, ten years the senior of his distinguisbed brother, and in disposition scarcely less a soldier. His long ministry is drawing near its close, but there is little ditninntion in tire sparkle of his eye or the vigor of his manner. We can almost see the grave salute with which the Captain greets the Elder, and the equal gravity with which it is returned ; we seem to hear the brief inquiry and reply, after which tile one passes into the presence of his assembling congregation, while the other remains for a short interview with his subordinate.
Within the house are the Hobarts, brothers and nephews of the old parson, the Beals, Dr. Cutter, Joseph Cluirch, Daniel and Samuel Stodder, with numerous members of their large families, Joseph Joy, Samuel Thaxter, and many others. Even now we
U U11 Unroug file sermon, probably several hours long, the thoughts of t1w listeners wander, and tire strained cars catch Nvi th apprehension every unusual noise from without. We imagine, too, that whelk at last Captain Hobart and Ensign Thaxter enter to join in the service, neither will take their accustomed seats, but more likelY will remain near tile door, and where perhaps the keen eve of the commander can keep within vietv tire muskets without, ai~d occasionally catch a glimpse of the " warde," moving from one point of vnritage to another. Meanwhile the latter, not perhaps sorrv to Ile in the open air this April morning, keeps eye arid elir aleit for sign or sound of the wit), foe. Froin the suironit almost the
whole of the lower village can be seen. Across the glassy waters of the inner bay, which, stretching away from his very feet, are broken into several sbady coves arid dotted with islands, he is following with ill-pleased attention a carloo paddled by air Indian, who a moment later may be seen climbing the cliffs oi~i the eastern shore and losing himself in the forest paths which lead toward Neck Gate Hill, from behind which a faint blue smoke vises arid
fades slowly away. There on the southeastern slope, and ncarlv at the foot of tile hill, are the wigwams of the little-trnste4 countrymen of Philip w o yet remain in the vicinity. This spot ' by tradition said to have been the last canipin-place of the Indian in Hingham, is comprehended in the property now owned In, Mr. 7'. T. Bouv(1 arid called, from the fact and tho configuratfoll of the hind, "Indian Hollow." The smooth lawn of the
present day shows no sign, but the plow would reveal a long and broad line of disintegrating clant-shells, doubtless a shell-beall of the former inhabitants, ,tied several implements have been picked tip ill the immediate vicinity which were formerly I'll ase by them. Howm~er, beyond it mental growl of dissatisfaction at what he termed tire folly If allowing the encampment to remain, our sentry of 1676 could do nothing ; so, turning towards the blue waters of the harbor, his eye falls upon tile
'in as she passes between Nantasket and George's Is arid thence towards Boston. Then fie walks slowly over to the new fort, and carefully scans the country in every dircetion is far as the eye call reach and the forests permit. Ali.] so the long hours pass away until tire close of like service blill"s file,
uncasy officers out of tire meeting, first of all for it conference with the watch, who ' however, Iraq little to repoit. And now the worshippers are wending their way hoineward, Bin1gly arid in groups, some discussing the weather, arid others, it is probable ' commenting, like their descendants of later geuvrations, upon 244 History of Hingham.
tile sermon which they have just heard, white we may be sure all are thankful to returi; once more to undespoiled hor~es. Others, who come from a great distance, meet together and cat the frugal luncheon between the inornin" and aftei noon service, while a few, husband and wife, mount pillion fashion the horses which have been aW:Litill,g tile CIO~e Of the Services under the trees, and ride to their homes.
As the tich glow of the setting still crimsons the glassy harbor and tui its to gold fit(, flecey clouds of April, while the shadows Creep up from the valleys, the tap-tap and rattle and roll of Suncil Lincoln's drum sings the vespers of the Ptuitans, and the Sal)bath is over. Then comes the new watch, win) being properly instructed and posted begins his hours of vigil. The garrisons areearefully looked to ; tile orders for the night issued. The pool- victim of the stocks, if not before released, is now given liberty. The restraints upou the children are relaxed, and during the brief period of twilight secular pursuits are resumed ; the cattle are seen to, the. wood brought in, and the wide old-f a8hioned fireplaces blaze and crackle with the long sticks, while above the kettle hisses and sings and its cover rises and falls and rattles. Acre and there the tallow dip assists in its poor faint way 11 the blisY housewife ply her evening care," and then all hour later, the low thatched-roof cottages are wrapped in darkness, and the stars shine out upon the town at rest. Only the half-chilled, weary soldier oil eviard watches for the beacon, or listens for the si-nal &ulls which sliall call tile men of flingliam to the aid of Nan~asket or Scituate or Weymouth, or awaken them to the defence of their own wives and children and homes.
What a dreary duty it is, too, this waiting and fearing for the dreaded warwhoop Of the Indian in tile still and lonesome hours of the night. How the eve grows strained peering into the darkness and the car weary fistening, and with what a nervous start each new sound, each before unnoticed shadow is noted by the young sentry moving among the aisles of the great trees on tile beight overlooking the Tillage I What a relief, though all too brief, is the visit of Captain Hobart, whose vigilance causes many a restless and wakeful hour in these trying days ; and bow doubly
appolling seems the solitude as the sound of the Captain'B retreating steps die away in the distance, leaving the longbours until
dawn to be. counted away alone, before whose coming the sentry'8 breath shall more than once stop, while lie hears the beating of his own heart, at tile imagined creeping form of an Indian.The defences of 11 ingliam and the preparation for the protection
indications of tile ability and watchfulness of those responsible tot, the safety of the town. The incidents attending tile several attempts upon it, and the intelligent location of tile forts all(! 111all ison liouses,with their garrisons ,it this tinio neule perinallent, tile inutual support which they afforded each other and the fact that swarcely a house from Fort Hill to Broad Brid", t, and thence to South flinglumi, was beyond tile range of fire of olic Or more. of them, added to the. vigilance which anticipated and forestalled panic wheal the hour of perif and trial at last came, furnish inditbitable proof of the military instinct, knowledge, foresight, and faithfulness of Joshua Hobart, John Smith, and John Thaxter. Belyond question it is to this due that the five known atteniptA al"Ailist the town met with comparative failure ; of others, contemplated but abaudoned, owing to the thorough dispositions for inectinIg them, we of course know little.
In this connection we recall the old tradition that Philip himself was at one time concealed within our borders and a%vaiting pur. haps a favorable opportunity to make a descent. As the story runs, he lay somewhere in tile region known as the SwOulp, which
in those days extended with scarcely a break from Broad Bridgti to near tile Weymouth line, and included the location of Round Pond and the district known as Bear Swamp. The sagacious id ief probably concluded that the chance of success was too sniall at:d the risk of severe loss too great to justify a move licilt al'ainst file lower part of the town, and therefore Prudent;y withtfrew. No amount of caution, however, could insure individual life or tile safety of isolabod farms against the silence and celerity of the Indian war parties. One of these, having perhaps cluded Captain Jacoh, whose small force could hardly hope to cover the long hoatior assigned to its care, was moderately successful lit South
Hingham in bringing the terror and horrors of the war home to our own firesides.
Oil Wednesday, the l9th of April, young John Jacob, who, as it will lie recalled, had served against Philip tile previous autumn,
all([ had Been his brave captain fall before the fort of the Narragansetts, took his gun and went out to shout the deer that bad
been trespagsing upon a field of buckwheat near his father's house and not far from the Bite of the present (!rest Plain Meeting-house.
Ile was a famous hunter and of a fighting stock, and he had beent heard to declare that be would never be taken alive by the Indians. Little did he dream that spring morninIg that his would be the only blood ever Blied by a public enemy upon the soil of his native town.
The simple and brief accounts, with a little assistance perhaps of the imagination, bring like a living panoranka before its the P,vents, the homes and the actors of that and tile following dav in the far away ti;~e when our prosaic town was making it Part (;f the history which has become one of the romantic chapters of Now246 History of Hingham.
England's story. On this 19th of April, then, of the year 1676, and shortly after the ill-appearnuce of Jacob, the sound of a musket lueakim, the stillness slid echoing against the great solitary rock that stands like a mighty monument in the field not far from the travelled way, momentarily attracts the attention of the neighbors whose liabits of industry- have overcome the general prudence, and who had been enticed to a little early planting on the home lot. Beyond the fleeting thought of their friend's success in his efforts to chastise the mischievous destroyers of the winter wheat, the incident attracts tie attention, and soon passes from the minds of 9ie workers. With the lapse of considerable time, however, and the continued absence of the hunter, there arises a feeling of strained uneasiness; finally a search is made, and there beside his gun, which has been battered to pieces, the young soldier Ues dead. The terrifying truth flashes across the searchers as they tenderly and hastily bear their neighbor to his filfber's home. The Indiana are in Hingham and have been lying concealed during the night near the wheat-field, and almost close to the homes of the settlers! And now in ail instant and from every side, out of the calm and quiet of the village street there starts the life, the uncontrolled excitement, the panic and terror of the community, above and about whom the threatening horror of the tomahawk and scalping-knife already seems to gleam, and before whose fevered imagination come all too readily pictures of cruelty and torture. The blanched faces of men and women alike, the clinging fear of the children, the hurrying to the nearest garrison houses of those not already therein, the exaggerated stories and rumors, the. or%, " The Indiana! the Indiana! " rising above all other Bounds, repeaied again and again, carrying consternation from the Great Plain to the harbor, and falling upon the startled ear of the farruer in the field and the wife in the kitchen, -how the si.alitB and the sounds of that day thrill us through these passed centuries!
And soon we bear the Bbarp clanging of the little bell on the meetin.-house, the beat and roll and rattle of the drum, the sharp reports of the three alarm muskets, and into the forts, the paliBalled church, and the garrison houses come the streaming, hurrying throng. We fancy we can see brave Joshua Hobart making, calmly and sternly, his dispositions for defence, and even personally visiting and instructing each Nutty and urging to unceasing vigilance; or brilliant John Thaxter ably seconding his chief, and inspiring with confidence the, garrisons at Austin's Lane and Fort Hill; or John Smith cheering the people as they flock into the protecting works on the common field. And there come before its, too, sturdy John Tower and his sons and 11 one or two more persons," as his petition reads, holding his little fort and covering a long section of the river and the homes of his neighbors with his muRkets, while he,checks the panic with his plain,
I ..~, 11-1 _6", _n_ __ natural grace of a limit of superior mind and strong, will; every(lie recognizes 11111110diately the venerable ininistei, and many a word of hope and inany ail admonition to ditty lie speaks as he passes among his people exerting his quieting it;fluence upon them. With our knowledge of his younger days, we cannot lielp thinking that lie had moments of impatience in the reflection that his age and calling prevented a more active participation in the movements against the enemy ; nor would it surprise us to learn that Parson 11obart more than once thoupht, and even said, that if lie were Captain Hobart the military operations would be conducted with more reference to ail offensive policy. Be that as it may, the latter's dispositiona saved the town and the lives of those whose safety was committed to his care. Succeeding the first alarm there followed many weary hours
Oct. 12, 16T6, the General Court ordered 11 That~ Ilinglia'in be allowed and abated out of their last tax rates towards their losses by the enemy the Beat of ten pounds."
The soldiers from Hinglimin appear to have been engaged in some of the most arduous service of the war, for besides leading the van in the great Narragansett fight, as already stated, we find them serving under the immediate command of 'their old townsman, the brave Captain Church, on Martha's Vineynrd and the adjacent islands ; and it need not be said that service under that officer was of the most active kind.
August the 12th Philip was killed at Mt. I-Tope and the war closed, but the military preparations of the colony rather increased than otherwise, and the towns as a necessary consequelice participated in the general activity. In 1679 it petition for leave to form a small troop of horse in Hingham, Weymouth, and Hall, signed by Captain Hobart and others, was granted, and in June of the following year Ensign John Thaxter, whom we have already Seen R8 one of Captain Ilobart'R company officers,248 History of Hingham.
Sergt. Jeremiah Beale was appointed ensign of the foot company Alay 11, 1681, which remained under conilinind of Captain Hobart until his death in 1682, when the periodical trouble which this company seems to have given the government whenever new offieers were to be chosen again called forth it sharp reproof, with a reminder that all acknowlelb,ment of error was expected. This time the diflicultv was over tile desire of a part of the command that Thomas Andrews be commissioned ensign instead of James flawke. The magistrates, however, disapproved of both, and appointed Lieutenant Sinith to be captain, Ensign Beale as lieutenant, and Thomas Lincoln to be ensign.
A reminder of 11 The late Indian Warr," as the old State paper term% it, is found in a grant dated June 4, 1685, as a reward for sorvices, to " Samuel Lyncolne and three inore of flingham, and others of other towns, of ]arid in the Nipunick country."
Among the, many interesting entries in Daniel CushiriWs diary, froin which not a fittle of the town's history has become known, is this: 11 1688, Nov. 5th, soldiers pressed 11 to go against the Indians." These men were perhaps a part of Sir Edmund Andros's small army of eight hundred with which lie marched to the Penobscot, an expedition in which, it will be remembered, little was accomplished of value.
April 18, 1689, Gov. Edmund Andros was arrested by the people of Boston, who had risen against the tyranny and corruption of his government. The next day the conduct of public affairs was assumed by the Council of Safetv of which Bradstreet was chosen president. On May Sth, actin,; ~oubtless under the orders of this extraordinary body, the train build went to Boston where on the ninth were gathered the representatives of forty-three towns. Cusbing's diary tells us that a town meeting was held on the 17th to choose a member of the Council. The choice fell upon Capt. Thomas Andrews, already distinguished in town affairs, and who had been a representative in 1678. It was a distinction wisely bestowed, an(] doubtless while performing the delicate duties of his new office in a critical period, attention was called to that ability which soon after gave him the distinguished lionor of being selected as one of the twenty-one captains appointed for duty with Sir Win. Phips in his attempt at the redue-
tion of Canada. This officer, recently appointed high-sheriff of New England, sailed from Boston car] ii the spring of 1690 for I ort Royal. Ine fort surrendered witli but little resistance, and lbrev weeks later Sir William returned to Boston to prepare for the more ambitious attempt opon Quebec. August 9th, lie sailed with upwards of thirty vessels arid two thousand iViassachusetts Inen, alnong whom were Captain Andrews, Lieutenant Chubbuck, and other Ilijigham men ; how many we do not know.
October 5 the fleet dropped anchor beneath the castle which Nias commanded by Fronternic, all old and distiuguislied French officer. The attack commenced oil tile 8th, and was coritinued (hiring the two following days, when the colonial troops retreated .,ker suffering great loss. Sir Willian.
the remnant of his army and fleet, arr, i ,`it least one of our townsmen was I Quebec, while ,mother, Isaac Lasell, di( h1v of wounds, while Paul Gilford, &Burr, Daniel Tower, and Jonathan Ma town " were carried off by the small p( fleet and added its misfortunes to the dOil the 25th of the month Captain Andrews ~u,
The extremely small scale, as compared with modern days, upon which financial matters were carried on by the town in connection with its military interests, will doubtless have been observed. Ali interesting illustration is afforded by an entry in the Selectmen's Records of 1691, as follows: -
The first day of July, 1,691, then received by the Selectmen of Hingham tenn pounds in silver money of All. Daniel[ Cushing, Sen., of Hingham, which hee, the said Daniell Cushing, lend to the Country for the carying one, the present expedition against the Common enemys of the Country and is to have it payd to him, his heirs, exexutors, administrators, or asigns, in silver money on or befor the last day of September next insubw the dat hearof.
Cushing's diary, under date of July 14, 1694, says that 41 Edward Gilman was pressed to be a soldier to go out against the French army," and under date of October 29 of the same year we are informed " that Edward Gilman came hom6 out of the country's service." This small draft from Hingham, if indeed it was all, was probably her proportion of the force raised to meet the harassing and incessant incursions of the Indians, incited by the French, which for the ton closing years of the century left no peace to the colony, and which had for its principal episode in that year the attack on Groton, July 27th. Captain John Smith, who died in 1695, was probably succeeded in the command of the company by Thomas Lincoln, who had long served as an officer, having been an ensign as early as 1681. At all events we find in the town records of 169T-98, the following - -
The town stock of alaunlDition is in the hands of the 3 commanders of Divs. viz., Capt' Thomas Lincoln I bbl. of powder and 198 weight of bullets and 260 flints; to Lieut. David Hobart, I bbl. of powder and 200 and a half of bullets, gross weight, & 260 flints: to Ensign James Hawks I bbl. powder & 190 weight of bullets, net, and 260 flints.
At'll-PUY wum again 1-1-1 bui ving a- 1116L the brench on behalf of 1fimhaminl725,-this thrie upon a smallvessel of which Lielit. Allason Brown was commander.
Among the many conferences held with the Indians of Maine in the endeavor to secure file safety of the settlements, was one by Governor Belcher, at Falmouth, in Casco Bay, in 1732, at which lie was accompanied, as would appear from ail account found in the Thaxter papers, by Col. Samuel Thaxter, Rev. Nathaniel Eells, and Ebenezer Gay. Colonel Thaxter was a very prominent and trusted citizen, was colonel of the regiment in which Hingham's companies were included, and held many important offices. Among these was that of one of his Majesty's Council, in which capacity probably lie acted as adviser to the Governor. On one occasion, while moderator of a meeting, lie was grossly insulted by - Cain, who dared him to fight. Colonel Thaxter quietly ordered the constable to remove Cain, The meeting being concluded, however, Cain obtained all the fight he wished, for Colonel Thaxter found him, and administered
It is probably safe to assume that, although a severe thrashing. frequently moderator of the town meetings, Colonel Thaxter was never subsequently troubled by personal challenges. This ineident recalls to mind the fact, that with the occupation. of the now meeting-house of 1681, there followed the uses to which the earlier building had been applied, and that not only were the town meetings held in the same place as the religious services, but that the military character of the old belonged, at least to .1 degree, to the new building also. We should find in searching the yellow and stained records of the selectmen for the year 1736, ail account of ail inquiry made by those officials into the amount and places of deposit of the town's ammunition, and the discovery that in Colonel Thaxter's hands was a barrel of powder weighing two hundred Pounds, two hundred and sixty-three pounds of bullets, and a thousand flints, besides a large amount held by Capt. Thomas Loring, and considerable by Mr. Jacob Cushing, till of which, together with other purchased bY the town, 11 we removed into the ammunition house made in file rnecting-house of the first parish in Hingham." In the absence of other information, this record may justify the inference that Captain Loring then commanded one of the Hingham companies. Of this, however, there is no certainty. Captain Loring represented the town at one time in the General Court, and from his son Benjamin are descended some of the present Hingham Lorings.
During the colonial period there were two expeditions, at least, by Crest Britain a gainst the Spanish possessions in the West Indies in which New England actively participated, and in which, almost as a matter of course, men from Hingham served. The252 Ifislory of 11inghoon.
first of these was in 1740, when Governor Belcher received orders to enlist a force to be sent to Cuba to the relief of Admiral Vernon, who was in need of reinforcements. Among tile five humbled soldiers recruited in Massachusetts, there is much reason to believe that quite a number were recruited in Hingham. The rolls are, liowcvLr, not only very, imperfect in other respects, but they fail entirely to name the towns from which men served. We know, however, that among the officers was Lieut. Joshtia Barker, who had declined a captaincy, and who now went as second in the company commanded by Captain Winslow. Lieutruant Barker was one of the very few survivors of this ill-fated expedition, in which, it will be recollected, was Lawrence Wash. ington and a Virginia contingent. The foiceR of Massachusetts and Virginia together stormed tile castle of Carthagena, the principal town of the Spanish Main in New Granada. The place was not taken, however, and the expedition was a dismal failure. It is said that only fifty of the men front Massachusetts returned. Lieutenant Barker afterwards, as Captain Barker, served in all. the wars of his country front this time until 1762, when be was again engaged !it the second and more successful attack upon the Spanish West hidies. Ile held a commission in the British service, and was a kind and able mail. Ile resided upon the spot where now stand? tile Hingham Bank.
There. was also a Nathaniel Chublitick in this service, who may have been a townsman.
Oil the night of September 30, 1741, a number of the Spanish prisoners escaped from Boston with a large sail-boat. As they were armed, great fear was felt for the safety of the New England coastim, vessels, and Capt. Adam Cushing, formerly one of Him,ham's selectmen, slid now an able officer, was ordered in pursuit, with special instructions to search the creeks of Hinghain and Weymouth. There remains no account of his success or otherwise.
In 1740, a division of the town into the wards whose limits remain unchanged to this day took place, and it is interesting to note that this division was solely for military purposes, and that the ward boundaries were inerely those of the several companies, which the town thereafter maintained. At this time CohasBet, which had been made the second precinct in 1702, continued to be so designated, while the third comprised what is now known as the middle ward, embracing that part of the town south of the town brook, as far as Cold Corner, the remainder lying in the former fourth, now the south ward. The first, or north ward, then as now, embraced the country north of the brook. The first powder-house in Hingliam wag built by the town in 1755. It stood a little north and nearly on the site of the New North Meeting-liouse. Afterwards it was removed to Powder-bouse Hill, near where Mr. Arthur Hersey's house now is, off Hersey street.
Among a number who signed a voluntary agreement to em,age in a hazardous attempt to storm the Island battery in the hi`rbor of Louisburg, we find the name of Ebenezer Beal, presumably a Hingham man. Israel Cilbort, who died later in the service, is said to have been a soldier in the " Old French War."
Sanotel Lincoln and Joint Stephenson were also at Loui8burg it, soule capacity, and received pay, for assisting in " wooding tli'e 1~1:111)ison." The following were also soldiers at Louisburg, and there can be little doubt were flimfloun men - John Lowis, Joshua Lasoll, Thomas Jones, Samuel Gilbert and John Wilder.
fly tile terms of the peace, of Aix-la-Chapelle, concluded in 1748, Louisburg was surrendered to the French, and the work of taking it had subsequently to be done again.254 History of Hingliam,
The peace was, at least in America, more nominal than real, and the usual encroachments of each party upon the claimed possessions of the other, with all the attendant barbarities of border war, recommenced almost with the signing of the treaty. Nevertheless, the fifty years' conflict between the civilization and aims of the Saxon and the civilization and aims of the Latin was drawing to its close, and the year 1754 saw the beginning of the end. In the South its first notes were heard in the conflict between the Virginians under Washington and the French oil the Ohio ; in the North the real signal was the march of an army of eight hundred Massachusetts men, under Gen. John Winslow, to secure by forts the passes from Quebec to New England, although negotiations were carried oil between France and England even months later for six amicable settlement of all disputes between them. Ceneral Winslow fortified several places oil or near the Kennebec. In his regiment, in Capt. John Lane's company, were Sergeant Elijah Cushing, Ephraim Ifall, and Isaac Larrabee, of Hingliam. Engaged in this same expedition probably, was the sloop
Mermaid," of eighty-five tons, of which Samuel Lincoln was master, Samuel Johnson mate, and Charles Clapp and Jnmes White were sailors. Clapp's residence is unknown. The others, as well as the sloop, undoubtedly belonged in Hingham. Samuel Lincoln was styled Captain in later life.
In the spring of the following year, negotiations having been broken off in December, troops and transports began to arrive from England, and in April Shirley and the other colonial governors met Braddock in consultation. The events which followed can be scarcely more than named, Parkman, in his "Moriteallit and Wolfe," has related them with a charm and grace which give to the hard facts of history the enchantment of romance.
Yet with many, perhaps nearly all, of the occurrences in the North and East, Hingham was so closely and intimately connected, through the very large number of tier sons who participated in them, that some brief explanations, expandilig occasionally into narrative of what has elsewhere been better told, may be allowable here. If the rolls of participants in the first taking of Louisburg were incomplete, and the numbers serving from this town were apparently meagre,the fulness of the former and the length of names making tip the latter, which are to be found in the Commonwealth's papers, at once surprige and gratify, although the task of eliminating repetitions in the different returns, and crediting the men properly to the places to which they belonged, is extremely difficult. After the death of General Braddock, Governor Shirley, of Massachusetts, became for the time the commander of the British forces in America, and among the several expeditions planned by him was
In the mean time the expedition which finally resulted in the Acadian tragedy had been planned by Gov. Shirley, and sailed from Boston ~May 22, 1755. It consisted, in the main, of some two thousand men, under the immediate command of its lieutenatit-colonel, John Winslow, Shirley himself beingg its noininal colonel. On the let of June the fleet and transports anchored off Beaus6jour, the French fort at the small isthmus connecting Nova Scotia with the main land, and oil the 16th the fort and garrison surrendered to the En~fflisb. Within a few days after,ull of Acadia fell into British hands. Then followed the removal of the unhappy people of this province from their homes, and their dispersion among the English colonies from Massachusetts to Georgia. The sad story has been the subject of poetry and romance; the best and most just account is to be found in Parkman's pages, but there are local associations with the events whose relation property belongs here. One of the most inter 256 History if Hingham.
esting of these is that Joseph Blake, whose father had been a resident of Hingham, was, although but sixteen years of age, an officer under Colonel Winslow, and was sent with a delachm-Ut f the French Neutrals, as the Acadians were called, to th :'
Another family occupied a part of the old Cushing house at the foot of the Academy Hill; and still another what is generally called the Welcome Lincoln residence at West Hingham. The few names that remain to us of these people are as follows: Joseph and Alexander Brow, Charles, Peter, and John Trawhaw, and Anthony Ferry. Beyond the inhumanity of their expatriation, the treatment of the Acadians by the people of New England was often kind, and even sympathetic. Without a country, separated from the neighbors and friends with whom they had spent all their happy days, in some cases members even of their own families lost to their knowledge, their suntly hinnes destroyed, their kinds forfeited to the stranger, deprived of the ministrations of their religion, hearing always a foreign tongue, seeing always unfamiliar faces, watched, f3twpected, trammelled, poor, their condition, let us be thankful, Was at least not aggravated by extreme bodily suffering, or by, the coldness, neglect, and indifference of their conquerors. Indeed, many of those who reached Canada lookml back with longing eyes towards the land of the Puritans, wlecre a kinder welcome and more generous charity softened their hard lot than that given by their compatriots.
The town records of Hingham contain many entries Bbowing liberal disbursements for the benefit of such of these people as were in want; and in the volumes devoted to the French Nentrals in the State archives, are several accounts allowed by the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the town for money expended in their behalf. Among these is the following in relation to a family which came here Nov. 29, 1765: -
In pursuance of an act of the Great and Gen' Court of the Province afor"', the following is the account of the Selectmen of the town of flinglion in the County afor" of their expense in the support of the French called Neutrals law Inhabitants of Nova Scotia seat to said town by order of the Committee appointed to dispose of the same, the family seat to sd town were Anthony Ferry & wife & five small children and one sim,le woman in %11 Eight, this accompt is from the First day of June 17;Wt, the tenth day of Nov' 1756 for tools & provisions &e is twelve pounds fourteen Stirling and four pence X12: 14: 4
This family was subsequently increased by the arrival of an aged mother and by the birth of another child. The Ferrys were removed to Boston in 1760 by order of the committee. Some of the old diaries contain references to the employment, from time to time, of one or another of the Acadialis, about the farm-work then in hand. Here are a few extracts: -
May 23 Employed the Frenchmen. Charge them with 38 lbs. Salt Beef Joseph Brow, Alexander Brow, Charles Trawhaw, Peter Trawhaw, John Trawhaw.
Oct 28 Fmployd the old Frenchman Alexander Brow and Peter Trawhaw also the other Brows and Trawhaws at Husking for several days
The fate of these families is lost in the obscurity of history. It is probable that they entirely died off or removed front IIhn,ham, for no descendants of any of them are known to exist.
Among the men impressed and enlisted by Colonel Lincoln out of his regiment for service in Canada in 1759, were, besides Lieutenant Blake, Capt. Jothani Gay and Gideon Hayward, of all of whom he speaks as having been in the Nova Scotia expedition of 1755. Whether there were others or not is not known, as the rolls of Winslow's troops are not to be found.
Af ter a year of open hostility, E ugland on the 18th of May, and France on the 9th of June, 1756, at last declared war. The capture of Crown Point was by no mcans abandoned, but; the French during the interval had constructed a powerful defence at Ticonderoga, and this too was included in the objects of a new expedition planned by Shirley, who chose John Winslow for its leader. Before the campaign commenced Shirley was removed and the command was first given to General Abercroniby, who arrived in June, and then to the Earl of London, who came in July.
In the mean time the raising of tile new army went on. The method was to call for volunteers, bill if the requisite number did not appear a draft was made, by the colonels of tire militia regiinents, of cuotefli men to supply tile dcficienc~y. This will explain some facts to be hereafter related. A bounty of six dollars was offered to stimulate enlistments, and the pay of private soldiers was one pound and six shilhugg a mouth. If a man brought a gun his bounty was increased two dollars. If not, one was supplied, for whi~h he was to account, as well as for powder-horn, knapsack, cauteen, blanket, etc. Subsequently a coat of blue cloth, a soldior'-, hat, all(] breeches of red or blue were supplied. Probably this was the first American force of any considerable size wear ing a uniform, although some regiments had done so previously ; it will be noted that the color wits the same which has since become enshrined in the affections of tile armies of tile republic who have succeeded these troops. The regiments gen. erally were composed of toil companies of fifty men each. Besides their rations each mail was promised and insisted upon having, a gill of ruin daily. The troops mustered at Albail) , and soon enevouped a short distance up the Hudson.
One of tile regiments was commanded by Richard Gridley, afterwards conspicuous for his services at Booker Ilill ; its major was Samuel Thaxter, who, in accoi dance with tile custom of tile time, was also captain of a company. This hitter was from flingham. There are several rolls in existence at different periods of its service. The fit st bears date of May 4, 1756, and contains the followilor names of men from this town: -
and E'Iijz~ll While were already '(lead in the gel-vice, While ionathan Stnith, James Fearing, Will. ffodge, and Will. Jones weic sick at Albany or elsewhere.
Tho lucil might well be sick, if the accounts of re(rillar fritisli officers of the camps of tile New England troops are not exaggerfiled. Liout.-Colonel Burton describes them as dirty beyond deseription, especially that at Fort William floury ; ho speaks more favorably of the camp at Fort Edward, but says that, generally s1waking, there were almost no sanitary arrangeincots, that kitchens, graves, and places for slaughtering cattle were all
mixed, that the commit and stores were in great confusion, tho a(Mince (niard was snot1l, and little care taken to provide against surprise. The several chaplains in tile canip prescut a similar moral picture of the arloy. Meallwhile, Oil tile l4th of Ate,ust O'so'c"'o surrendered to the French, and all thoughts of file capture of Ticonderoga or Crown Point were, for the time, abandoned. Of the miserable jealousies of tile colonies, tile dis1.1raceful failares of a campaign conducted by twelve buildred tile[ sand people against eighty thousand, and tile, I"song it leaches of t;ie superiority in military matters of all army over it inob ' of' the trained soldier over the political civilian, only the briefvst mention call be made. The summer and autumn of 1756 lurnishes a striking illustration, and perhaps an unusually pointed ono ; for here were men, many of them, used to discil~diiio, and experienced in more than one war, sacrificed to tile lack of
methods, discipline, and leadership, indispensable in tile siiceessfill conduct of war. The opposite of all this was truc ill the French camps, and the results were equally different.
Loudon had ten thousand men posted from Albany to Lake George. Of these about three thousand provincials were at tile, lake under Winslow, with wheat was Gridley and hih re~,inlcut. Morricalm wag at Ticonderoga with an army of about live thansand regulars and Canadians.
On the 19tb September, Captain Hodges, of Gridlev's command and fifty men were ambushed a few miles from Port Williain Henry by Canadians and Indians, and only six escaped.
Bougainville, aide-de-camp to Alontealm, who was with the expedition says that out of fifty-three Enp-lish, all but one were
taken or killed; be adds that a more recital of the cruelties coiriinitted oil the battle-field by the Indians made him shudder. Among the dead was Captain Hodces, and undoubtedly also Israel Gilbert, Thomas Slander, Elijali' White, and Robert Tower; Ensign Jeremiah Lincoln, then apparently a lieutenant, was, with others, captured. Those men all belonged to Major Thaxter's company, Mr. Lincoln, in the history of the town, says that a mail named Lathrop, who also belongea here, was killed at the sarne time.
Lieutenant Lincoln wag taken to Quebec, where, after spending the winter, 'lie inado his esca"o in the night with three othes-B. Two of these because so exhausted that they went to surrender to the French at Crown Point, while Lincoln and big companion finally reached Fort Edward after great Buffering, during which they were obliged to subsist upon the bark of trees.
Ili November the army dispersed, leaving a small garrison at Lake George. The provincials returned to their homes, while tile English regulars wore billeted in different parts of the country; those at Boston being sent to Castle William.
To the lists already given as serving in the Crown Point army, there should be added the following taken frosia a note in Mr. Lincolu7s private copy of his history : -
A Portled,p Bill of sloop Sea Flower, Jno Cushing all and sailors in His llila~esty's Service in the Crown Point Expedition
To hire of Sloop Sea Flower 74 tons at % per ton a month from Sept 30 1751; to We )5
Captain Cushing married Olive, daughter of Colonel Lincoln, and resided at South Hingham. John Burr, his mate, at this time lived on Leavitt street. Samuel and Isaiah Tower were brothers. Bosid" all these, Isaac Joy served in Colonel Gridley's own earnPally, sull Robert Townsend, Jr., in Captain Read's company, in ColonelClapp'sireginumd. Mr. Ceorge Lincoln says that Nehemiah Joy was also in the service at Lake UcorV.
The next, year London with the best of the army sailed from New York for Halifax, leaving Lake George comparatively ung,uarded, with tile hope of taking Louisburg, -an expedition, by the way, that proved a total failure. Meanwhile Montealm gath- A ill~aEjaX at Ticonderoga, and by the end of July be had
-eldollel Moolo, it Zotell veteran. with him were tlVerd)-two lorinfred )[tell ill~ cludingg eight hundred from Miss8achusett8, Lueder Colonel Frye, who at-rived on the first of tile njolith, j,be s
to the colonies for militia which could V 'to Possibility arrise it, tilne. They llowm,er made the attempt 4e,,11 as fill' as~from cast- vni MassaAasetts. After a brave d0fe'll(T the garrison qr,,u,
Most got dangerously rioar, lie would throw soinu of his burden il~ lar as possible to one side. The greed (if his pursiters for phillder was go great, that thel, w'(1141 stop to recover tile abandoned
longing to Major Thaxter's company, is as follows; the men were probably oil some detail away from the fort: -
Major Samuel Thaxter, scarcely less famous than his able grandfather Col. Samuel Thaxter, was a brave soldier Pis well is a prominent and trusted citizen in civil affairs. Ife was reported in Hingliain as having lost his life in the massacre which followed the surrender, and a funeral sernion was preached by Dr. Gay. After the sermon Mr. Caleb Bates was engaged in driving his cows at Rockley, when whom should lie meet but the Major himself coming home on horseback. Throwing up both hands in astonishment, Mr. Bates exclaimed, 11 Good God, Major, is that you ? Why, we have just buried you! " Major Tbaxter was a quick-tempered and kind-hearted man.
To General Webb's request for Militia to march to the relief of Fort William, there was immediate response fron, tile colonies, and Massachusetts esliecially wasted no time in vettinL, a larze number of incit into t le field. We already ktlow~ilie u~clessnc~s of the effort; indeed, Monro had already capitulated several days before the troops froin eastern New England started ; although this was of course not known until later. Upon receipt of the ucceasary orders, Col. Benjamin Lincoln commanding the third Suffolk reginiont, at once detached from his command the coinpany in Ilingliam commanded by Ebenezer Beal, and started it on tile march the 15th of August. The roll of Ifinghain men in the company was as follows : -
It will be recalled that soon after the termination of the war with Philip, permission was granted to Capt. JoBbua Hobart, and others, to form a small troop of horse in Ilingliam, Weymouth, and Hall, and that John Thaxter became its first conkniander. With the foot companies of Hingham and other towns in the vicinity, this troop was attached in 1680 to a new regiment under Major Win. Stoughton. It would seem that subsequently the troop came to be composed almost entirely of men belonging to Hingliam and Braintree, and that was still the fact when, August 12th, 1757, it marched to the relief of the fort, which had already surrendered. By the above roll it will be seen that a majority of its officers were from the former place. Its service ended the 23d of the same month.
In July, 1767, Pitt, who shortly before lead been dismissed from office, became the controlling force in foreign affairs and in the department of war. With him there came a new light to England and the colonies; the tide of defeat and disaster was checked, hope was reawakened, and a vigor and wisdom instilled into the conduct of public affairs, which eventually led to the triumph of the British arins and the conquest of Canada. Early in June, 1758, Admiral Boscavven and General Amherst,
Among the Massqcbusetts regiments raised for the prosecution of the war was one cominqiided by Col. Joseph Williams. It was recruited early in 1758, and coniained a company of Ilinghaill men, commanded by Capt. Edward Ward, who had already served at the capture of Louisbourg in 1W. The roll of t1iis com- pany was is follows: -
After the defeat Abercromby reoccupied slid refortified the camp which be had left but a few days previously. Colonel Brad. street obtained, after much persuasion, three thousand men, mostly provincials, and with these and a small number of Oneidas be, embarked, August the twenty-second, in his fleet of wImIeboat8 and pushed out (into Lake Ontario. His destination was Fort Frontenac, and as Thomas Buri, who was in this expedition, RavB in his diary, the troops came in sight of the French works on die twenty-fifth, and landed about dusk, and to quote the diary, " pitched against the fort" on the twent-v-sixth. The next day the garrison surrendered, together with nine armed vessels and a large amount of stores and ammunition.
Forming a part of Colonel Bradstreet's cornma;:d, and pnrticipating in I& triumph was Captain Ward's compa y of Hingham men,- if indeed,tbe whole of Colonel Williams' regiment was not in the expedition. Subsequently many of them were at the ('rest Carrying Place. This latter was the name of a post upon the Mohawk, then being fortified by General Stariwix, with whom Bradstreet left a thousand men on his return frou) his victory. Among them were Beza Cushing, Noah Humphrey, John Neal, Isaac Gross, Isaac Smith, James Hayward, David Tower, Jonathan Farrow, Townsend Smith, Joseph Carrel, Robert Dunbar, Solo. Whiten, William Cornett, and Thomas Lathrop. Not previously named, but at Frontenac, in addition to others, were Ralph Hassell, and John Sprague; they would seem to have enlisted in other companies in Colonel Williams' regiment.
May 4, 1759, Cov. Tbomas Powmill sailed from Boston with a regiment commanded by bimself, and constructed a fort upon the Penobscot. Among Colonel Pownall's captains was Jotharn Car, with a company from Ilingliqn). Captain Gay's company sc~ins however to have been sent to Halifax somewhat earlier, -,tied a return sworn to by him indicates thnt it formed part of the garrison of that post from Alarch until November of that year. Capt. Jotharn Gay was born in Hingham, April 11, 1733, and as already seen, w.;s in the king's service from 1765 until near the close of the last French war. Subsequently lie was a colonel in the Continental army, and a representative from
Ifingbaut in 1799 and 1800. His brother Calvin died at Quebec in 1765. They were sons of the Rev. Ebenezer Gay, who was iiii-tister of the Old Church in Hingham for sixtv I .... -nille years.
Of the particular service of these men there appears to be no record. The following from the papers belonging to the Connmonivealth indicates, however, that a number of them were with tile army in New York: -
11 Money owed John Fave, for money paid by him to invalids returning from Albany, &~., &c., 1760:Berij. Stowell, Hingliata, in Col. Thoinas' regt., Capt. Bradford
There is it carious and interesting record in Vol. 98, page 361, of the rolls at tile State House in connection with the invalids at Albany, which seems to have escaped notice elsewhere. It is an account of a payment " to Col. Ranslow ]or his Battalion of Negroes to carry Small Pox people to Albany."
Wolfe had climbed the Heights of Abraham, gained the crown of imperishing faine, and laid down his life in the moment of victory, while Motitcalm, his dying thoughts for Canada, slept the soldier's last sleep in the Convent of tile UrindincB. September tile l8th Quebec surrendered. The following spring L4vis made a bold attempt to recapture it, but abandoned tile attempt upon tile arrival of an English fleet. Oil tile fifteenth of July, 1760, Murray, with twenty-four hundred and fifty men, left Quebec and inarclA toward Montreal ; lie was subsequently reinforced by seventeen hundred more under Lord Rollo,
In the mean time General ffaviland left Crown Point with an army of thirty-four hundred regulars, provincials, and Indians, while Amherst with ten thousand men embarked from Oswego on the tooth of August, followed by seven hundred Indians under Sir William Johnson. On the sixth of September the three armies encamped before Montreal. With Amherst and Haviland doubtless would have been found Hingham's recruits enlisted " for the total reduction of Canada." September the eighth the remnants of tile French army, consisting of about tweirty-four hundred men, surrendered to General Amherst, who was about to open fire upon Montreal, besieged as it was by his force of seventeen thousand.
If with the death of 3lontealm and the surrender of Quebec, France ill the New World died, so at Montreal was buried all hope of her resurrection, unless, indeed, through the medium of diplomacy when peace should at last be declared. Even that hope was destined never to be realized, for with the signing of the articles at Paris in 1763 French dominion in North America became only a matter of history. However. during the many months and even years that intervened, the Bea coasts had to be guarded, and tile various military posts garrisoned. Probably engaged ill
Impossible as it is to give an absolutely correct list of our townsmen who " went out against the French " (hiring th"e long years of warfare, there are nevertheless preserved and here phiOd oil the rolls of the brave, the names of some two hundred and twentv-four different individuals who fouAt trader tile king's colors and shared in tile glory of the final triumph.
Moreover, at least fifty of these re-enlisted, fifteen served three times, four four times, and one loan seems to have been a recruit oil live different occasions, so that there must be credited as serviii~ in Iliturharn's quota, during some part of the period, about three hundred and twenty soldiers. Among these were more than a dozen officers, of whom the most celebrated wag Major Thaxter,
Ill glancing at those old company rolls we notice the frequent recurrence of certain family names having a large representation aniong the present inhabitants, while others, then boria, by it considerable number of persons, have entirely disappeared from ihe town. Of the former, tile Lincohis, with seventeen names on the lists, easily lead, while the (hishings; and Dun(airs each furnish nine, the Burrs six, the Beals the saitio number, tile Stoddard,,; five, and the Towers four, Oil the other hand the Cni-nets, of whom five enlisted, have ceased to exist by that nanic, althoic,li under the not very different form of Oardner, there arc still representatives here, while the ('i.ys, Joys, Cilberts, Gills, and others, including tile once 1111111c)-oins Slophellsons, hme few or none to preserve their names rind families.
From the close of the French wars; to the opening of the Rovelution, we know little about the local inilitary. Colonel Lincoln continued to command the regiment down to about tile close of the war, hat under (late of January 21, 1762, a list or the commh~sioned officers names Josiah Quiney as colonel, Joint Thaxter of Hingham as lient-colonel and captain of the first flinginua company, and Theophilus Cushing, also of this town, as major and captain of the second Hingham company. The other officers belonging here were Joseph'Thaxter, - afterwards captain, - and Ca eb Bates, lieutenants, in Lieut.-Coloriel Thaxter's company, and270 History of Hingham.
captain of the third company, with Isaac Lincoln, liclitearant, and
David Tower, Jr., ensign. The fourth Ilingbain company was
commanded by Thomas Jonem, and his lieutenant was Benjamin
Thaxter, with Ebenezer Beale, Jr., for his ensign. Tile troop of
horse which still existed was officered by David Cushing, captain,
BenJarain Hayden, lieutenant, Jonathan Bass, cornet, and Joseph
Cushin"', qu~rterm aster. Soon after, James Humphrey became
first major, and Benjamin Lincoln, Jr., second major of theregiment.
In 1771 this old command, formed in the early days of the colon) , and so long known as the Third Suffolk, had become the second regiment, Nvith John Thaxter, colonel, and Benjamin Lincoin, lie u tena nt-colonel. The companies from Ifingliam were officered as folloii s : Ist company,James Lincoln, captain; Elijah Lincoln, livatenaut; 2d coiinpa~i~, Enoch Whiten, Jr., captain; Theophilus Wilder, Jr., lieutenant; 3d company, Isaiah Cushing, captain; Peter Cashing, lieutenant; John Burr, ensign. There was also a ti in of artillery attached to this regiment,
Lieut.-Colonel Lincoln was in command of tile regiment at the opening, (if the Revolution, and the muster rolls of the day style it 11 Col. Lincoln's," although there is some uncertainty about his being so commissioned.
In tile stirring and exciting events preceding and leading up to the war between the colonies and Great Britain, Ifingham was an active participant. With that of so many other towns, her hiatory contributes to the familiar narrative of the great part taken by Massachusetts in tile resistance to tyrannical and oppressive acts of parliament and king. The names of flancock, Otis, and Lincoln have for her more even than the interest elsewhere surrounding them, for to the families bearing them she feels the affection and pride belonging to the children of the household.
John llancock, Major-Gencral, President of Congress, and Gover
nor of Massachusetts, was the son of Mary Ilawke of Hingham,
who first married Samuel Thaxter, Jr., and then John flaricock, of
Braintree ; while, John Otis, the ancestor of the patriot, was one
of the earliest settlers of tlic town and the possessor of large tracts
of land here, and his descendants resided in Hingham for genera
tions. Mary Otis, daughter of James the patriot, married the
soil of General Lincoln, while other members of the family were
connected by manrica0genswifith the Thaxter,5, Gays, Lincolvis, andHerseys. The n If the pages of local and common-
wealth history with tile story of their services in the field, the town, the halls of legislation, and the council chamber, from the earliest days to the present time. During tile French war we have seen h enjamin Lincoln, its colonel of his regiment, the historical Third Suffolk, to which the companies in flinglenn had almost from the settlement of the town been attached, taking In active part. He was also for seventeen years a member of his Majesty'q Council, but resigned in 1770, at tile time when it was fast becoming impossible for patriotic Americans to hold longer the king's commissions. Colonel Lincoln died March 1, 17TI, leaving, aniong ot iers, the son Benjamin who so worthily filled the place lie long occupied in public estimation and usefulness. The affection which is felt for the great President Abraham Lincoln, also a descendant of a Ilingliam family, has given a national faille to the name in later years.
Am early as Sepieniber 21, 1768, the town, in response to a cir. cular from Boston, " chose Joshua Rearsey a committee to join the committees from the several towns within the province to assemble at Boston oil the 22d of September, current, thou and there to consult such incasuies as sliall be necessary for the prc%clIvIlition of good order and re.pilarity in the province ,it this criticat conjuncture of affairs." Ifis instructions were its follows: 11 We advise and direct you that you use your endeavors to preserve peace and good order in tile province and loyalty to tile khq ; that you take every legal and constitutional method for the preservation of our rights and liberties, and for havire, redressed these grievances we so generally complain of and so sensibly feet ; that all possible care be taken that the troops that should arrive have provision made for them, so that they be not billeted in privite families, and at so convenient a distance as not to interrupt the people ; that you encourage the inhabitants to keep at) military duty, whereby they may be in a capacity to defend theniselves agains , t foreign enemies; and in case you are exposed to any charges in prosecuting any of the foregoing preparations, we will repay it, and as these instructions are for your private use, hitprove them for that purpose and for no other whatever." The instructions were drawn up ky Ezekiel Hearsey, Benjamin Lincoin, Jr., and Capt. Daniel Lincoln.
In response to the circular, delegates from sixty-six town%, the number of whom afterwards increased to ninety-eight, met oil the day appointed, and continued in session from day to day, until the 29th, during which they adopted a letter to be transmitted to the agent of the province in London, and also voted to publish a result of their conference, in which, while declaring their ,tilegiance to the king, they also declared their rights under the clearter. March 5, 1770, occurred the event known in American history as the 11 Boston Massacre." Without discussing the events which led up to the riot and bloodshed in King Street on217 2 11istory of ffinghain.
that memorable occasion, the fact of HinOam's sympathy with the people as against the soldiers is perfectly evident from resolutions passed at the annual meeting of that ;rar. They are not to be found in the town records, but are contained in the following letter from General Lincoln, then town clerk, to the committee of merchants:
GENTLEMEN, - At the annual meeting of the town of Hingham, on the 19th day of %rcb, A.D. 1770: Upon a motion being made and seconded (though omitted in the warrant), the inhabitants, taking into consideration the distressed circumstances of the people in this and the neighboring Provinces, occasioned by the late parliamentary acts for raising a revenue in North America, the mantier of collecting the same, and the measures gone into to enforce obedience to them, and judging that ever), society and every individual person are loudly called to exert the utmost of their abili.ty in a constitutional way to procure a redress of those grievances, and to secure the privileges by charter conveyed to them, and that freedoin which they have a right to :Is men and English subjects, came to the followir%g votes: -
Voted, That we highly approve of the patriotic resolutions of the nice, chants of this province not to import goods from Great Britain till the repeal of the aforesqid acts; and viewing it as having a tendency to retrieve us from these burdens so inuch complained of, quit so sensibly felt by us, we will do all fit our power in a legal way to support them in carrying into execution so worthy an undertaking.
Voted, That those few who hive imported goods contrary to general agreement, and counteracted the prudent ;end laudable efforts of the mer~ chants qlid traders aforesaid, have thereby forfeited the confulence of their brethren ; and therefore, we declare that we will not directly or indirectly have anv commerce or dealings with them.
Votei, That we will discourage the use of foreign superfluities among us, and encourage our own manufactures.
Voted, That we heartily sympathize with our brethren of the town of Boston, in the late unhnppy destruction of so many of their inhabitants, and we rejoice with them that there yet remains the free exercise of the civil authority.
Voted, Th4 the town clerk be ordered to transmit a copy hereof to the committee, of merchants in Boston.
I cheerfully comply with the above order and herewith send you a copy of the Votcs~ I am, gentlemen, with great esteeni, your most obedient and most humble servant,
At a meeting held January 11, 1773, a committee consisting of Bela Lincoln, Benjamin Liie~oln, Joseph Thaxter, Jacob Cushing, and Joshua Ilearacy, was appointed to draft instructions to John Thaxter, the town's representative. This was done on the I Sth in ,it communication urging him to use his best endeavors for the redress of the grievances under which the province was suffering.
These young men all belonged in Hingham, and their participatient was quite likely the result of an agreenient among them to he in Boston until the question of the landing of the tea should be settled. It is significant that at least three of them should have become soldiers in the war for independence which so soon followed.
The action of this 16th of December was followed by more. papers and letters from the Boston Committee of Correspondonce. To these the town responded at the annual meeting by resolutions declaring,-
" First, That the disposal of their property is the inherent lilght of freemen, that there is tie property in that which another can of right take, I . roin us without our consent; that the claim of Parliament to tax America is, in other wordi, a claim of right to lay contributions on us :it pleasura.
" Secondly, That the duty imposed by Parliament upon tea lande(I in America is a tax on the Americans or levying contributions on them without their consent.
"' rhirdly, That the express purpose for which the tax is levied on the Americans, namely, for the 8upport of government and administration of justice, and the defence of his Majesty's dominions in Ameri,~a, ha4 a direct tendency to tender assemblies useless, and to introduce arbitrary government and slavery.
" Fourthly, That a virtuous and steady opposition to the ministerial plan of governing America is necessary, to preserve even a shadow of liberty ; and it is a duty which every freeman in America owes to his countrv, to himself, and to his posterity.roe. L -IS
"Fifthly, That the resolution lately come into by the East India Com. pany, to sea(( out their teas to Americ% subject to the payment of duties on its being lauded here, is an open attempt to enforce the allioi5tprial plan, and a violent attack on the liberties of America.
" Sixthly, That it is the duty of every American to oppose this ,attempt.
" Seventhly, That it affords the greatest satisfaction to the inhabitants of this town to find that his Majesty's subjects in the American colonies, and of this province in particular, are so thoroughly awakened to a sense of their danger, arising from encroachments made on their con8titutional rights and liberties, and that so flrm a union is established among them ; and that they will ever be ready to join their fellow subjects in all laudable measures for the redress of the many grievances we labor under."
August 17, 1774, the town adopted the following agreement as reported by a committee - -
"We the subscribers, taking into our serious consideration the present distressed state of America, and in particular of this devoted province, occasioned by several late unconstitutional acts of the British Parliament for taxing Americans without their consent-blocki up the port of Boston -vacating our charter, that solemn compactnLween the king and the people, respecting certain laws of this province, heretofore enacted by our general court and confirmed by his majesty and his predecessors, we feel ourselves bound, as we regard our in~stimable constitution, and the duty we owe to succeeding generations, to exert ourselves in this peaceable way, to recover our lost and preserve our remaining privileges, yet not without grief for the distresses that may hereby be brought upon our brethren in Great Britain. We SO]eMDIY COVetaUlt and engage to and with each other, viz.: Ist, That we will not import, purchase, or consume, nor suffer any person or persons to, by, for or under us to import, purchase, or consume in any manner whatever, any goods, wares, or merchandise which sliall arrive in America, from Great Britain, from and after the flrst day of October, one thousand seven hundred and Seventyfour, until our charter qndC0DStitUthMal rights sluill be restored ; or until it sliall be determined by the major part of our brethren in this and the neighboring colonies, that a new importation, or a new C0138111uptiOn agreement will not effect the desired end; or until it sball be apparent that a neer importation or new consumption agreement will not be entered into by this and the neighboring colonies, except drugs and medicines slid such articles, and such only, as will be absolutely necessary in carrying on our own manufactures.
44 2dly, That in order to prevent, as far as in us lies, any inconveniences that may arise from the disuse of foreign commodities, we agree that we will take the most prudent care for the raising and preserving sheep, flax, &c., for the manufacturing all such woollen and linen cloths as shall be most useful and necessary ; and that we will give all possible support and encouragement to the manufactures of America in general."
In September Colonel Lincoln was chosen to attend a Provincial Congress at Concord, and in October the town 11 recommended
'11rdner, Esq., of Stow, appointed treasurer by the Provincial Congress.
December 26 Colonel Lincoln was a-ain sent to the Proviiicial Congress to bo held in Cambridge. January, 1775, the town chose a committee to take into consideration the, state of the militia. The members of this committee were Colonel Lincoln, Enoch Lincoln, Jothatu Lincoln, Samuel Norton, Jacob Leavitt, Samuel Thaxter, and Seth Stowers; almost every one of whom served in the nriny subsequently.May 24, 1775, Colonel Lincoln was chosen to represent the
July 10 Colonel Lincoln was chosen to represent the town in the General Court to be held at Watertown on the 19th agreeably to a resolve of the Continental Congress.
The following are some of the expenditures of the town in this year 1775 ordered to bp paid by Thomas Loring, Treasurer: -
not alone the names of the brave men of Lexington and Concord arid Acton and the other towns whose soils were actually engaged and sonle of lv1mrn laid down fl-ir li- it, file first battle of file Revolution, but also those of the equally brave from remoter places who hastened toward the field of conflict at the first note of alarin, and who rightly share in the honor and glory of the victory of that 19th of April and the service that immediately followed. The rolls of these companies are very numerous, there being in fact several hundred of them, of which four tell the story of what Hingham did in tile dawning of the eight years' conflici. Of these troops, there appear to have been three foot-companies, or what would now be termed infantry, and one -that coremanded by Captain Loring- artillery, then termed the 11 Train." Probably all were attached to Colonel Lincoln's command.
Omitting the details of expense, pay, and sonic other items of little or no interest, an exact copy of the rolls of these companies is here given : -
A true return of tile traveland time of Service of the men under my Command in Col. Benj. Lincoln's Regiment Assembled tile 19th April, 1775: -
Too remote from the field of battle to have made active par. ticipation in the conflict possible to her organized military,
tinction of being among tile towns represented on that ineinorable day. Joseph Thaxter, a groat-randson of Col. Samuel Thaxter, and a graduate of Harvard College, was preaching as a candidate for the ministry at Westford, when lie heard of the approach of the British troops towards Lexington. Hastening to Concord oil horseback, armed with a brace of pistols, lie was among those who received the enemy's fire at Concord Bridge. Ile was subsequently appointed a chaplain in the army, and was attached to Colonel Prescott's regiment at the time of the battle at Breed's Hill, which is known in history as the battle of Bunker Hill, and in which he is said to have participated. Later he was chosen as a representative in the General Court from Hingham, but resigned for active service in the army, where we shall hereafter meet him. Mr. Thaxter participated in the cerenjonies of the 17th of June, 1825, at the laying of the corrier-stone of the Bunker-Hill nionunient, bein~g at that time the only surviving chaplain of the Revolutionary army. Ile died at Edgartown in 1827.
Although but a short time in the field, the value of the service rendered by these and other companies which responded to tile Lexington alarm, call scarcely be over~eatimated. Comparatively few were able to reach the battle-ground and participate in the glory and renown of the victory, but its fruits wore yet to be secured, and to the men who marched on that inemorable morning and then remained patiently on duty until all army could be raised and posted, is due much ;f the credit for the uitimate success. Ill the mean time the British were to be watched, and any aggressive movement on their part to be met and frustrated. These companies were encamped near and about Boston, virtually commencing even then its siege, and offectoally guarding tile military stores in the towns near by. Within a ~crv few days after the battle of Lexington, the Provincial Congress of IMassachusetts ruet at Watertown, and took measures to raise a large permanent army composed of twenty-eight regiments numbering between thirteen and fourteen thousand men. To each soldier, as a bounty, there was promised a coat upon his enlistment, and the towns were ordered to furnish thirteen thousand coats. In vols. 56 and 57 at the State House, and known as the 11 Coat Rolls," are to be found the names of the officers and men composing this force, which was enlisted for eight months, go(] served from early in May to January of the following year; the enlistment of some of tile companies is said to have dated from the 19th of April. These with a few regiments from Connecticut , Rhode Island, and New Hampshire, composed the greatei part of the army which maintained the siege of Boston. It was stationed at Dorchester, Roxbury, Cambridge, Watertown, ond other places near the base of operations. General Ward ivis in282 11istory of Hinghont.
company were in General Heath's regiment as before stated, but it is also probable that Colonel Greaten was air earlier commander. Most of the company re-cnfiBted for a year's service from Jannary 1, 1776, and after the evacuation of Boston, it marched to New York, where it embarked for Albany, arriving there April 25. May 21 it reached Montreal. ~Geireral Montgomery lead already been killed in the unsuccessful attack on Quebec, and soon after the American army was driven out of Canada. Mr. Lincoln's list of the men engaged in this unforturate'expeditioll is as follows: - 284 History of Hingham.
and five others who received a bounty from the town, but whose names 11,9Ve Dot been ascertained. Mr. George Lincoln Bays that Samuel Whiten was in the Canada expedition in Capt. Charles Cushing's company, and it is probable that his is one of the missing names. Another may have been Hosea Whiten, who is known to have died in the attempt on Canada. After the retreat of the army from Canada, Captain Cushing's company was probably stationed for a time at Ticonderoga, and here on the 1st of August Joseph Whiten, one of his privates, died.
Capt. Charles Cushing was a descendant of one of the first settlers of Hingham. Besides efficient military service in the Revolution, he held many civil offices, and represented the town in both the House and the Senate. He was known later in life as Colonel Cushing. His home was at Hingham Centre.
Capt. Job Cushing was a distant connection of Captain Charles, and commanded it company largely recruited in the second precinct, now Cohasset, where lie resided.
I Mr. George Lincoln is authority for the statement that Perez Gardner was with Arnold in the march through the forests of Maine in 1775, which had its termination in the disastrous attack and defeat of the American forces at Quebec on the 31st of December.
During the siege of Boston both Hingham and Hull were garrisoned posts of the American army. The troops at the former place during at least a portion of the time, consisted of Capt.
James Lincoln's company, which was, it is said, posted at Crow Point for some eight months on its first enlistment. It was prouakuy e1111NLUU U11UU1 ble; ltia~
gress, and served froin about May, 1775), until 1776. The position was a commanding one and well Suited to protect the town from any small force which the enciny might ,end either to (tostroy it, or to forage for hay or provisions. It should be stated, however, in this connection, that while tradition has located this command at Crow Point, a situation so advantageous in a military view as almost to carry conviction of its correctness, there is nearly indisputable evidence that for a time at least, the exact post was nearer the town, upon Broad Cove, and probably upon the South side where is now the Cadet Camp ground. The coreparly was subsequently posted at (lie Cove.In the Commonwealth's archives are, the following papers
Your petitioners humbly show that whereas Requisition was made of the selectmen of llin,Aam to provide Barracks sufficient for the Reception of a Company of Soldiers employed for the Defence of this our State, commanded part of the time by Capt. James Lincoln & part of the time by Capt. Seth Stowers, your petitioners having complyed with the afors" Requisition and engaged Barracks for said company the cost of which we have here annexed to"ther with the cost of Building a Guardhouse, pray your Donors to consider of the matter and order that we may have the money for which we stand engaged.
This account was examined, idlowed, and paid, and was received by Enoch Lincoln on an order from the town. The roll of this compativ is as follows: -
membership, also served, perhaps on a new enlistment, from January 1 ' 1776, to probably some part of July and very possibly for a much longer period. 'the rolls give only partial information. The Journal of the House of Representatives speaks of it as one of four independent companies in the service. Caleb Leavitt became 2d lieutenant in Januar) and was promoted to be 1st lieu
tenant during the inontb, when Noah Heiirsey became 2d lieutenant; at the same time Thomas Stodder, Ephraim Marsh, John Sprague, -and Japheth Hobart were made sergeants, and Nathaniel Tower, Abner Bates of Weymouth, and Jeremiah HearBey, corporals. The following names are those of men who served under the later enlistment, to.getber with many of the earlier members :
also Elijah Levit and Jesse Humphrey " fifteen days after going to Roxbury," where they probably served in some oilier command.
Capt. James Lincoln, it may be remembered, was not only a soldier in the last war with France, but was one of the captains who marched at the first call to arms at the Lexington alai-in. He resided on South Street. Lieut. Seth Stowers, who succeeded to the charge of this company and commanded the post it Hingharn for a while, was also a veteran, and narrowly escaped the massacre at Fort William Henrv. Later in the Revolution Captain Stowers was stationed witl; his company for many moutlis at Hull, and also commanded it in one of the Rhode Jsland cxpeditions. Lieut. Knight Sprague was likewise one of the Fort William Henry soldiers.
Among the few royalists or tories living in fling unit at I lie opening of the Revolution, were Capt. Joshua Barker, then an elderly and respected citizen who had hold a commission in the king's army, and served many years in the wans of his sovereign, and who could Inirdly have been expected to abandon the colors to which the allegiance of the best part of his life had been dovoted, and Elislia Leavitt who occupied the stately old-fashioned mansion which, one of the then attractions of the town, with its288 History of Hingham
tapestries and grand tiled fireplaces, stood some twenty years since anon the present site of the Catholic Church, III tl;is house-there was a bilad passage to wilich a secret do(Ir
the island, burned tile barn and about eighty tons of ha , and brought off the cattle. Mrs. John Adams, writing to ber bulsband, then in the Continental Congrc~s, of the affair saVs You inquire of 'no who were at the eugageinent at G'Yqpe Island. I may
thirty, forty miles (if Weymouth." She adds high praiso of several of her hushand's family w-bo were participants. This skir~ nish may perhaps fairly qiI4 to 11highain the coveted distinction of being one I the battlo-.1rounds of the Revolution - for although 0 l, I
If our small bit of tile war was insignificant compared to the greater everibi, it still furnished one of tile invidents of no little importance at the time in the valuable experience of meetinl- tile enemy and of gaining It victorY, tile Size of which was not suffered to diminish in the current reports; and it i's of value to us 11mv for its service in bringhlIg our town and our people into clo~er
touch with their felt o w-citizens of the Revolution. There a-cre, however, comparatively few of the striking events of Ille Rovolo-tion, without participants frolu ffinglialla
brave men beat back, until their p6wder was gone, tile red ranks on Banker Hill that inernorablo l7th of June, the chaplain of his regiment was our fighting parson of tile engnp-ement, at Concord Bridge, Joseph Thlixter. But lie was not, the- town's sole repre-
scritative at the battle, for Jairus Lincoln and Joseph Bates also bore a part and shared in the glory of the thly, tile latter bqvin~ down his life upon the field, in the honored company- of Genera')Warren and manv another licro of the great fight.
Nalumi Davis, of Capt. Jonathan Bardwell's company in Col. David Brewer'sregiment. Davis also entered the artillery in June. M-~h ~nmv. antionrs on the. rolls of hoth Cant. Dunipi
on the l5th of June, 1775, the Continental Congress voted to adopt, under the name of the Continental Army, the troops of the several provinces then constituting the provincial army operating about Boston ; and oil the 16th Washington was chosen its commander-in-chief. This organization, to which reinforcements and new regiments were added from little to time, was quite different it) its constitution from the force raised under a resolve of Set)toniber 16, 1776, known as the Continental Line. This latter body constituted during the remainder of the struggle the main reliiinco and hope of the Americans ; it was indeed the backbone of the army, and corresponded to the regulars of subsequent times.
Under tfie resolve, cighty-eilght battalions were to be raised for service dittring the war; of this number Massachusetts furnirhed and placed in the field no less than sixteen of infantry and one of artillery, - exceeding her quota, which required but fifteen. We sleall hereafter see manY Hingham names on the rolls of these never-to-be-forgotten regiments.
The summer of 1775 and the succeeding winter wore away and still the siege of the New England town went oil. The expiration of short enlistments, and the habit which seems to have prevailed among the militia belonging to at least certain of the provinces, of leaving the camp for home almost at will, caused sudden depletions in the American ranks, which were both alarming and exasperating to Washington and to the authorities generally. The Provincial Congress of Massachusetts during its willter session reorganized the militia of the province. Three majorgenerals were appointed, and thirteen regiments formed, of which ten arrived in camp early in February ; besides these there were several thousand minute men held in reserve and ready to mat-ell when called UPOD. By fin order in council passed in February, the companies in Weymouth, Hingham, Cohasset, and Hall were organized as the Second Suffolk regiment; thus the old regiment dating from the days of Winthrop and Dudley and which had been commanded by them, by Col. Win. Stoughton, by Josiah Quincy, by out- own John Thaxier, and both Benjamin Lincoln and Benjamin Lincoln, Jr., ceased to exist. The new command was, however, practically the same as the old, whose designation, it may be recalled, had already been changed from the Third Suffolk to the Second Suffolk, although Braintree, so long united with ns, no longer composed a part of the regiment. Solomon Lovell was the new colonel, and Benjamin Lincoln, who lead recently commanded the regiment, ,in(] who hid been untiring in his
The first of these companies, that commanded by Capt. Thomas Hearsey came from the vicinitv of Broad Bridge, and was what would now be called, if still exi4ing, tile 11 down town " company.
The company commanded by Capt. Peter Cushing, and known as the 1, Third Foot Company " was made up principally of men frotut the Lower Plain, now commonly known as Centre Hingham,
Plain and vicinity, coinprisinz the relpion known o~ Soulli flingham. (_ipt. ryani Unsanin, who was a brother-ill-Jaw of General Lincoln, died durin.- the ensuing, stinuner.
During the early days of the Revolution, it will be reniendbered, there was great difficulty in obtainirnr a SafliCiellf supply of powder for tile army, and its manufacture was stimulated and encourged in every possible way. Hingham performed her part in this as in other things, and a certificate of the purih, of the saltpetre produced is here given: -
These may certify that the salt petre now presented for sale by NIT. Joseph Beal (about 80 or 90 weight) was manufactured at Hinghattl by David & Israel Beal, Israel Lincoln, Jacob Beal, and lbentan Lincoln.
March 15, 1776, Capt. Peter Cushing a company was on duty at Hingham for sea-coast defence ; it was engaged four days at this time. With the exception of John Jones, David Sprague, Benj. Joy, Ebed Cushing, Cornelius Barns, Ensign Barns, an(] David Lane who did not serve on this occasion, the roll contains the same names as did that of the company when in the defences at Dorchester, as well as tile following in addition: -
service became so onerima that the Council appointed General Lincoln its agent to appeal to Washington for relief on 6balf of a numbQr of tile towns, as appears by tile following from Revolutionary Council Papers, vol. i. : -
"On motion ordered, That Benj. Lincoln Esq, wait on his ExT Gen. Washington to request of him that as the militia of the several towns of Ilinglaim, Weymouth, Braintree, have for a number of days past been stationed on tile sea coast of those towns in order to watch the motions of the fleet & army now in the harbor of Boston and to prevent their ravaging and plundering the country, lie would send a sufficient detachment from the army under his command to their relief."
The General seems to have had better use for his troops, however, both then and later ; and as we shall Bee, until nearly the close of the war, Hingham continued to defend the sea-coast with large numbers of her men, and especially by manning the important works at Halt.
Sunday, March 17th, General Howe evacuated Boston, and General Putnam and General Ward entered the town. The next day General Reath with five regiments was ordered to New York, and with them went our townsmen under the two Captain Cushings. General Washington entered Boston at the head of the army on the 20th, and oil April 4th, be left Cambridge for New York, General Ward with five regiments remaining for the protection of Boston.
But although tile British army bad departed, the sea-coast towns continued under tile menace of the fleet commanded by Commodore Banks which lingered in the barber, and which was reinforced by seven transports loaded with Highlanders. The people feared the return of Howe, and fortifications were thrown up at East Boston, Point Allerton,and elsewhere. Finally a plan proposed by Ocnoral Lincoln, to drive the enemy from the harbor, received the sanction of tile Council of Massachmetts, and oil ,June l3th and 14th it was pill in execution. General Ward sent a part of the Continental troops under his command to assist the militia who were ordered out for the attempt. To the old Commonwealth belongs the sole credit for the success of the last act in the military operations around Boston.
Like a brilliant panoramic view the scene passes again before our eyes, and the sound of martial music and the thunder of artillery comes once more to our ears. It is almost a year to a day
lish troopers, roll tile guns of Craft's artillery. Here too coule detachments from Colonel Alarshall's and Colonel Whitney's regiMonts and the ContineirtalB whom General Ward has detailed, -undoubtedly with a thrill of satisfaction as lie recalls tile anxions June day when he commanded at Cambridge a twelveniontli since. By the bookstore of Daniel Ifenchnian whole General Knox bad been all apprentice, the troops turn into King Street and passing the Town House match over the spot where Captain Preston and the men of the 99th regiment shot down the people on the night of March 5, 1770, and thence to Lung Wharf where they are to embark. What a flood of inemorie% the place awakens! It was here
pmss wearily ; the garrison flag at, the Castle and the ensign oil Commodoro Banks' ship bang alike lifeless in the all-pervading calin ; the transports drift rather than sad towards 'Uncle desthiations. The still sets for the last time upon the British fleet in Boston harbor. Bv the morning of the 14th all is in readiness. Capt. Peter Cusbin~ with his Hingham men are in the works at Hull,while with the fit are other coin panies from, the sea-coast, and a part of tile militia from Boston ; the whole forming a considerable force, including it portion of Colonel Craft'B famous train of artillery, - another detachment of which, with some militia, lifts been posted ,it Pettick'a Island, adjoining. There are about six hundred inen at each place. About the same number of militia from tile. towns near, together with a, detachment of artillery, are distributed at Moon Island, Hof's Neck, and Point Allerton, while Colonel Whitcomb, with the regulars and two eighteen-pounders, has taken post at Long Island. The various companies from the vicinity are at their posts. SuddeDly there is a flash followed by a puff of smoke, and a few seconds hiter, a bang from one of Col. onel Whitcomb's guns at Long Island; the engagement has commenced. And now the flashes and puffs and bangs come from all around, and the great guns of his Majesty's ships make a spirited reply. There goes a shot from Hull; we may be sure that was from Ifingliam's cannon, which, as we sliall see a little later, the selectmen paid Hawkes Fearing for carrying over to the neighboring town. The smoke drifts lazily away, and at times almost obscures the vision. It is a grand ~ud exciting scene that is being enacted. The, Continentals, the Minute-men, the Englisb,-these are the performers in the closing act of the siege of Boston. A shot from the Americans pierces the tipper works of the Commodore's ship; the contest is over. A signal, and up go the sails, out by Nantasket into the open sea pass the enemy's squadron, while with a great explosion and a dult roar the lighthouse sinks beneath the waves. As the evening sun neared the horizon and lighted the fleecy clouds, turning them into great masses of crimson and gold, and the unrunled waterg became magnificent in their pink and gilded glow, the land breeze blew out no enemy's colors, and upon the harbor rested only the peaceful Yankee merchantman, or the American cruiser, over which idly floated the pine-ti-ce ensign, while a feeling of quiet and thanksgiving settled over a freed Corn moriwealth.
In the useful, honorable, and distinguished life of Benjamin Lincoln, there may have been greater triumphs than that which the successful achievement of this June day brought, but for its there is a homelike and personal character about the event that endears it especially; and it would be difficult not to believe that the sturdy heart of our Hingham general beat the quicker and with a warmer glow as he watched the eneray's topmasts sink beneath the distant horizon, and felt that the freeing of the capital and of the homes of his neighborii and of his own home from the fear and
menace of the precedine, months was the, attainment, at least in Part, of the tile%, of his own to""', and tile companies of his own regiment.
Among the companies in service oil this day was that of Capt. Peter CUshil", of Hingham. The roll differs S~irtcwhat from thatalready give" and is as follows: -
On the same date, and also at Hull, we find another Him, bana company in the service. Although th(rc appears to he no record of the occasion, the alarm must have been pregsing to require the presence of such a number of men. The roll i I here given: 298 11istory of Hingham.
Capt. Peter Cushing resided on East Street ; lie was a brother of Capt. Stephen Cushing, also a soldier of the Revolution. Enoch Drinbar was in the Canada expedition in Captain Stephens' company of artillery. Capt. Seth Stowers commanded a company in Col. Josiah Whitney's regiment, and was on duty at Hull in detoher, 1776. His roll was as follows : -
"A Pay Roll of Cap'Joscpli Trufard's Company Raised for the Defense of ye Sea Coastwithin State of ye AlassivAusetts from the first of December down too the first ot January, 1777," contains the following names of Ilingliarn men:
In still arulther company we find Hingham men serving in the year 1776; Capt. Abisha Brown, of Concord, commanded a company in Col. Josiah Whitiley's regiment, which served at Hall; and froin a roll of the men in camp there in November we get the following names: -
September 12, a resolve passed the General Court which provided for reinforcing the army at New York, fly sending a part of the militia; and oil the 14& the House of Representatives by a resolve concurred in by the Council on the 16th, chose General Lincoln to command the men raised for the purpose.
The town had already sent Lieut. John Burr with fifteen men to Ticonderoga, where they joined a company commanded by Captain Endicott, and now more were to be raised under the resolve of the legislature. During the month, September, Capt. Peter Cushing obtained twenty-three, who were sent to New York, and in December Capt. Job Cushing marelied for the game state with tbirty-seven men credited to Hingham. It ham not been possible to obtain the names of all of the above, but the roll of Capt. Job Cushing's company, augmented to over fifty, is here given. Considerable information about its service is obtainable from a diary kept by Thomas Burr, a lieutenant in the company, who bad already served not only in the army of the Revolution, but still earlier in file last French war, in which he had also kept a journal, and recorded many incidents of the service of a Ilingham company. The roll, which included some Cohasset names, was:
These men were in the army at this time from about December 19, 1776, to April 2, 1777, and perhaps longer. Captain Cashin',,1 like Lieutenant Burr, was an expericric'ed officer; his coulparly marched froin Hilicham oil the former of the above dates, throuA Abington,lind afterwards by way of Pawtucket and Provi~ ilence, through Rhode Isl rid and Connecticut, their long journey cadin~ them to Hartford and Waterbury amoug, other places. Filially they entered New York, arriving at Westchester Jannary 7th. Brief as are the records in Lieutenant Burr's diary, they interest us not a little, for the personal glimpses which are afforded by them of the marclies and skirmishes and experiences of our own townsmen.Thus lie says under date of Jan. 19: " One of our men killed
soy. Here were the headquarters of Washirnton diii-iro, the win. ter succeeding his brilliant achievements at Trenton and Princetoll ' Here too our ol I fighting chaplain appears again, and Lieutenant Burr says, Lder date of February 12: " Sunday- Air. Tliaiterpreacliedfi-oml'salii)sll8-18&19v.'I llarch0d,hebeld forth to his friends and fellow soldiers from home. Alarch 9tb, the diary tells us that there was a 11 Skirmish between 2000 of the enemy & 1000 of our men - our men beat them back ; " and so oil. in July Colonel Alarshall'sand Colonel Whitney's regiments were ordered to Canada. In both there were It inghain men, al302 11istory of Hingham.
though there is such confusion in the rolls as to make it practically impossible to give names and time of service.
The town continued as earnest .it home in the support of the patriot cause as it wall active in the field. March 18, 1776, Theophilus Cushing, John Fearing, Thomas Loring, Israel Beat, and Peter Hobart were chosen a Committee of Correspondence, Inspection and Safety ; and May 23d, Benjamin Lincoln, Hezekildi Cushiiny, and Don. Joshua Ifersey were appointed a committee to prepare instructions for the representatives, Enoch Lincoln, Theophilus Cushing, and John Fearing, just chosen. This they did in tile following terms: -
GENTLE-NIEN, -You are delegated to represent the Town of Hingham in the next General Court to be held in this colony; and although we entertain the highest sense of your integrity, patriotism, and ability, of which we have given full evidence in appointing you to this weighty trust, yet as matters of the greatest imporLance relative to the freedom and happiness not only of this but of all of the United Colonies, on which you may wish to have the advice of your constituents, will come before you for your determination -you are instructed and directed at all times to give your vote and interest in support of the present struggle with Great Britain. We ask nothing of her but 64 Peace, Liberty, and Safety." You will never recede from that claim ; and agreeably to a resolve of the late House of Representatives, in case the haniourable Continental Congress declare themselves ill(lepeDdelit Of the, Kingdom of Great Britain, soleanaly to engage in behalf of your constituenta, that they will with their lives and fortunes support them in the measure. You will also, as soon as may be, endeqvor to procure a more equal representation of this colony in General Assembly; and that it be by fewer members than at present tile several towns have a right to return ; and when this is affected you will give your vote for calling a new house. BENJAMN LiNCOLN, Town Clerk.
It is impossible not to notice tile signature, or to avoid giving a thought to the mail who wrote the words, 11 Benjamin Lincoln, Town Clerk," at the foot of this document. Within a period of a little more than a year lie had as colonel of his regiment been hurrying his men to Lexington and to the investiture of Boston ; been chosen by the Council the first of the Committee, upon which were also Major Fuller, of Newton, Mr. Singleton, Mr. Darter, and Mr. Dexter, to consider the very important matter of providing each of the soldiers composing the army then rapidly gathering around Boston with the coats which had been promised as a bounty to each mail upon enlistment, -from which comes the term 11 Coat Rolls," as applied to the lists of the Massactiametts troops raised to besiege Lord Howe; been sent to Washington by the Council upon the matter of sea-coast defence ; been promoted to be brigadier-gencral in the colonial establishment; in May, IT75, served as a member of the Provincial Congress, of which
in 1776. During the same year lie commanded tile reinforceWords of militia sent by tile province to 'Washington. So urgent were the requests of the latter for assistance that every fifth man was ordered to respond, the sea-coast towns being excuipted ,it this time. While in New York, General Lincoln commanded one of the four divisions of the army. Toward the close of the year be was appointed to the command of the militia raised in Massatchusetts and Connecticut for the defence of Rhode island. On
tile 19th February, 1777, Stirling, St. Clair, Lincoln, Aliffin, and Stephen were commissioned major-generals in the Continental service. In the following July General Lincoln was selected fly, Washington to command the New England militia, raised to aid the Northern army operating against Burgoyne. Gaining the rear of the British, Li~icadn despatched Colonel Brown to attempt the recapture of Ticonderoga and the posts in the vicinity. Tile801 ffistory (of Magham.
of the ceremonies. A few days after Congress appointed General Lincoln Secretary of War, allowing, him to retain his rank in the nriny Thig riffive lip, rpqimind two ~eari; later and retired to his home at Hingham, recoivin',, most complimentary resolutions from Congress. In 1784 lie was chosen one of the commissioners to make a treaty with the Penobscot Indians. lie commanded the militia raised to suppress Shays' rebellion in 1786-1787, and by the exercise of great energy and tact restored order in a very short time. In 1787 he was elected Lieut.-Governor of !Nlissachu~etts, was commander of the Ancient and Honorable Artillerv Company in 1788, and was a member of the corivenlinn which ratified the Constitution of the United States. In 1789 Washington appointed him the first collector of the port of Boston, which ollice he held nearly twenty years. He was also a commissioner to treat with the Creek Indians in 1789, and to effect a treaty of peace with the Western hidians in 1793. Ceneral Lincoln was one of the first members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a member of the Massachusetts Historical Society, contributing" papers to each. lie was also President of the Society of the Cin. cinnati f rom its organization until his decease. He received the degree of Master of Arts froin Harvard University, in 1780.
This is the outline of a life which for honorable, untiring usefulness has few equals. We long to fill in the details; to pictui (,the young general of forty-three in command of one of Washinoton's divisious,-tho great commander himself but a little older ; to tell of his sending the blankets from his own home to cover hiii suffering men in the field; to recall the spirit and fire with which lie inspired the militia, and led it to the victory at Saratoga ; to follow him while lie toils in the swamps of the Carolinas with hi% handful of nien ; and finally, to witness his triumph at Yorktown. We would like, too, to see this pure, brave man in the quiet and sweetness of his home-life, among the I i iends with whom lie had served in the field, and among whom lie loved to mingle in the happy peace that followed. For the details of all this and much more, there is not room. Verieral Lincoln was of middle bright, erect, broad-cliested, and muscular, with the air of a soldier. Ile was conspicuous for his frankness, integrity, prudence, inflexibility, and stronIg common-sense. He was cool in deliberation, and prompt in execution. His private life was wilhOut a stain, and no profane word passed his lips. Ile was one of the organizers of the Third Congregational (Unitarian) SocietA ' and until his death among its most active members. There was no room in General Lincoln's character for that sinallness of mind which sneers at religious belief in others, or boasts its obsence in one's self. In this as in all else lie was as sincere as modesL Never cowardly in disavowal of the great faith lie had, and unwilling to perinit his convictions to appear in doubt, lie. was also considerate and liberal regarding the opinions and beliefs of others. Benjamin Lincoln died May 9, 1810, and lie lacked~,o,. i. - 20
neither honor nor love in his own town and among his own neighbors. Not far from the first settlers' monument in the old fort, in the quiet part of the cellictel'Y overlooking the town, where great pines sing it lullaby, and where all around are the bones and the tombs of those he knew ind loved, lie the mortal remains of this soldier of the Revolution. A stone, plain and massive, of white marble, and worthy of the man, marks the spot. On one side are the words:
MAJOR-GENERAL IN THE AR-MY OF THE REVOLUTION
BORN JANUARY 24, 1733
DIED MAY 9, 1810
Here oil each Memorial Day the beautiful colors of the nation which he did so much to found, litend with the sweet flowers strewri in honor and memory by the brave men of a later time ; and they who bring the laurel and the myrtle for the young lives given to their country in 1861 do not forget nor pass by the hero who made possible the later sacrifice.
With the war the town's expenditures increased at a rate that must have seemed appalling to the conservative citizens, habitut-
At the several meetings (of the town) in July Sept. Nov' It Dec,  the Town Voted to Itike D;N5 14s 8d fol- the Soldiers wleo were employed ill thoContinental Service & raised by the Town of Hingliall).
By order of the selectmen Caleb Loring furnished supplies to a company or companies from Scituate and Pembroke while tit Hingham, and his bill, accompanied by a cerlifloate froill Bellitimin Cushing and Joseph Andrews, we rind to have beca allowed by the State.
The Committee of Correspondence, Inspection, :in(] Safet chosen in Alarch, 1777, were Israel Beal, Sainuel Norton, Jobli Fearing, Peter Cashing, Thornas Lorim, Peter Ilobart" and Theophilus Cushing. Ili June Israel Beal was appointed "to procare evidence against such persons its are suspectcd of being inimical to this and the United States of America, in this town.'Among Clio large number of vessels of all sizes and descriptions
There is some authority for the statement that the 11 Hazard was in commission in 1776, and that most, if not all, of the above were in service withlicrin that year. Air. Lincoln,in that, History of Hingham," speaks of the four cruises of tile "Hazard."
These men also were undoubtedly oil board, in 1778. In addition, William Tidmarsh was capt~in'8 clerk in this latter year.
Joseph Lincoln and Jonathan Cushing were captured on board a prize of the 11 Ilazard*s" and carried prisoners to Halifax, in 1778; ill 1780 Cushing was a prisoner on the Jersey prisou-sbip. In 1779 Asabel Stodder was in service on the 11 Hazard."
Capt. Thomas Melville commanded a company in Col. Craft's battalion in 1776 and upon his rolls was borne the name of William Lewis.
August, 1777, Isaac Wilder, then only 17 years of uge, died in captivity at Halifax.
Hillgliani had a further part in the naval service of the Revolution ; for under date of December 16, 1776, a charter of tile schooner " Edward," of about 70 tons, was made 6), Caleb Loring to the Board of War, and a little later, oil the 8th of January, 17 77, lie executed a like paper for the schooner 11 Hazard," of 60 tons. lie also owned the armed brig " Risin~g States," which was captured by a British frigate.
The chai-ters of these vessels were very elastic in their provisions, and no limitations were really placed upon the uses to which they were to be put.
It is extremely difficult to give anything approaching a complete history of the militia organizations belonging in Hingham from the close of 1776. It is Probable that the large numberof men in the regular service and the frequent drafts for particular expeditions. and exigencies may have so far depleted the companies belonging distinctly to the town as toatlast result in their complete disorgamzillion, or at least, to work such a suspension of their activity as make them no longer the subject of particufar mention. The last record of this kind that has come to notice is the following: -
Theqe may Certify that a legall meeting of the Training blind anti alarm list of tile first Company in said Town Benjamin Lapbam was Chosen Capt of Said Company.
In Council, Augast 7, 1777, Read and Ordered that Said Officer be Commissioned agreeable to his Rank.
The text attempt was in SePtember. Three t),(inand luell were raised from PlYlli(tith, Bristol and Barnstable Counties, and tile Southern parts of Suffolk ' Those, with colonel Craft, . , Middlesex, and Worcester.
of militia, on duty from Alay 15 to July 15, bore the following Hingham men upon its rolls: -
Tit the early part of this year there was a company in service commanded by Captain Penniman, of Braintree. The only Ilingliant name then on the roll appears to have been that of Theophilus Wilder, who was let Licut.
There is another roll, however, of a company serving under cominaint of Capt. Theophilus Wilder, and composed of men from Hingham, Stoughton, and Braintree. The names from Hingham were
Mr. Lincoln states in his history that there were thirty-three men with Capt. Job Cushhq, in New York, in 1777, but he gives no information as to the tim~ of year or location of their service. It is much to be regretted that the numbers and names of our fellow townsmen who served in the great Northern Campaign of tbi% eventful year, cannot be fully given. We know, however, that when General Lincoln received his wound at Stillwater, on the morning of October 8, he had with him his friends and neighbors who bad marched at his call,as they had so many times before, both for his father and himself. It was at the taking of Burgoyne, too, that Joshua Ripley, of Colonel Wigglesworth's regiment, of the Continental Line, and Nehemiah Ripley, of Capt. Theophilus Wilder's company, of Col. Gill's regiment, were killed. Capt. Wilder had twentv-eight Hingham mm~with him at first, and the company
was afterwards increased to fifty-two. The following names appear upon a roll in August, together with many others not f rom this town: - Theophilus Wilder, Capt., .10'rehliah Gardner, Private,
Two items of money voted by the town in 1778, for expenses incurred in the previous year, are certainly suggestive, although there is no further evidence of the presence of Hilighaiii men tit General Stark's victory on August 16th.
They are an allowance of Y 1,33 to Captain Wilder for travellialg fees for one hundred and ninety nille8 to Bennin.,ton, and X 7-4-6 paid " to Thom Chubbuck for so much due for Trnnsporting the Soldiers Baggage to Bennington."
While the town was earnestly performing its allotted part towards the general conduct of the war, it was not unmindful of its own defence, as we see by the following requisition: -
SIR. - Please to deliver to Mr. Israel Beal, the hearer hereof, 250 Reight of powder, 50 weight Alusquet Ball, and 500 flints for the use of the Town of 11in.aharn, & you 'It obli,&c yours, To the Commissary General BaNj. UusaiNo, SelectInen of
There is great difficulty in determining with certainly the names of men who enlisted into the Continental regular service during particular veats; the very multiplicity of rolls and lists with differim, headings adds to the confusion. When, as is frequently the case, town and private records a re really or seemingly at variance with these, entire accuracy becomes out of the question. From these and other causes it may happen that naines deserving of honorable mention are emitted entirely, tied that others got misplaced. The following appear to lime scried in Hingliani's quota for three years, enlisting it) 1777. Non-residents are indicated, when it is known, by the name of the town to which they belonged immediately following their own names; the captains and colonels under whom these soldiers served are also indicated. 312 11istory of flinghani.
Among the most faithful soldiers of the Revolution was Daniel Hearsey. We found him first in Capt. Charles Cashing's company besieging Boston; afterwards lie enlisted in Clio Continental
ice in Knox's Artificers, and subsequentlY his name appears upon the rolls of Col. William Washington's celebrated regiment of L'jcrht Horse, where he was a trooper for three years, having for a comrade his townsman Castle Gardner. Finally, lie closes his military career as a member of 11 His Excellency den'l Washington's Guards, commanded by Henry Collfax," accorditu, to the State House records. Colonel Colifax'8 name was, however, William, not Henry as stated.Joseph Cook also served in the Second Regiment, Colonel
In 1778 the Committee of Safety were Thomas Burr, Jacob Leavitt, Abel Hersey, Enoch Whiten, and Peter Hobart.
The constant fear of a return of the English to Boston, and file necessity of proNiding against pillaging and foraging incursions into tile country along tire coast,required the exercise of unceasing vigilance oil the part of the tate and local authorities. How
cheerfully and faithfully- 'Massachusetts performed her duty it, his as in her every relation to the Revolutionary struggle is Known to art immliar with American history, 3et it may riot be amiss to recall that when Cojim,ess Noted to raise eighty-eight regiments, of which this State's quota was fifteen, sixteen were enlisted besides Crane's fine regiment of artillery,-a number soon after augmented by two additional regiments and Armand's artillery legion Congress havino defermined to raise sixteen additionat battalions,-and that one half the whole burden of the war, as measured by the numbers of nien furnished the Continental ranks, was borne by her. Based upon annual ter-ins of service, Massachusetts had 67,907 men in the army, besides many thousands in her own pay for New England air(] purely local defence. Her militia was frequently in active service, and she was obliged to maintain constantly a force sufficient to garrison the posts within ]let- territory. Among these, as previously remarked, were the defences at Nantasket, and upon Hingham a large part of this duty devolved througleout the war. Major Thomas Lotbrop was in command in 1778, and under date of February 27 we have a roll of Capt. Peter Cushing's Company then on duty there. It is as follows: -
as Hingham men swore to uphold the Republic in Col. Crane's Artillery. It is difficult to avoid it Bli,dit suspiciou that these
men may have been a part of the desertim, Ilessiaris from Burgovite's army, whose enlistment by 31assachmsetts called forth vigorous remonstrance from Washington,and soon ceased. The town fathers appear to have been at least not deficient in shrewd~ ness, however, for these recruits were eiiVged for three ),cars and credited to Hinghain for the Iong term although the period required under the call of Congress at that time was only nine months. Let its hope that these swiftly made citizens and eager patriots upheld the better of the town while servin.- under their new colors.
In July of this year, the French fleet under D'Esfiiing appeared off Newport, and the Admiral and Gen. Sullivan, who commanded in Rhode Island, prepared to drive the enemy from the State, Two Continental brigades from the main army was sent under Lafayette, and the Massachusetts militia inakhed under John Hancock as Major-Gencral, at the saine time. The whole force numbered ten thousand men, and great hopes were entertained of its success. They were doorned to be disappointed, however, and after nearly a month of fruitless delays, the Americans evacuated the island after having fou.Ait one unsatisfactory battle. The following Hingliain men took part in the attempt
Ilon. Solomon Lincoln says there were nineteen other Ilingloini men ettgaged six weeks in Rhode hiland, and also twetitv-two in a Capt. Baxter's company for the %,tine length of time. The names of the hitter are here given : -
Thacher's " Military Journal., Colonel mcintosh commanded tile regiment. The Dorcheste" Heil"llts works were also garrisoned by 'it com
After the surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga, Oct. 17, 1777, his army was conducted to Boston, and quartered at Cambridge, where it remained until November, 17 79. During the intervening , d the duty of furnishing guards devolved largely upon tile perio
It is not possible to give accurate lists of the men eugaged in this and the sintilar seri ice of carinIg for and protecting the Coalition Ual stores at Boston and Watertown, so imperfect are tile rolls. Tile town records contain items of payinents to men recruited for these purposes. One, in 1778, would sevin to indicate that thele were seven of our towasinen with Capt. Benjamin Beal, but " a pa - v abstractof Capt. 13ciij. Beal companyof militia and Col. Jacob Garish (rogt) Drafted ill July 1778, to Guard the Troops of Convolition and the Stores In and About Bostou " contains the following names of undoubted citizens. Tile regiment was Colonel Gerrish's.
Also 11 Capt Bonj. Laphain Compy in Col. John Reeds Regt., in set-vice of the United States, at Camlbrid.ge, taken from 2 April, 1778, to July 3, 1778," has upon its roll: -
The town disbursements for the year contain items for the payment of three men employed in guarding Continental stores, nearly three months, twenty men 11 for guarding Con' Burgoynes unity, at Cainbrid.me, 4 months & 26 days," 11 to 11 men for Guarding, the Continental Stores in Boston 2 months 11 days."At the town meeting hold in February, there was .1 tax laid of
October 1, 1778, General Lafayette was in Ilingham and lodged, with his servant, at the Anchor Tavern, then standing upon the present location of Mr. William 0. Lincolu'g honse, on South Street, and u favorito resort of the French officersat Nantusket. It was a faivions hostelry in its day,and was occupied as a private divelling by Governor Andrew in the early, part of the Civil War. Lafayette was on his wav to Hull, where lie was going to inspect the fortifications at thai place. Ile was dressed in a blue coat with buff trimmings, tile regular uniform of an American officer, and attrlicted mueb attention. Upon the news of his death many years after, all the hells it] town were rtlllg~
Among other earious documents in the State House are certain Smentories showing the amount of clothing received from the several towns far tile public service. One, dated Dec. 17th, 1778, shows that flinghnin furnished 128 sbirts, 69 pairs of shoes, and 102 pairs of stockings ; being much more than by any other town ill the county with tile exception of Boston.
The great difficulty of ascertaining precisely the date of onJi8twent of many of those who entered the Continental service has been intimated. In addition to the names previously given, the following would seem to have entered the army in 1778
In Sellteratlqr of 17TS General Lincoln was Placed in '0111"la"d of tbe department of tile Seeth. A, brief account has already 1)"ll -illy, alit, of tile long
struggle for %nprevna-y whicli finally terminated at Charleston, in ~ 1-480 by tile surrender of tile town, with tile garrison, to may, I
Tile military service performed by, Hingnato men deril)g this veall wn~ Vert- cou~idevable, beside,% that rendered by tile soldiers of the Colltilo,;All regiloeutg with Washington and ciscwheve, but the records are so inromp~eto that, but little detilil can be givell. The Fi
ft,av of tbeir return lioerssitated thi, ('111ployllient of it coil side rable Ainerican force for its defence until the~ close of Ole way,
A pay roll for December 1779, of Capt. Lake Ilowell's compally in ('01. Nathan TvIer's regi'llient, on duty in Rhode Tgiql)d, portaill's tile names of the followhig, Ifin"01ala menJobu Lincoln, Limit., Jo"atlitito Farrow, Jr., Private,
In tile %aute State there were six men in Capt. Job Cushing's cormotiod, and severt men for five niontlis in the company in which Jacobs was I licitte"llit.
Tbore were also foar men engaged upou guard duty at Boston, Who were probabiv 1,01arc Gardner Jonallitin Gardner, Elijah W) 111toll, Jr. , and Jitta" Hayward, They eertainl)l received pay from the tiovu for service in Boston this year.
Welit. EUJah Beal, who resuled at WeNt Ilinghtim and who at the tittle was about twellil-nillo yeal.8 of age, Avas stationed at Cliverack, New ivith fifteen of his townsmen. Efforts to ascertain their nalneg JolvO not tact witb ~JJCCCS.4.
This year I too' saiv Capt. Theophihis Wilder adding active military duty to the service lie was giving his country in the support of ~lul war its a civilian, au~l agaill we luld llim with vor,. r.-21322 History n Hingham.
his company, this time containing eighteen Hill gliam patriots, in the fort at Hull. This roll, like several others of 1779, has not been iomul. Hull. Summon Lincoln, states that LietilL John Lincoln commanded a company at Rhode Island in Webb's regiment froni Sept. 1, 1779, to Jan. 1, 1780, in which were several soldiers from flitudiam.
The records preserve the names of only the following its eniiHting in the Continental service during i779 ; they appear to be re-onlistments : -
The town appropriations for war purposes had by this time become very large, although it must not be forgotten that they were in it verv much depreciated currency.
In 04ober it was Toted to 11 raise Y6000 for the purpose of paving the soldiers that went to do dut.v in the State of New York." The following indicate services not otherwise recorded
There were also payments for large amounts of beef and salt purchased for the soldiers, and as in every other year of the war, generous sums were voted for soldiers' families. We have theso records also: -
The names of four more of Hingliam's soldiers are thus indicated, although no light is thrown oil the particular expedition in which they served.
Perhaps no better examples can be selected to illustrate the ex-traordinary depreciation of the paper currency than the followhig~
Cohasset, lieu ten ant-colonel ; Isaiah Cushing of -, major - Samuel Ward of Hinglutin, second major and the inembers anti Officers of the Hinglialu colupa-hie- ... 0 - , " 6 kv ou ~u, ~cujauiiu Lapham,
3d, Jabez Wilder, Capt.,Zach. Whiting, 1st Lieut.,Robf, Gardner Jr., 2d Lieut. ; 6th, Peter Cushing, Capt., Thos. Ban, lat I,ield.' Thos. Fearing, 2d Lieut.
The following served seven months in Gazee'.4 Rhode Island company of artillery ; the year is n6t certainly known, bill it is probable that at least a pohion of this time N% as included it) the year 1779: Enoch Dunbar, Amos Dunbar, Daniel Dunbar, Melzar Dunbar, Luther Gardner, and Peleg Whitim.
In 1780 the Committee of Correspondence, Inspection, and Safety consisted of Israel Beal, Capt. Charles Cushing, Ebenezer Cushing, Joshua Leavitt, and Isaac Wilder, Jr.
Ill July- Of this year General Heath asked for rehifurecinents for his army in Rhode Island, all attack on Newport being thrent-
ened by Sir Henry Clinton. Under this call Capt. Theophilug Wilder marched with his eompany, belonging to Ebenezer Thaver's regiment, and served three months. The roll of Hinghani'inen is given below : -
authorize enlistments for short terms, much against the judgment of Washington, and greatly to the injury of the set-vice and tile country. The town of Hingham supplied few men by nuthority of these.act.s. and,as already stated,under a nine months call, iti'mio 324 History qj' Hingham.
.instance at least, enlisted her quota for three years. Indeed, most of the men joining the Continental service and credited to Hingbrut vverc for the !oil-- term, all(! naijav have. ti-~ainst their naines the large letters 1). W.," which mean 11 During the War." The following, however, joined the ariny for six months, "agreeable to a resolve of the General Court of the fifth Of Jane 17 80 : Lot Lincoln, Jesse Humphrey, James Bates, Daniel Woodward, Levi Gardner, Ezekiel Gushing, Leavitt Lane. They were sent to Springfield, slid therice to the army trader Captain Soapcr, Captaill Burbank, and Lieutenant Cary, in July, August, and October. Mr. Lincoln says that there were also five men on duty as guards at Boston.
At a town meeting held oil the l3th of June it was voted to raise thirty thousand pounds toward paying the soldiers, and four thousand pounds to purchase clotbing for the Continental army.
'File town records also show large sunis of money paid for beef, blankets, wood, corn, etc., supplied the army upon requisition from the State. III one instance, however, the General Court threatened a fine of twenty per cent if a requisition was not promptly responded to; and the town voted " to comply, provided it be not brought as a precedent in future time;" this was in the year 1781.
This latter year Samuel Norton,Capt. Charles Cashing, Heman Lincoln, Capt. Peter CLIMIling, and Misba Cushing, Jr., were chosen as the Committee of Correspondence.
Under a resolve of the Crucial Court passed December 2, the following culisted into the Continental service for three years, or the war; the bounties paid are also given : -
The following furnishes rin illustration of the means by which some of these men were secured : -
These may certifie that I the Subscriber Eired Fmmael Bussen for the class whereof I am Chairmin & that He passed moster the 8"' day of Novemb' past, and that He enlpq.geol to Serve three years in the Continental Armv ; also that I gave Sixty pounds for his so enga,ging in Hard money. JonN THAXTER.
Perez Gardner was three years in Colonel Voisf-,K re"ohnelit, it])(] with him were John Toover, killed lit Alin lis'lulia, oil :1 scolit"JaIlIC4 Bates, and James Hayward, both of about dic(l ill the gorkico tic West Point, and John Daniels, Abel Ctishing, and Solonion Loring,-the latter not giien in the 9bove list,-aial Jack -1 a colored nian, doubtless Jack Fieeman, killed at New Yolk.
Mr. Lincoln says there were also eloven men in Rhode Island four months ii~idcr Capt. John Lincoln.
The onlv to I digeovered,however,gives in Colonel Webb's regiinerit in khodo island, Ali,,,. 2, 17`111, John Lincoln, captain - Robert Corthell, set-gotInt ; Sherchiah Corthelf, private, as Ino-
ing and holding possession of those portions, there remained the possibility of renewed hostilities, requiring the retention of a considerable force. Oil the second of November the army under General Lincoln embarked at Yorktown an(] proceeded to the head of the lqk, from whence it went into winter quarters in Pennsylvania, Now Jersey, and upon the Hudson, in New York.
The Committee of Correspondence and Safety elected in 1782 were Israel Real, John Fearing, and Theophilus Cushing; they were re-elected in 1783.
The probabilities of peace made the enlistment of soldiers exceedingly difficult, and there were very few recruited after the ,Close of the Virginia campaign. The only names of recruits known to have joined the Continental army in 1782 are Solomon Lavingin and rlijah Beals.
Bon. Solomon Lincoln says that in 1783 there were twelve men in the, service at Hull. Neither the date nor the organization to which they belonged have been preserved,mid no list of these last soldiers in the Revolution from old Hingham has been found.
There remain to be added a few names not hitherto placed, known to have served in the army in some capacity, but whose Company or regiment, place, or time, have not been ascertained. Th"c are-
Serving upon the staff of General Lincoln during the earlier )art of the war as all aid-do-camp, and probably with the rank if colonel, was Nathan Rice. Colonel Rice came early to IlingInim, where he resided many years, At the close of the war lie was major in Colonel Bailo~'s Continental re0ment, and subsoquelltl.v eoramanded a body of troops at Oxford during the threatened difficulties with France,
From the lists of names given, if appears that Hingliani fill-nished over one hundred and rift different persons to the regular Continental service, of whom, however, it is probable that only about eighty were actual residents of the town. The commissioned officers, so far as known, were, -
Capt.-Lieut. Nath'I Coit Allen, paymaster 10th Mass., Colonel Tupper.
Lient. Hezekiah Ripley, Jr., 2d Mass., Colonel Bailey; Brigade Qr. in 1783.
Lieut. Joseph Andrews, Crane's artillery ; mortally wounded at Brandywine.Lieut. John Lincoln, 2d Mass., Colonel Bailey.
Capt. Amos Lincoln, formerly of Him,liam ; moved to Weymouth. Dr. Gridley Thaxter who is stated to have been a surgeon in the army, but in what branch of the service is unknown.
Dr. Peter Hobart, also a sur.,con, the particular record of whose service is lost.
John Woodman, a private in the 7th Mass., Colonel Brooks, and marked 11 promoted."
Possibly, also, Chaplain Joseph Thaxter, formerly of Colonel Prescott's militia regiment,should have his name placed upon the Continental rolls; lie certainly was in the army later, but theI
Another brilliant officer, who was a citizen of Hingimin preceding the division, but who by that event became all inhabitant of the new town of Coliasset, was Capt. -James Hall.
It is possible to make an approximation only to the number of men who served their country from Hirighani in other than the regular Continental regiments during, the war of the Revolution. Many of the rolls are entirely lost, others are incomplete, and some are partially worn and illegiblo ; the selectillell's records furnish valuable lnit very racagro 'inforimiflon, while from private sources almost nothing, has been obtained. From available information,- mainly the rolls heretofore ~iveri, in(] which are literal copies of originals in the State llouse'-ft would -1ppear to be certain that some six hundred different individuals performed military duty in the several branches of the service. There were doubtless many more whose names were. recorded upon the lost rolls, or whose identify cannot be determined, ovvin, to the fact that oftentimes lists still exist which ar( neuriv value' L,sil from a failure to make any mention of the town tu which the soldier belonged. There is reason to think that a number of men doing garrison duty at the Castle, - now Fort Indeperidonee,-ill Calif. file flon. Thomas Cughing'i; company, were froin Hinglimia; butthere th"home
stated ; and the doubt in this instance is of sufficient i ill, wtai to inake it uiisafe to credit the town with nny of lhe... If quite probable, too, that numbers of oil)- citizel;s served ill some of the Nariousarnied ships authorized by Congress or the Commonwealth, but of other than those given as upon the 11 Ilazaid " ined 11 Protector," if such there were, I fo satisfactory records ave known. Very mauy, if not most, of the soldiers from Ilin0aiin served oil several different occasions during the war; and not a few enlisted or were called out four, live, and six times, while the indisputable evidence furnished by existing rolls proves that several responded to lio less than eight calls to duty in gartisoil and camp. Ili a few instances the periods of service were short, being comprehended in a few (lays, but for the most part they extended over many months, embracing the year consumed in the siege of Boston, the time occupied in the campaigns in Canada, in the northern department against Burgoyne, in the operations Dear West Point, t1fosse around New York, the several Rhode Island expeditions, that to the Penobscot, a part of Washingtorl's first campaign in New Jersey, oil(] the many months, aggregating several Years, of garrison duty at Hull, besides that performed ill Ifingliain itself while the town was a military post. It is impossible to reduce the whole to a standard of number of men Ser1ring for it stated time, but if m ery different service had been performed by different individuals, the aggregate outside of those in the i egular threc-i cars re-iments would probably exceed one thousand. As observed previously, it seems reqsonable to estimate the
--the Dunbars, eleven ; the Leavitts, clei en ; the Loki ises, eleven ; the Stoii ells, ten ; the Joys, tell ; the Fearings, eight ; the Laries, eight ; the Thaxters,seven ; the Barneses, seven ; and the Marshes, seven. That is two dozen names of the soldiers from flinglilin included four hundred and nine individuals. The Hingham offieci s of Continental reg,inients have already been named ; those in other branches of the service, as far as known, were - Major-Gen. Benjamin Lincoln (before Ili,.; Continental commission),
From official records still existing and other reliable sources if information, it may be safely stated that the town of, Ilill'Hialil contributed to the military service of the Revolution, illetudilo, those in the Continental regiments and oil armed vessels, iuuarj'N~ seven handred and fifty men, of whom over fifty were connuis
It cannot but be re,,retted that these records of the old town's part in the Revolutionary contest are so laf 1-clY composed of mere lists of names, and that there is so little of incident to brk,liten the too statistical narrative. Ili this connection, however. one little event may not be without interest. It will perhaps he recalled that during the last war between France and the Colonies, oin! of the chaplains wns Rev. John Blown of Ilijodimn. The years which had rolled by since 1759 had doubtless incapacitnted the minister for further service in the field, ])lit under the minificent elin standing opposite to the old Cushiri'g- houso at lzoek~T Nook, he preached to a company of otir townsinen oil their niarelt to the post of danger, '.fail Split then) Oil the Nvav with 1111, hh'sqilo's' and approval of the Church rifilghilg in their cals, :fall, let us If list, consoling their hearts.
Almost from the surrender of Yorktown fill! ai mics of the new republic had been meltin.g away, and when, oil the 311 of Sol,tember, 1783, dw treaty was signed qt Paris Nihich acknmf led-,e(l the independence of the United States, there rem:dned Washington at Newburg scarcelY more than a skeletoll of Illo I W
ous ot the held and the canip. At about the same time General Lincoln resigned his office of Secretary of War and retired to private life, From the opening hour of the Revolution to its closing moment, file roll of IJiiigham'R drums and the inspiringg music of her fifes had echoed through her streets and been heard on many a weary march, while the rattle of musketry and tile dull real- of artillery served by her children bad testified to her unflinching and unwearying patriotism oil land and sea. Beneath the kindly enshrouding soit in secluded shady and forgotten places, from Canada to the Potomac, rest those who laid their young lives down in the beat of the conflict, while many an old moBs-grown stone in the town conieteriell marks the burial spot of sonle soldier who in the early da~ s of the nation 11 shouldered his crutch and told ]low fields were won," to his children and grandchildren long after the close of the War for Independence.
In 1781 Charles Cushing was colonel of the Second RvIginient of militia; Theophilus Cushing, captain, David Cushing, Ist, lieutenant, and Rdward Wilder, 2d lieutenant of the second company; and Thomas Fearing, captain, Thomas Cashing, ]at lieutenant, and Elijah Whiting, 2d lieutenant of the 1lihd coniparty. Theophilus Cushing became colonel June 9, 1787, Thomas Vinson, licutealant-colone.1, and James Stodder, major, while Quincy Thaxter had already been commissioned adjutant oil the 8th of January previously. Colonel Cushing became brigadiergeneral Sept. 12, 1793.
If there are any records extant of the Ilingliain militia companics from the close of the Revolution until the commencement of the War of 1812, it is to be hoped that the meagre historical notes here given-for they amount to 110 111(re-lilay alcite production. In musty old volumes in a sniall, dark room in file basement of the State ffouse, may he found the names of' :in ellor moos number of persons commissioned in the militia, which was for many years an organized aiiiij, of no small dimensions -011 paper. Beyond the dates which these commissions bear and the regiments to which then- holders belonged ' very little inforniation is given. From the list have been selected file name-, of citizens of this town, but no attempt has been made to state the companies of which they were officcrs. As will be seen liereoffer, there were two companies forined later of wbicli some details appear:-
Early in October the company made its first, public parade in a uniform described in the " Boston Patriot " as " perfectlY nent," with 11 rifles lately procured from -,in Ainerictin armory of doinesfie manufacture, with complete accoutrements." On this ocension a standard was presented on behalf of the ladies by Miss Alarv Lincoln,dati-fliter of Mr. Solomon Liticohi,and accelpied by Ensig~ Daniel Bassett in a patriotic if somewhat grandiloquent speech.
Besides this company there were at this finie the three standing inilitia, companies belonging to the same regiment, and ptobabfyofficered respectively asfollows: MosesL. Humphrey, captain, Aprill(i, 1812; Samuel liobart,licutenalit, April 16,1812; Nathanicl Wilder, ensign, April 16, 1816 ; 3lartin Fearing, captain, AprA 15, 1812 ; Joseph Cushing, lieutenant, April 15, 1812 ; Adna, Cushing, ensign, April 15, 1812 ; Washington Cushher, captain, March 28, 1867 ; Joseph Wilder, ensign, May 11, 1812. The regiment was the Second Infantry, of which Nelverniall Ripley became quartermaster March 30 1 1812; Thomas Loring, pa.Nmaster, March 25, 1812; Ned Cushing, adjutant, March 20, 1,812 (he had previously been paymaster), and William Gordon, ~m-
The Artillery Company was commanded 1)), Captain Thornas Brown, and the licutenuirts were Ezra Lincoln and John Hersey, Jl%
Ned Cushing was adjutant, and Ebenezer City payinaster of the battalion, and Thomas Tbaxter appears also to have been an officer.
The Artillery had but one gon, which was kept in the enginehouse then standiic~ on the land now occupied by Ford's Buildin'g.
Thero is, little to record of local history and military service durim, the three vears in which was fou.,lit the War of 1812. Even the Commonwealth possesses no rolls of the men who served their country during this period, and neither tradition nor private journals have contributed greatly to supply the orilission.
John Todd is known to have been kilied ,it Sacicett's Ifitibor in 1813 ; and Alexander Cardiker, of the saine company, was Wounded at the time. The following also appear to have ~ecn soldiers in this war, and some of them received ponsions : -
Joshua Make, borri in Ifin-l-barn, Sept. 27, 1778, died in Boston, Dec. 23, 1843, was a lieutenant in the navv, and subsequently served with Decatur during the trouble with Tripoli, Ile was ;I son of Joseph Blake, who lived in flit! house oil tho corner of Main and Elin strects, ,in(] who scrved with Alajor SIlllu(,l Tbaxter in the French Wat.
Charles Make, knotvii as Capt. Charles Make, scriod upoli a privateer during a pai t of tire war. Ile ii as captured and con334 History of Hingham.
filled in Dartmoor Prison. Moses L. Humphrey commanded it company composed, at least in part,of Hingliam men,and stationed at the Castle, now Port Jndupunuunuu, III JIU~UUIX IL,lIUUL.
Stodder was in his command. Walter Whiten was born Nov. 28, 1783 ; fie was a major in the United States army, and was killed at the battle of Bridgewater ; his home was at Liberty Plain. Archelaus Whiton, or Whiting, enlisted from the frigate 11 Constitution " to go to the Lakes, and probably died in the expedition. Ebed Stoddar was taken prisoner and confined at Dartmoor Pi ison, whence lie escaped, bill was never afterwards heard f rom. Alexander Anderson was also confined at the some place.
During the War of 1812 most of the Hin.0mra vessels were harded ill) in the town dock or at Broad Cove, excepting, how. ever, it few of the packets ; and some of these, it is said, had their nuists and sitars removed, and after being towed up Weymouth River, were boarded over and concealed in order to prevent their being seized by the Britisb. Tito sloop "Washington" was lau nched when she was partly planked up, sufficiently so to floatI, the owners fearing that she would be burnt by excursion
let parties from English ships then lying off Boston Light. At this time numerous depredations were committed by parties of the British; one of them landed on Hog island,in barges,and burned a barn fall of hay ; and other property in the vicinity was destroved. Tll~re were, several vessels belonging to Hingham captured and